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forces, closely invested Patras, the Soliman Bey. Their influence garrison of which being already communicated to the proceedings straightened for provisions, would, of Ibrahim, all the regularity of ciit was expected, shortly capitu- vilized warfare. The Egyptian late.
fleet wintered in the harbor of SuIn the mean time, the sultan had da, in Candia. Ibrahim arrived at employed the winter in extensive Rhodes, January 1st, 1825, where preparations for striking a decisive 5000 disciplined soldiers awaited blow ; his chief reliance, however, him, with which he returned to being upon the energy of Moham- Candia, to complete his armament med Ali, pacha of Egypt. Pursu- there, and then sail for the Morea. ant to its favorite policy, of destroy. At Constantinople, on the other ing one rebel by means of another, hand, arrangements were made to the Porte summoned him, in the second Ibrahim, by correspondent moment of despair, to aid in the movements in Western Greece. conquest of Greece. This too po- To conciliate the Albanians, Omer tent subject, already master of Pacha was transferred to Salonika; Egypt and Arabia, had now added and the Roumeli Valisi was apCandia to his dominions, and was pointed to supply his place in the allured to fresh exertions by the pachalic of Yannina and Delvinatprospect of gaining the Morea. si, to which, if he succeeded in subThrough that country, he would duing them, Roumelia, with Mesenter Europe, and obtain immense solunghi and Anatolia, was to be accession of strength and resources. added. He immediately comPossessing a powerful navy, and an menced raising troops at Larissa, army of soldiers disciplined and intending to pass over from thence cquipped on the European model, to his new government, and after he enjoyed incalculable advantages levying soldiers there, to descend, over the undisciplined and unorgan- with all his forces, upon Messoized troops of regenerate Grecce. lunghi. Ibrahim Pacha, his son-in-law, who Anticipating his destination, No. commanded his forces in the Mo- ta Bozzaris, accompanied by gerea, was advised by the French nerals Suka and Milios, set forward officers, employed to instruct the with a sufficient force, to occupy Egyptian army; and reposed full the passes of Makrinovo, the anconfidence in colonel Sève, who cient Olympus, through which it actually exercised command, ha- was expected he would attempt to ving embraced the Mahometan enter Greece. Izonga was also faith, and assumed the name of stationed at Karbassura, and Iskos appointed to have direction of the communication with Messolunghi. whole. The Turks proceeded with The Turks made their first appearunwonted despatch. Early in ance before this place, April 27th ; March, the Roumeli Valisi reach- and before Antolia, a few days preed Yannina, and the 20th of vious. Some slight skirmishes im- the same month, arrived at Arta, mediately took place, but no enwith 15,000 men, from whence he gagement of much consequence ; marched on to Makrinovo. He the enemy being chiefly occupied unexpectedly found the passes in commencing their lines, and open; for the Greeks quitted their throwing up entrenchments. posts and crossed over the Ache- We must now suspend our aclous, without a single battle ; thus count of the operations here; to leaving all the country north of the bring down the history of events river, exposed to the ravages of the in another quarter of Greece. The Turks..
patriots continued the blockade of No sooner was all this known at Patras, the progress of which was Messolunghi, than a deputation observed with keen attention, bewas sent to the generals, desi- cause its fall was every moment exring them to recross the Achelous, pected; and the naval forces which and to seize upon the passes cruised before it, were indispensathis side of Makrinovo. Izonga bly necessary to check the armaimmediately set out for Ligovitzi; ment of the Egyptians, and prebut found himself anticipated by vent Ibrahim's transports from leathe enemy, and was under the ne- ving Crete. Intelligence repeatcessity of falling back upon Lesini. edly reached the government, of Here a short conflict ensued, and the activity with which the pacha the Roumeliots becoming aware of hastened his preparations. At their inability to arrest the farther length, advices arrived of the approgress of the Turks, repassed proaching departure of his fleet the river, and retreated to Messo- from Candia. The garrison of Palunghi. The approach of the ene- tras was now ripe for surrender ; my being daily expected there, the and the Greeks, anxious not to government hastily took the neces- withdraw their blockading squadsary steps, to place the town and ron until the last moment, unforthe garrison in proper order fortunately deferred it too long. Aldefence. To Nota Bozzaris, Su- most on the same day that they ka, Milios and others, was commit- sailed from Patras, to intercept the ted the care of Anatolia, with the Egyptians, the squadron of the latcharge of keeping up a constant ter anchored off Modon, February
24th, and disembarked 6,000 well fortress. Major Collegno, a Pieddisciplined soldiers, who immedi- montese exile of great bravery and ately encamped around Modon, merit, was appointed to superinwhile the ships returned to Suda tend the fortifications. From all for additional troops.
