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rest in the continuance of the slave slave trade has been carried on there trade. Her ministry have express to a shameful extent ; the members ed a readiness to aid in its total of the local government having abolition ; and the constitutional' been, as Mr. Canning affirms, government being entirely depend largely concerned in it themselves. ant, for its very being, on En- The French, however, are the gland, there is no doubt she will great slave carriers of the Antilles. make this sacrifice to humanity. After all the engagements solemnly
The Portuguese have consented made, and often repeated by the to relinquish the slave trade north French government, still the inade. of the line ; but the Brazillians are quacy of their law, leaves room for: in the habit of constantly evading constant violations of it with imputhe treaty, and this with the con- nity. Their naval officers are not, nivance of Don Pedro's govern- in general, disposed to do their dument. They fictitiously give to ty. The French laws punish the places north of the line, names of offence only with confiscation of places to the south ; and thus, un- the vessel ; without causing any der cover of false papers and fabri- ignominy or personal punishment to cated log-books, they securely pur- attach to the individual engaged in sue the trade wherever they please. the trade. And as the profits of a
Early in the year 1826, the king a successful voyage are sufficient of Spain, influenced by the duke to insure against the risk of cap-, del Infantado, consented to the arti- ture, of course, men and capital cles of the treaty of 1807, for pre- enough are found ready to embark venting the prosecution of the traf- in it. Nantz is the emporium of fic. Much confidence is reposed the trade. Within the last year, in the assurances of the duke, that however, public opinion began to the treaty shall be faithfully obser- act upon this subject. The merved, in consequence of his charac- chants and bankers of Paris, have ter for integrity and honesty. It called the attention of their legislahas been communicated to the cap- ture to it by petitions; in which they tain general of Cuba, and it is to be speak freely and boldly of the barehoped it will prove effectual. But faced proceedings of the Nantz the Spanish authority hangs loosely dealers. Abolition societies, likeupon the local officers at Cuba. wise, are getting into operation ; Whether they will be disposed which will exercise a salutary influto comply with orders, which ence on the public mind. And conflict with their interest, is some- some check was put upon the busiwhat problematical. Hitherto, the ness, by the seizure and confisca
tion of a slave vessel called the always ending in territorial aggranDeux Nantais ; which necessarily dizement. attracted attention, and made the Our own times have witnessed circumstances more notorious. the rise of a new power, on the
Such persevering exertions as western shores of Africa, the exthose of England, to abolish the tensive kingdom of Ashantee. Beslave trade, backed by her maritime ing decidedly superior to the surpower, and her weight in the great rounding savages, in bravery, and family of nations, cannot fail to be policy, they conquered, successiveeventually crowned with success. ly, the intervening tribes, between Much as her negotiations with Eu- them and the maritime districts, and ropean, and American powers, then threatened to become formihave accomplished, we anticipate dable to the English factories on still happier results, from what she the Gold Coast. The Ashantees, may do, in the interior of Africa came directly in contact with the itself. Elsewhere, and in other con- latter, early in this century, by their tinents, it has been observed, that, invasion and conquest, of the owing to the benign influences of Fantee territory, in which the faccommerce, civilization produces tories were established. the most striking effects, near the Since that time, the various tribes sea coast, and gradually spreads to on the coast have been divided bethe interior. In Africa, it is other tween two interests, that of the wise ; but when a stop is put to conquering Ashantees, in the intethe slave trade, and its baneful rior, and of the Fantees, next consequences, degraded Africa will the coast, whose standard is no longer have cause to dread, and the rallying point, of all, who deplore, the spirit of commerce. seek to shake off the Ashantee
Circumstances of very recent yoke. Unfortunately, the English occurrence, promise to facilitate suffered themselves to get entanthe attempts of the English, to gled in the disputes between the push their influence into the in- nations around them; and still more terior. These, we now proceed to unfortunately, sided with the Fanrelate ; observing, however, as we tees, and their confederates, rewe pass, that, in Africa, as every volted subjects of Ashantee. Afwhere else, the commercial enter- ter some indecisive skirmishes, the prises of the English are continually whole force of Ashantee, in 1824, made the pretext for wars, begin- moved down upon Cape Coast, ning, often, in slight causes, but where sir Charles M'Carthy, commanded, and totally defeated, and total defeat has so effectually broke destroyed the English troops. the power of the Ashantees, as to
We pass over intervening in- leave the British and their allies on cidents, to come to their late sig- the Gold Coast, no farther cause nal discomfiture. The warlike of apprehension at present. Ashantees, who had thus success. In Morocco, the most remarkafully contended with the English, ble event has been the prevalence were, it may, therefore, be readily of a species of epidemic, whose ravaconceived, vastly too powerful, ges have been extremely fatal. It now, for the neighboring tribes of is said, that 200,000 persons penatives to withstand, unaided. Not rished, in the course of five months, content with their past successes, ending May, 1826. There were they engaged in new expeditions. 38,000 deaths in Fez alone. The
