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lemn compact of perpetual alliance viation from the forms, usages, and and confederation with Peru, Chili, established customs, will retard and Rio de la Plata, with the ob- that important result. These powject of carrying on the war against erful reasons have induced the gotheir common enemy, the king of vernment of Colombia to believe, Spain, or against all other foreign that, in order to take into considedomination. As neither Colombia ration the proposal the government nor its allies have received the of Hayti has made to that of Coslightest offence from France, the lombia, this year, it will be neces. proposed alliance will be equiva- sary to consult its allies, and, as it lent to a spontaneous provocation, is possible that the meeting of the on our part, which no American or plenipotentiaries of all the states of European power can approve of. America, formerly Spanish, will asSuch a provocation would do con- semble in Panama, in the course of siderable injury to the interests of the next year, the government of all the American states, now ac- Colombia will embrace that opportually fighting to establish the in- tunity to arrange with its said allies, dependence of their ancient head, the footing on which, in future, the without excepting Hayti. . political and mercantile relations
It is easy to agree in the abstract with the other portions of our beprinciple ; that is to say, in the ne- misphere shall be placed, who are, cessity which all the American go- in fact and right, separated from its vernments are under to perfectly ancient government. Then, sir, understand each other some day, this negotiation will be examined in order to guard against all fo- into with that spirit of liberality reign attacks. But, as to the time which characterizes the policy of of putting it into execution, it is the government of Colombia and necessary to use much prudence its allies; and I venture to antici. and circumspection.
pate, that their determination will The old world has its eyes fixed be highly agreeable to Hayti. I on the new, to observe carefully all hope, sir, that you will see, in the its measures, and to examine into frank and sincere exposition which them. If the American states I have just made, a clear and have not already arrived to that or- convincing proof of the interest der and regularity in their institu- with which the government and tions, and respect to the rights of people of Colombia are animated others, which is indispensable to for the welfare and prosperity of include them in the great family of Hayti.
PEDRO Gaul. civilized nations, the slightest de
PERU. The Congress of PERU was convened on the 10th of February, and the
session opened by the following message from BOLIVAR.
TO THE SOVEREIGN CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS OF PERU. Gentlemen—The representa- the splendid victory of Ayacucho, tives of the Peruvian people meet which has, forever, fixed the desti. this day, under the auspices of nies of the new world.
One year has elapsed since con- and an exterminating war-I found gress decreed the dictatorial autho- myself on a field of desolation, but rity, in order to save the republic, yet with the means of establishing which was sinking under the op- a beneficial government. Notwithpression of the severest calamities. standing my ardent zeal for the But the protecting hand of the libe- happiness of Peru, I regret that I rating army has healed its wounds: cannot assure congress that this it has broken the chains which Pi- great work has yet attained the zarro had rivetted on the sons of perfection I hoped. Congress will Manco Capac, founder of the em- have to exert all its wisdom to give pire of the sun, and has placed all to the country the organization it Peru in the possession of its pris requires. May I be permitted to mitive rights.
confess, that not being a Peruvian, My administration can only be it has, on that account, been more called a campaign. We have had difficult for me to attain this dehardly time to arm ourselves and sired end. fight. Our appalling disasters left Our relations with the republic us no choice but to defend our- of Colombia, have obtained for us selves. As the army has triumph- great assistance. Our ally and ed with so much glory, I think it confederate withheld nothing from my duty to request congress to re- us-she employed her treasure, her ward, in suitable manner, the va- navy, her armies in combating the lor and virtues of the defenders of common enemy, as her own cause. the country.
Congress will be convinced by Tribunals have been established these demonstrations of Colombia according to the fundamental law. of the infinite value with which she I have sought hidden merit where- views a close and intimate fedeever it was to be found, and placed ration of the new states. Impressin offices of trust and power. I ed with the great advantages which have carefully sought those who will result from a meeting of a modestly follow the dictates of congress of representatives, I have their consciences and respect the hastened to invite our confederates, laws.
in the name of Peru, to assemble The public revenue was annihi- as speedily as possible at the isthlated-fraud had shut up all its mus of Panama. This august channels. Disorder and confusion body will there seal the perpetual augmented the miseries of the state alliance of the different states.