parts of the Morea, provisions were It soon became apparent, that sent in sufficient quantities to susNavarino and the adjacent coun- tain a long siege. And while Contry, were destined to be the imme- duriotti and prince Mavrocordato diate seat of the war. According- prepared to march from Napoli ly, the attempt on Patras was whol- with fresh troops ; large bodies of ly abandoned. Both parties, how- Roumeliots, commanded by Giaever, remained inactive, until March vella, Karatasso, Constantine Boz12th, 1825, when Ibrahim Pacha ha. zaris, and Karaiscaki, took posiving received a reinforcement,pitch- tions in the rear of the besiegers. ed his camp before Navarino, with In this condition, things remainan army of 14,000 soldiers. This ed for several weeks. Petty contown, standing upon the site of the tests took place almost daily, which ancient Pylos, was an object of lessened the numbers on each side; importance to the Turks, not only but did not end in compelling either from its geographical position, but the Greeks or Egyptians, to change as being one of the best ports in the positions they had taken. But, the Morea. The harbor was pro- on the 19th of April, a serious entected by the island of Sphacteria, gagement occurred. The presiwhich completely commanded the dent Conduriotti, with prince Maventrance to Navarino, and the rocordato, had now arrived at the fortress there, as well as that of old camp. Ibrahim posted himself Navarino, at the other extremity of east of Navarino, and erected a the port. Fortifications, erected small battery south of the fortificaby the Venetians when they had tions, whence he kept up an inpossession of the Morea, enabled cessant cannonade. Along his the Greeks to undertake the de- rear, the Greeks extended their fence of the place, with strong line, almost in a circle, with the hopes of success. The govern- intention of cutting off his commument made spirited efforts to meet nication with Modon. Hadgi the Egyptians. A garrison of 2,000 Christo, Hadgi Stephano, and Consoldiers, commanded by the Bul- stantine Bozzaris, commanded the garian Hadgi Christo, and Joannes, left extremity ; Giavella and Karathe youngest son of Petro Bey, the tasso, the right; and a body of MoMainote, threw themselves into the reots occupied the centre,command
ed by Skurtza, a Hydriot, who was shells, but without gaining any maraised above his capacity by the par- terial advantage. tiality of his countryman, Condu- Even in the greatest extremity riotti. 'On the 18th, the Greeks of their dangers, the Greeks could received intimation, that the Egypt- not abstain from perpetual and ruians designed to make a general inous dissensions. In passing attack the next morning. At the through the Morea to Navarino, extremities, everything was fully the Roumeliots had treated the prepared for it; but Skurtza ha- Moreot peasantry, with much conving neglected to throw up the ne- tempt and violence. Since their cessary defences, Constantine Boz- arrival at the camp, there had zaris repaired to his position with never been any cordial co-operation a select body of soldiers. Early between the troops of the two disin the morning, Ibrahim marched tricts; and the pusillanimity of the his forces to the attack, in three Moreots in the late engagement, divisions. Hadgi Christo at one to which Bozzaris justly ascribed point, and Giavella at another, sus- his defeat, served to widen the tained the assault with unshrinking breach. At length, on the arrival courage ; but Skurtza's Moreots of the Turks before Messolunghi,
filed precipitately, leaving Bozzaris the Roumeliots openly declared - to withstand the enemy alone. their determination to march im
His chosen soldiers were soon cut mediately to the protection of their to pieces, only himself and twenty- own homes, and leave Navarino to seven of his followers escaping with be defended by the garrison and life. Two of the bravest capitani, the troops of the Morea. Led by Xidi and Zapheiropuolo, were made their respective generals, Giavella, prisoners; and four other distinguish- Karaiscaki, and Bozzaris, they set ed leaders perished in the battle. out accordingly; and the Moreots
Elated with their success, the took arms, with great spirit, to supEgyptians attempted an assault up- ply their place. The two rebels, on the walls ; but the garrison re- Zairni and Londo, returned from pulsed them, sallied, and took pos- Kalamos, whither they had Aed session of the newly constructed for refuge, submitted to the governbattery, spiked all the cannon, and ment, and diligently went about safely retired again within the walls. raising troops in their native disThe enemy immediately brought trict of Kalabrita. up fresh cannon, and recommenced Nothing further, of much moa constant discharge of shot and ment, transpired, until the 6th of May, when the Egyptians endea- berty, perished on this day, a marvored to land a body of troops at tyr to the same holy cause. Old Navarino. But, after a smart The pacha divided his ships into action, which continued all day, two squadrons; one being stationed the enemy were compelled to re- at the entrance of the harbor, to tire, without effecting their pur- shut up the eight ships within, and pose. Their fleet fell back in the the other remaining off the island, direction of Modon ; and only to oppose the Greek fleet, should eight ships of the Greek squadron they come up to the succor of remained within the harbor of Na- their countrymen. On the island, varino, the rest beating off at some the gallant little band could now distance from the shore. Early on see the Egyptian boats filling with the morning of Sunday, the suc- Arabs, to the sound of the drum. ceeding day, the enemy's fleet was They landed 1500 men, who comobserved to be moving upon the pletely overpowered the garrison island of Sphacteria. Soon after by numbers, and cut them to pieces noon, they had advanced near to indiscriminately, without the excepthe island; whilst a dead calm pre- tion of a single man. Sohini and vented the Greek fleet from sea- Anagnostara fell among the very sonably entering the harbor. Mean- last, after a most desperate, but while, no time had been lost in has- fruitless, resistance. The little tily arranging matters for the de- parties, stationed at other points of fence of Sphacteria. A small bat- the island, now fed in confusion. tery of three guns, with a garrison All the ships in the harbor precipiof two hundred soldiers, directed tately got under weigh, except by Stavro Sohini, a gallant young Psamado's brig, which remained to Hydriot, and by general Anagnos- rescue the surviving Hydriots ;tara, commanded the only landing the Egyptian flect dividing, and place on the island. To these leaving them a free passage. were added a party of sailors, from Psamado's crew sent their boats the ships, under the brave and cele on shore, and prince Mavrocordato brated Hydriot, captain Anastasius escaped on board ; but when the Psamado; prince Mavrocordato re- boats again reached the shore, the maining on the island to direct the fugitives crowded into them so eawhole, aided by count Santa Rosa, gerly, that they sunk. Just then, a Piedmontese nobleman, who, Psamado approached with a handbanished from bis own country for ful of followers, weak from loss of his devotion to the principles of li- blood, and waved his cap to his