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CHAPTER XV.

ASIA.-Burman EmpireOrigin of War with Britain-Shapuree-

Doodpatlee~ RamooExpedition to Rangoon-Operations thereMartaban taken--Bundoola beaten-State of things in 1825-Donabew, Prome, and Arracan takenAssau Cochar-Mortality in the English Army-Armistice of MeeadayHostilities renewed--Melloon - Pagan-Mew taken Treaty of Peace- Bhurtpore--Netherlands - India.

The remoteness of most of the sessions, in India, lying betwixt independent nations of Asia, and them and China. Their whole the half civilized character of their male population, is liable to be population, render it difficult to called into war. Formerly, the obtain recent and authentic ac- territory of this empire, consisted counts of their history, except of several independent states, which in their connections with Eu- were afterwards forcibly united ropeans and Americans. Much of under one head, by conquest. They the most interesting portions of that had, according to the British accountry, is subject to the govern- counts, much annoyed the inbabitment of Europeans. Russia, in the ants of the contiguous British fronnorth, and England, in the south, tiers, for several years; and although cover an immense tract of Asiatic warned of the consequences, would territory. Arabia, is dependant not desist from acts of aggression. on Egypt. Of Turkey, we gave a In order to comprehend the origin history, in association with Greece. of the war, it is necessary to exThere remains little to recount, in plain the relative situation of the the incidents of the last year or parties. two, excepting the progress of The eastern frontier of Bengal, the Burmese war; the existing is a line of impenetrable forest, and contest between Russia and Per- hills, affording but three points of sia, having been described in the communication with the neighborhistory of the Russian empire. ing nations. Of these, the northern

The Burman dominions occupy most, is by the valley of the large a large extent of territory, on the river Brahmapootra, known as the castern frontiers of the British pos- country of Assam ; the next, by

the valley of the Soorma, called the occupied a post within a few miles Cachar country, lying contiguous of their Sylhet frontier. At the to the district of Sylhet ; and the same time, they planned the occulast, next the sea coast, at the pation of Jyntea, another small southern extremity of the Chitta- state, half dependant on the comgong, where the British territory is pany; but the advance of a British divided from Arracan, by the Naf, force prevented its execution. which river was, repeatedly, recog- In the mean time, the troops of nized, as the mutual boundary Burmah and Assam, to the numthere. Arracan had been con- ber of five thousand, fixed their quered, in 1783, by the Bur- stations at Bickrampore, and erectmese, who, ever since the establish- ed fortifications of palisades. The ment of the reigning dynasty, British attacked them without deunder Alompra, in the middle of lay; and, at first, were completely the last century, have been a nation successful. But in February, they of conquerors.

were repulsed with loss, in an atAt the mouth of the Naf, lies an tack upon the Burmese stockade at alluvial island, which is nearest to Doodpatlee. the Bengal side of the river, named The governor-general, lord AmShapuree. A dispute arising, in herst, now deemed it necessary to regard to the property of this insig- make a formal declaration of war nificant islet, it was claimed, and against the king of Ava, and to occupied by the British authorities, chastise the aggressors by invafor the purpose of maintaining the sions of their own territory. The claim. In consequence thereof, and operations of the war being carried to assert the right, on their side, on in several quarters, we shall conthe Burmese landed on the island, fine the main narrative to the prinSeptember 24th, 1823, and expelled cipal expedition, which was against the party stationed there, killing Rangoon ; shortly premising the insome of the soldiers.

cidents which occurred elsewhere. This was the immediate com- Immediately on the commencemencement of hostilities; for no ment of the war, -a considerable answer was vouchsafed by the force, under general M’Morine, court of Ava, to the demand of penetrated to Gowahati, the capiexplanation, made by the company tal of Western Assam, and combefore declaring war. Not long pletely succeeded in repressing the afterwards, the Burmese marched a Burmese in that quarter. The body of troops into Cachar, a petty British were less fortunate in the state protected by the English, and district of Chittagong. Their

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forces were concentrated upon Ra- stockades ; and almost invariably moo, which the Burmese attacked successful ones; but no sooner in great numbers, and after carry- were the Burmese driven from one ing the intrenchments, dispersed or position, than they fortified ancut off all the garrison, posted for other : and thus the time continued their defence. This event greatly to be consumed in a succession of encouraged the Burmese, although petty engagements, which it would they did not advance any farther in be useless to describe particularly. that direction.

