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continued his advance, meeting and paid down twenty-five lacs, with no opposition from the Bur- the first instalment under the mese, who concentrated their treaty. forces in a strong post at Pagam- Upon the conclusion of this armew, about one hundred and fifty rangement, the British troops immiles from the capital. Here he mediately retrograded to Rangoon arrived February 8th, and the next from whence, that wreck of a once day had a general engagement with fine army, which sickness and war the Burmese, which ended in their had spared, was subsequently retotal defeat ; their works being ta- embarked for Calcutta and Maken by storm ; and their troops dras. driven from the town at the point Thus terminated the Burmese of the bayonet. The victory was war, as every previous war in the complete. On this occasion, the East Indies had ended, in a large Burmese executed some bold ma- accession of valuable territory to næuvres, planned with great judg- the British empire. It may be, ment; and their signal discomfi- and it probable is, true, that the ture finished the war.

king of Ava conducted with unbeContinuing his march, general coming insolence, in his deportCampbell arrived at Yandaboo, ment towards the British. Certain about forty-five miles distant from it is, also, that difficulties in that the capital, where he was met by quarter, had long been apprehendthe Burmese ministers, fully em- ed by the servants of the company. powered to conclude a treaty, ac- Still, nothing but the necessity of cording to the proposed conditions. protecting their frontier, could jusThe king of Ava renounced all tify them in a sudden declaration claims upon Assam, Cachar, and of war, for so slight a cause as the Jyntea ; and engaged to recognize occupation of Shapuree by the Gumbheer Singh as rajah of Mun- Burmese, the title to which was nipore. He ceded to the British fairly disputable. Indeed, some of government the whole of Arracan, the British journals are willing to including Ramree, Cheduba, and admit, that this was little better Sandowey; and, also, the pro- than a pretext to repress the invinces of Yeh, Tavoy, Mergui, and solence of the Burmans, and acTenasserim, with all their depend- quire a new barrier on the eastencies. Finally, he stipulated to ward of Bengal. pay a crore of rupees, (about a It is now generally agreed, that million sterling,) as an indemnity lord Amherst did not fairly apfor the expenses of the company, preciate the resources of the Bur

. mese, or the hazards of war with left an heir, only seven years of them. Had he done so, he cer- age. Taking advantage of the tainly would have tried the effect young rajah's minority, his cousin of negotiation, before he hastily in- forcibly usurped possession of the vaded the heart of a country, so regency. He did this in open defiinsalubrious, and so easily defend- ance of the British authority, and his ed by its warlike inhabitants. The followers committed many disorders war entailed a vast train of suffer- in the neighborhood, which rening upon the misguided Burmans; dered the interposition of the combut was most destructive to the pany requisite. The usurper, British themselves, shut up for two Doorjun Sal, rejected all proposals seasons in the midst of devouring of accommodation, and filled the pestilence, and incessantly harass- neighboring chiefs with a spirit of ed by a persevering enemy. turbulence and disorder. These rene is no more, and the maritime Arabs, in order to strike at the glory of Carthage has yielded place root of the slave trade. to here and there an aggregation The United States and England of pirates, who live by licentious have sincerely persevered in their plunders of the Christians naviga- exertions, to abolish this inhuman ting the Mediterranean, or dwell- ' traffic. Our own law is severe ing on its shores. From Egypt against the slave trader ; and our on the east, and Barbary on the cruisers on the coast of Africa have north, the Arabs have penetrated been actively employed in honest into the interior of the vast conti- exertions to arrest offenders. The nent, the great store-house of the efforts of England, also, have been negro slaves,-officina gentium,-- remarkably exemplary, and mainly who cultivate the soil of tropical effected the many treaty stipulaAmerica. To the Arabs, in the tions, which denounce the traffic. first instance, it is probable, the The Spanish American states introduction of the pernicious traf- have, in this respect, been true to fic in black slaves, is to be ascri- the principles of liberty which they bed. The indefatigable exertions profess :-having prohibited the of English travellers is beginning slave trade, and readily entered into to lift the veil from extensive re- engagements for its suppression. gions, which, at some future day, But Brazil,--that government may be raised to a participation in which stands alone in America, an the blessings of civilized existence, hereditary monarchy in the midst and of christianity.