- I have been obliged to make es. The republic of Chili has placed sential reforms and severe ordi- under the order of our government, nances to preserve the existence a part of her navy, commanded of the republic. Social life can- by the brave vice-admiral Blanco, not be nourished if the riches of which is blockading Callao, with the country do not freely flow in the Chilian and Colombian forces. its veins.
The states of Mexico, GuatemaThe crisis of the republic forced la, and Buenos Ayres have made me to adopt measures, and to make us an offer of their services, which, reforms, which centuries may not owing to our rapid successes, have again require. The political edi- been without effect. These refice had been destroyed by crimes publics have established themselves
and maintain their internal tran- country, to place her laws on the quillity.
bayonets of the liberating army ; The diplomatic agent of the re- but, as the nation has obtained dopublic of Colombia is the only one, mestic peace and political liberty, as yet, accredited near our govern- the laws only ought to govern. ment.
Gentlemen, the congress is inThe consuls of Colombia, of the stalled. My duty, as an auxiliary United States of America, and of soldier, calls me to assist in ob- . Great Britain, have presented them- taining the liberties of Upper Peselves in this capital, to exercise ru, and the surrender of Callao, their offices—the last has had the the last bulwark of the Spanish misfortune to perish in the most la- empire in South America. I will mentable manner-the other two then hasten to my country to give have obtained their exequators to an account to the representatives of enter on the discharge of their the Colombian people, of my misduties.
sion in Peru—of your liberty, and As soon as the military suc. of the glory of the liberating army ! cesses of Peru shall be known in
BOLIVAR. Europe, it is probable that those governments will definitely decide Act of Independence of the Proon the political conduct they have vinces of UPPER PERU. to adopt. I flatter myself Great
DECLARATION. Britain will be the first to recog- The sovereign representation of nize our independence. If we the provinces of Upper Peru, deepare to credit the declarations of ly penetrated with the magnitude France, she will not delay in join- and weight of their responsibility ing England in that liberal policy; to heaven and the world, in deand perhaps the rest of Europe ciding the destinies of their conwill follow the same conduct. stituents, have divested themselves Spain, herself, if she listens to her of all partiality and private feelings interests, will no longer oppose the at the altar of justice, and have arexistence of the new states, which dently implored the aid of the will complete the friendly relations Great Architect of the universe in of the universe.
forming a just decision. ConLegislators! In giving up to scious of good faith, justice, mocongress the supreme power which deration, and careful deliberation you deposited in my hands, allow on their resolution, they declare, in me to congratulate the people in the name and with authority of their having rid themselves of the great representatives, that the happy day est curse in the world-war, by the has arrived, when Upper Peru has victory at Ayacucho, and of des- become liberated from unjust powpotism, by my resignation. Pro- er, from the tyrannic and wretched scribe, forever, I beg you, that Ferdinand VII., and that this fertremendous authority ; that autho- tile region has escaped the debarity which was the grave of Rome! sing relation of a colony of Spain ; It was laudable, no doubt, in con- that it is important to its welfare, gress, in order to resist the dread- not to incorporate itself with any ful calamities, and to face the fu- of the co-terminous republics, but rious storms which desolated the to erect itself into a sovereign and
independent state, in relation to the maintenance of the sacred the new, as well as the old world ; rights of honor, life, liberty, equathat the provinces of Upper Peru, lity, property, and security. To firm and unanimous in their reso- carry into effect this determination, lution, proclaim to the whole earth, they bind themselves, through this that they will govern themselves, sovereign representation, by their under their own constitution, laws, lives, property, and sacred honor. and authorities, that they may think Signed by most conducive to the prosperity JOSE MARIANO SERRENO, pres't. of the nation, the inviolable sup- And by 47 other representatives. port of the catholic religion, and Hall of Representatives, Aug. 6, 1825.
