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enabled to present a collected view great loss, yet the British suffered of the entire war.
much from the climate. And early Previous to beginning the cam- in the war, an unfortunate event paign, in 1825, general Campbell occurred at Barrackpore, where a exerted himself, to inspire the in- regiment of native troops refused habitants of the country with con- to march on this service, and did fidence in the British. He issued not submit, until they were fired a proclamation in February, invi- upon by other corps,--and upwards ting them to return to their homes, of 100 men killed. Disturbances and promising them perfect secu- happened, also, in other parts of rity in person and property, if they the company's possessions ; the remained peaceable, and supplied natives appearing to think the Enhim with provisions ; for which he glish were engaged in a war of engaged they should be amply ambition and conquest, rather than paid. By these means, he induced of justice or necessity. All these the inhabitants to return to Ran- considerations rendered the contest goon, in considerable numbers. one of vital importance to the
Great preparations were now company ; who, bad they failed in made for carrying the war, farther it, might have suffered severely into the interior of the Burmese from the consequences. empire. Lord Amherst began to Sir Archibald Campbell recomfeel that he was contending with menced offensive operations in Feno contemptible foe. Their per- bruary, his ultimate object being tinacious attacks on the British the capture of Prome. Having positions, their skill and activity in dislodged the Burmese from their the science of fortification, the cli- posts on the Lyng river, preparamate, the face of the country,—all tory to marching ; general Campcontributed to render this a more bell moved forward to Sorrawah, serious struggle, than the company where he halted. The Carian inhad been involved in for many habitants of the country, received years. The operations of the war him, as he represents, with much were necessarily expensive, and, satisfaction, rejoicing at the expultherefore, excited complaint in En- sion of the Burmese, and assisting gland, where entire confidence was him with supplies of rice and bufnot generally felt, in the capacity faloes, and in road-making. He of lord Amherst, for the important was not opposed in his progress duties of governor-general of In- thus far, although a strong division dia. Although the battles with the of his enemies, under Maha Silwah, Burmese, were not attended with showed a disposition to sustain an
attack at Mophi, but broke up on part of the British, was owing to his approach, and dispersed into a the use of shells and rockets, with close jungle in the rear
which they did great execution. General Campbell halted at Sor. It would be tedious, to narrate all rawah, to await the issue of an ex- the minor operations of the differpedition of the river-column against ent forces, in their progress up the Donabew, under command of ge- river. Suffice it to say, that geneneral Cotton. Bundoola had as- ral Campbell reached Prome tosembled there a force of 30,000 wards the end of April, which he Burmese, defended by strong forti- took possession of without firing a fications, where he determined to shot, the Burmese fearing to stand make a desperate stand. General his approach. The fortifications of Cotton attacked their first position the place were very complete ; and at a pagoda, and after an obstinate the Burmese had skilfully availed struggle, carried it ; but the Bur. themselves of the great natural mese made a successful resistance strength of the place, to construct at their second position, and re- stockades; which surpassed, both pulsed the British with great loss. in materials and workmanship, any General Cotton finding that his thing which the British had hitherforce was insufficient to carry the to encountered in the country. The main defences of the Burmese, town was burning when they entereven should he take their second ed it, having been set on fire by the position, drew off his forces, and Burmese before they abandoned it. dropped down below Donabew, to Here the British remained duwait for reinforcements.
ring the rainy season. The morOn learning the state of things tality among their troops was conat Donabew, general Campbell re- siderable ; the inundation of the traced his steps for that place, and country, in consequence of the opened his batteries the 1st rains, producing a destructive epiday of April. The next day, the demic. General Campbell found Burmese retreated to the jungle, it necessary to obtain his provisions disheartened by the death of Maha from Rangoon, the Burmese haBundoola, who was killed by a ving wasted the country along the rocket; or, as some accounts say, route of the British troops, for the by the explosion of a shell. Du- purpose of distressing them ; in ring the siege, the Burmese made which they were successful. Nor several bold and desperate sorties, did they leave the British camp at but were uniformly driven back. Prome any repose; incessantly Much of this good fortune on the approaching under cover of the jungles, and annoying the British in Cachar. The object there was with daily attacks, which diminish- to penetrate to Munnipore, its capied the force of the latter, but gave tal, which was extremely desirable them no opportunity of striking a to Gumbheer Singh, the rajah of decisive blow. It was understood Cachar. But the nature of the that prince Sarrawuddy, with the country was such, that it required remains of his people, was reti- long and persevering attempts to · ring upon the capital of the em- overcome the disadvantages of the pire; destroying the villages, grain, weather, climate, face of the counand boats, which lay in the line of try, and scarcity of provisions. his retreat.