Next to the Burmese war, no events formed sufficient cause to incident in the recent history of the call the British arms into action. East Indies, is more important Accordingly, in December, 1825, than the disturbances in upper In- the commander-in-chief, lord Camdia, followed by the reduction of bermere, marched against Bhurtthe strong fortress of Bhurtpore. pore with a large force, and after

This place had been thoroughly some skirmishes before the city, fortified by a former rajah ; and commenced the siege of it in form. being deemed impregnable by the This celebrated fortress, the ne natives in that quarter of India, plus ultra of lord Lake's progress was a sort of rallying point for the many years before, was esteemed disaffected. In 1803, the rajah stronger than any yet attacked in Runjeet Singh, acted in concert India. Although well garrisoned with Holkar, and openly defied the and defended, it was taken by British. Lord Lake endeavored storm, January 18th, 1826, after to reduce the city at that time; a brave resistance. Doorjun Sal, but was obliged to retreat, with his family and army, were made some loss of reputation. Of course, prisoners ; and an immense booty it had ever since been regarded fell into the hands of the captors, with an evil eye by the company's who effectually, and speedily reservants. An opportunity was of- stored peace in that quarter, formfered them to redeem their credit, ally establishing the young rajah. on the following occasion.

Of various disturbances among It seems that the rajah Bulder the barbarous chiefs of northern Singh, who died in October, 1825, India, as well as in the British In

dia, we deem it unnecessary to re- when beaten, dispersed into their late the history Wherever the fastnesses, which were impregnaBritish extended their influence, ble to regular troops. Of course, their superiority over the native in- the war made slow progress ; the habitants of the soil was generally natives never failing to harass the apparent, and enabled them, of Dutch, whenever a favorable occacourse, to increase their ascenden- sion occurred. At the very latest, cy, and the limits of their empire. accounts from Java, the affairs of

It was far otherwise with the the colony were in a most deploraking of the Netherlands’ possess- ble state ; the Dutch being almost ions in the Indian Archipelago. overmastered by the insurgents, Their finances are represented as who every day gathered greater being much embarrassed ; and re- boldness and strength from their bellions were continually breaking own success, and the declining auout among the natives, which fully thority of the Europeans. employed the military force of the To give a digested narrative of Europeans. These disturbances these incidents, or of the wars and were the most serious in the island political commotions among the inof Java. Such was the nature of habitants of other parts of Asia, the country, that, although con- would be impossible ; and, if practinually victorious in almost every ticable, incapable of affording any engagement, the Dutch could not valuable information. wholly subdue the insurgents, who,

CHAPTER XVI.

AFRICA.-Arabs in Africa--Slave Trade-- Ashantee Wars--MoroccoBarbary Powers--Egypt Rise of Mohammed Ali-Conquers Arabia--Sennaar, fc. - Policy and Government of Mohammed Ali.

In the recent history of Africa, to wither the freshness, and destroy there are several things, which oc- the prosperity of every land which cupy so prominent a place in our it touches. Destructive as were consideration, that we shall devote the ravages of the northern barbaa chapter to them, although not all rians, who subdued and dismemof purely a narrative character. bered the Roman empire ; still the Passing over the petty oppressions Gothic and Germanic nations apof lord Charles Somerset, the go- pear to have possessed the seeds of vernor of the English colony, at civilization, which, in the happy the cape of Good Hope, which have climes of the south, gradually, excited much feeling in England, produced the noble fruits of rebut are of no moment to Ameri- finement, learning, humanity, and cans; we shall fix our attention up- freedom. But the Saracens swept on the present state of the slave over the regions they conquered, trade, and in connection with it, the like a blast from the desert. Save wars of the Ashantees; and after the short lived splendor of some of briefly touching upon the history the eastern and western caliphs, of the Moorish and Barbary states the history of the Turkish and in Africa, conclude with an ac- Arab governments is the history of count of the new empire of Egypt, obstinate bigotry, of incurable bar. and its singular ruler.

barism, of uncalculating tyranny, Next to the fertile, but now which destroys the subject on which wasted regions of Greece, and the it exercises authority. lesser Asia, no part of the world'. In Africa, countries, which once suffers more deplorably under the boasted all the riches of cultured calamities of bad government, and life,—whose fertility made them vicious political institutions, than the granary of Europe,-now Africa. The religion of Mahomet scarcely afford scanty subsistence seems, at least, in modern times, to a few wandering tribes. Cy.

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of free states, Brazil, which is Europeans have now acquired a now engaged in a war of invasion permanent footing at the cape, and against Buenos Ayres, and violates on the western coast of Africa. By so many principles of international means of their colonies, the En- law, in the mode of prosecuting glish can act upon the interior to it,--Brazil sanctions and protects advantage. And that point, it is the slave trade. The Portuguese beginning to be understood, is the are the only people, of all civilized true one to be aimed at, in ordet nations, “ who class the purchase to accomplish their designs, which, of our fellow creatures among the if not disinterested, are certainly ordinary modes of lawful combeneficial. They must subvert the merce." power of the Mahometans, and in- ' As to Portugal herself, the patroduce a better influence over the rent country, now that Brazil is inblacks, than that of the barbarous dependent of her, she has no inte

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