One of them we narrate, as a little In the mean time, a considera- more decisive than the rest. ble armament was assembled in Towards the end of June, the May, at Port Cornwallis, consist- Burmese chief received orders to ing of naval forces under commo- make a general attack upon the dore Grant, and military, com- British line ; and his troops were manded by sir Archibald Camp- observed to be in movement for two bell, destined for Rangoon, the successive days. At length, a body principal sea port of Ava. They of twelve thousand men attacked reached this place in a few days, the British posts, and succeeded in and captured it without the loss of penetrating between two of the 'a single man. All its numerous picquets; but were soon repulsed inhabitants had fled precipitately to at the point of the bayonet, and the jungles, at the news of the ap- driven into the jungle. About the proach of the British ; and not a same time, ten stockades were tahundred men were found in the ken from them in a single day. town, when they took possession These successes appear to have of it. A large quantity of ord- had the effect, of producing a genenance, and munitions of war, was ral pause in the operations of the captured in Rangoon; and the fall Burmese. of the place was deemed highly The remainder of the year was important; but the Burmese con- chiefly occupied by expeditions for tinued to hover around the British the destruction of stockades, which outposts, and maintained a desul- led to no important result. Owing tory and harassing contest, without to the character of the country, affording opportunity for any deci- covered with jungle, the setting in sive action.

of rainy weather, and the difficulty Such was the state of things at of supplying the troops with suffiRangoon for upwards of a month. cient provisions, general Campbell Numerous assaults were made by continued his head quarters at the British upon the Burmese Rangoon through the season.

• In October, an expedition was Campbell, early in December, and despatched against the town of driven from post to post, with great Martaban, and the possessions of slaughter, and the loss of two hunthe Burmese on the Tenasserim dred and forty pieces of ordnance coast. Here the British arms were and other munitions of war, in procompletely victorious. Martaban, portionate quantities. Bundoola although strongly fortified, was ta- rallied his troops, and erected new ken by storm, with all its richly entrenchments; but was again stored magazines, and the submis- routed, with the loss of his camp, sion of the whole dependant ter- baggage, and much of his ammuritory immediately followed ;—so nition. that the provinces of Mergui, Yeh, Previous to this, general CampTavoy, Martaban, and, indeed, the bell having understood, that the whole coast, from Rangoon east- governor of Syriam was mustering ward, was now in the possession of a body of forces, , marched upon the British. The islands of Che- that place, which the Burmese duba, on the Arracan coast, and of abandoned on the first assault. Negrais, at the mouth of the river Such were the operations of the Ivawuddy, had already been cap- main body of the British forces. tured by other detachments of ge. On the Sylhet frontier, where lieuneral Campbell's troops.

tenant colonel Innes commanded, During these operations, the they were less successful. The Burmese had been assembling the Burmese had occupied a fortified whole force of the empire. A position at Tiloayn, from whence large army, said to consist of the British endeavored, for some 50,000 men, attacked the British time, to dislodge them; and at position, and entrenched them- last, they, in their turn, attacked selves along general Campbell's the Indian forces of the district, whole front. They were, com- under the rajah Gumbheer Singh ; manded by Maha Bundoola, who and the British troops then coming selected his posts, and fortified up to assist their allies, were all them, with a judgment, in point of repulsed, and driven back upon position, which would have done Budderpore. credit to the engineers of the most In recurring to the commencecivilized and warlike nations. But ment of the contest, and recounthis skill was unavailing, when ing its earlier incidents, although opposed to the superior discipline exceeding our limits, we have and appointments of Europeans. thought we should be performing He was assaulted by general an acceptable service, being thus

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