Such were the acquisitions and Meantime, the southeastern di- proceedings of this campaign, vision of the army, under general which, important as they were, Morrison, undertook the conquest still left the war undetermined. The of Arracan; which, after several Burmans had thus far contended obstinate engagements, was aban- against their antagonists, with doned to them by the Burmese. The courage worthy of better fortune. loss of this large city, was a heavy Their feelings may be estimated by blow to the latter : beside which, means of an anecdote related of a numerous army appointed for its Maha Bundoola When summondefence, headed by the chief Atown ed by general Cotton to surrender Munjja, was completely dispersed. Donabew, he sent a civil but manly They secreted or carried away with reply. “We are each fighting," them however all their valuables ; said he, "for his country. You and succeeded in destroying by fire will find me as steady in defending more than half the city, two days the liberties of mine, as you in asafter it came into the hands of the serting yours. If you wish to see British. Here the quarters of the Donabew, come as friends, and I invading troops were fixed, during will show it to you. If you come the continuance of the rainy sea- as enemies, land; you will find us son.
ready, and we will see which are In Assam, colonel Richards ob- the better men !" His death was tained possession of Rungpoore by deeply felt by his countrymen, over capitulation; and the Burmese whom, his talents and services dewere thus entirely expelled from servedly gave him great ascendthe province ; and farther opera- ancy. tions were suspended in that di- However barbarous the Burmese rection.
may have been, it is impossible to Nothing, of moment was effected deny that the proceedings of the British, wear much the aspect of the armistice. An exchange of ambition to conquer another Indian prisoners, was one of the condiempire. The immediate cause of tions of the agreement. • the war, even as explained by Commissioners, on the part of the them, was rather slight ; and to British, and Burmese, met, Octothis it should be added, that nearly ber 2d, to discuss the preliminaall our knowledge of its origin or ries of the peace. As the British progress is derived from the British demanded a large cession of terrialone. Certain it is, that, even in tory, and indemnification, for the the early parts of the contest, the expenses of the war, the Burmese company was continually calcula- requested the prolongation of the ting the benefit derivable from pos- armistice, until November, to give sessing the important sea ports and them opportunity of consulting provinces, which they had conquer their court. Arrangements, were ed, or hoped to conquer, from the accordingly made, for transferring Burmans.
the negotiations to Ummerapoora, We have already alluded to the in the confidence of effecting a mortality, which prevailed at peace. Prome, during the rainy season. It This expectation was destined was likewise, very great at Arra- to be disappointed. Just after the can. Almost the whole army ex- expiration of the period appointed, perienced its effects. A mortality for the first armistice, bands of also raged among the horses, and Burmese passed the line of debullocks, attached to the army. But markation, and plundered the villatowards the month of August, the ges within the British limits. Rehealth of the troops, and cattle, monstrances being made to the began to improve, and all were an Burmese chiefs, they retorted, in ticipating the events of the ap- complaints of the insincerity of the proaching campaign ; when, sud- British ; and did not deny, that a denly, the negociation of an armi- large force was advancing upon stice, opened a prospect of peace. Prome, to intercept the progress
The armistice was concluded at of sir Archibald Campbell. Their Meeaday, in September, and was aim apeared to be, to cut off the to last for a month. A line of de- communication between Prome, markation, across the Irrawuddy, and Rangoon, from whence all was agreed upon, and each party supplies were obtained ; and at the stipulated, not to cross it ; and also, same time, to make a desperate to suspend hostilities, upon the attempt to take the British army frontiers, until the termination of by surprise.
General Campbell foresaw their on the 17th, and after a short object, and prepared to defeat it. stay, marched on to Melloon, He began, by sending detachments, which was occupied by the enemy; to dislodge some Burmese troops, their army being assembled, within posted so as to be troublesome to the defences, and the river being the British camp. Most of these covered with war boats. Here, were successful ; but one, com- overtures of peace were again manded by colonel M’Dowall, was made, and hostilities immediately repulsed, and sustained a heavy ceased.
These overtures ended in a Soon afterwards, the main army treaty, signed by British and Bur-of the Burmese, divided into three mese commissioners, January 3d, corps, consisting of 50,000 men, 1826, to be ratified by the king of took post in the vicinity of Ava, within fifteen days. Sir A. Prome, extended in a line across Campbell was now perfectly satisthe Irrawuddy, and fortified by fied of the sincerity of the Burstrong entrenchments along the mese ; but at the expiration of the hills. General Campbell attacked time agreed on, the Burmese asked one of these corps, December 1st, for an extension; and suspicions with nearly all his forces, drove again arose, that they were only them from their stockades, with the seeking to entrap the British. Geloss of their commander, Maha neral Campbell instantly demanded Memiow, and all their guns and the evacuation of Melloon, as a stores. The next day, he attacked preliminary condition of the extenthe second corps, and pushed the sion. Burmese troops on, from hill to On the refusal of the Burmese, hill, at the point of the bayonet, he made immediate preparations till the whole of the position was for assaulting the place. The Burin his possession. On the fourth mese, on their side, had not been day, general Cotton assaulted, and idle ; but, in the mean time, concarried the remaining position ; and structed extensive works, in addithe Burmese were now completely tion to the former entrenchments. routed and dispersed.
Nevertheless, the British carried General Campbell immediately Melloon by assault, inflicting upon advanced to Meeaday, which he the Burmese, a severe loss in men, found evacuated by the Burmese, and capturing a large quantity of whose dead and dying, were scat- stores, ordnance, munitions, and tered along the whole line of specie. his march. He reached the place. After a short delay, sir Archibald