But the progress of these barba- mortality was ascribed to a failure rians, was happily arrested, by a of crops; in consequence of a decisive battle, fought in August drought of three years' duration, last, in which the British, and their which dried up the rivers and allies, came off completely victori- springs. Their cattle dying from ous. The force of the Ashantees, want of herbage, the wretched consisted of 20,000 men, who con- Arabs flocked down from the intetended with the greatest bravery, rior, to the sea ports on the Barbut were at length beaten, after an bary coast, ' bringing along with obstinate struggle, in which, one them disease and famine. . third of their number perished. Nothing in the history of the Their discomfiture was, in a con- other Arab powers in Africa, desiderable degree, attributable to serves to be mentioned, unless it be the execution done among them the piracies of Algiers. A war by rockets, whose novelty, hissing broke out in 1826, between Alnoise, and fatal effects, astonished giers and Spain, in consequence of and confused them. Many of their the neglect of Spain to pay its subprincipal men perished; and their sidy. The Algerine cruisers, not king was severely wounded. His content with capturing such Spaequipage, camp, and several of his nish merchantmen as they met, dewives, with a rich booty, fell into scended upon the coast, and made the hands of the British. In the captives of a considerable number camp, was found the head of sir of inhabitants. Spain is one of Charles M’Carthy, carefully pre- the few remaining nations who served, and wrapped up as a yet continue tributary to the Barcharm. It is presumed, that this bary powers. The United States
set the example of chastising, in- previous to the commencement of stead of subsidizing, them ; and his military career, was engaged in England, the Netherlands, Naples, the tobacco trade; which circumand France,have followed this exam- stance probably produced the tenple, and obtained security by treaty. dency to commercial speculation, Russia, Austria, Tuscany, and Prus- by which he has been subsequently sia have letters of protection from distinguished. When the Porte made the Porte. Other states, among war on the French in Egypt, Mowhom is Rome, are in the prac- hammed Ali accompanied the expetice of making presents, in place dition, and attained the rank of of a regular tribute ; and the Al- bin-baschi, or colonel, during the gerines have recently captured operations before Aboukir. In the some Roman vessels, probably rapid succession of battles, skirowing to an omission of the usual mishes, intrigues, and civil commopresents. Differences arising from tions, which ensued, he managed causes of this kind, have, also, to gain an ascendancy over the vaoccurred between other Barbary rious parties, which agitated the states, and some of their tributaries. country; and, at length, was deem
Egypt is a department of the ed deserving the title of pacha. Turkish empire ; but its obedience Not satisfied with this, he incited to the Porte, is little else than a the soldiery to revolt from the nominal recognition of sovereignty. Turkish governor of Egypt, ThouThe talents and fortune of a single schid-Pacha, and to demand the individual, have enabled him not government for himself, as the only only to obtain the absolute govern- person capable of restoring and ment of Egypt, but to subject Ara- maintaining order. Accordingly, bia and Candia to his authority. in 1805, he was invested with the And should he succeed in conquer- government of Egypt, by an order ing the Greeks, he may become a from the Porte. dangerous rival, rather than the During the subsequent years, useful subject, of the sultan. Mohammed Ali was engaged in a
Mohammed Ali, the pacha of conflict with the mamelukes, who, Egypt, is an obscure soldier of on the expulsion of the French, fortune ; whose original elevation endeavored to regain their ancient was owing to his adroitness in power. In 1807, the English, betaking advantage of the chances ing at war with Turkey, sent a of war, to promote his own aggrand- body of troops to assist the mameizement. He was born at Cavale, lukes; but Mohammed Ali was in Romelia, in the year 1769 ; and fortunate enough to separate the latter from their allies, and thus to the organization of infantry, discivanquish both. In the mean time, plined, in all respects, according to he received orders from the Porte European principles ; and has conto march against the Wahabees; tinued to reinforce it, either by lewho were fast extending their con- vies there, or by conscription of quests all over Arabia, and had the felhas on the banks of the Nile. completely overthrown the Turk- He selected his officers from among ish authority in that country. But the Turks, or the Georgian slaves apprehensive that the beys might introduced by the mamelukes, who rise during his absence, he deter- were drilled by colonel Sève, a mined to free himself from all ap- renegado, and formerly one of Boprehension on that score, by the naparte's officers, now called Soextermination of the whole body of liman hey. Sève was assisted by the mamelukes and their adherents. a number of other officers of the Having artfully decoyed the chief French army, enlisted in this serpart of them into his power, on a vice, through the agency of Drosolemn assurance of safety and vette, the French consul in Egypt, peace, he caused them all to be —but employed solely as instructdestroyed by a general and simul- ors. taneous massacre. After this fero- Such are the forces, which make cious and infamous act, which was Mohammed Ali so formidable to perpetrated in 1811, he organized his neighbors, and so powerful a a strong expedition against the coadjutor of the sultan, in his exWahabees, under the command of ertions to reduce the Greeks. For his sons; totally subverted their an account of his operations in power ; and made himself undis- Greece, we refer to the chapter apputed master of Arabia.
propriated to their history. MoPursuing his successes, in 1820 hammed Ali has probably found the Mohammed Ali attacked and con- task of conquering the Morea more quered Nubia, Sennaar, and Ker- arduous than he anticipated ; for dosan, though not without the loss he is under the necessity of strainof his son Ishmael, the command- ing his resources to the utmost; and er of the expedition. These pro- has lost vast numbers of his troops vinces are now half depopulated, in Greece, by the small pox, and .by the great number of inhabit- by diseases arising from change of ants, whom Mohammed Ali has climate and diet, which have proved enslaved, and transported to Egypt, peculiarly fatal to the Nubians. His to supply his armies. With these disciplined infantry is, therefore, unhappy people, he commenced composed chiefly of Egyptian fel.