CAPITULATION OF AYACUCHO.
Don Jose Canterac, lieutenant ing to the Spanish army will be at general of the royal armies of his liberty to return to his country, and catholic majesty, being charged his passage will be defrayed by the with the supreme command of state of Peru-meanwhile he shall Peru, in the absence of his excel- be treated with due consideration, lency, the vice king D. Jose la and will receive, at least, one half Serna, wounded and taken prisoner of his pay, according to his grade, in the battle fought this day, after during his stay in the territory having taken the advices of the Answer. Granted: but the gogenerals and chiefs, re-united after vernment of Peru will only grant the bloody battle of Ayacucho, the half pay according to propor&c. &c. has thought it convenient tionate regulations for the transporto propose and to regulate with tation. Those who will return to the general of division, Antonio Spain, will not carry arms against Jose de Sucre, commanding in America, during the war of the inchief the united army of Peru, the dependence, and no one will go conditions contained in the follow- into any part of America occupied ing articles :
by the Spanish armies. First. The territory, garrisoned Third. Any individual belonging by the Spanish troops in Peru, as to the Spanish army, wishing to enfar as the Desaguadoro, shall be list in the army of Peru, will enjoy delivered to the united liberating his former grade. army, with the parks of artillery, Answer. Granted. chests, and all the military maga. Fourth. No one shall be accounzines.
table for his former opinions, nor Answer. Granted : and will also for his particular services in the be included in the delivery all the king's cause, nor those known as remainder of the Spanish army, the smugglers: in this particular they baggages and horses, the garrisons will be entitled to the rights of all remaining in any part of the terri- the articles of this treaty. tory, and other forces and articles Answer. Granted : if, by their belonging to the Spanish govern- conduct, they do not disturb the ment.
public order, and if they conform Second. Every individual belong- to the laws.
Fifth. Any inhabitant of Peru, government in the territory thereof, either European or American, ec- to the present day. clesiastic or merchant, land-owner. Answer. The congress of Peru or workman, wishing to remove to will decide with regard to this aranother country, will be at liberty ticle, what will be most convenient so to do, by virtue of this conven- to the interests of the republic. tion, and to take with him his Ninth. All the individuals emfamily and property-he will be ployed in public offices, will be conprotected by the state until his de- tinued therein, if it be their desire ; parture, and if he prefers to re- otherwise, those preferring to leave main, he will be considered a the country will be comprehended Peruvian.
under the articles 2d and 5th. Answer. Granted : with regard Answer. Those of the meritorito the inhabitants of the country ous will be continued in their offices to be delivered, and agreeably to if the government should think the conditions mentioned in the proper. preceding article.
Tenth. Every individual belong. Sirth. The state of Peru will ing to the army, or in the governalso respect the property of the ment's employ, who may wish to Spaniards who may be absent from be erased from the rolls and to rethe territory--they will be at liberty, main in the country, will be at for the period of three years, to liberty so to do; and in that case dispose of their property, which their persons will be respected. will be considered in the same Answer. Granted. point of view as that of Americans, Eleventh. The town of Callao unwilling to go to the peninsula, will be delivered to the united although they may have property in liberating army, and its garrison that country.
will be included in the articles of Answer. Granted : as in the pre- this treaty. ceding article, provided the con- Answer. Granted: but the town duct of these individuals will, in no of Callao, with all her colors and way, be hostile to the cause of military articles, shall be delivered the freedom and independence of to the liberator, and be subject to America---in the event of which, his disposal on or before twenty the government of Peru reserves days. to itself the privilege of acting Twelfth. Superior officers of freely and discretionary.
both armies will be sent to the proSeventh. The term of one year vincos for the purpose of deliverwill be granted to all the interested ing and receiving the archives, parties, in order to avail themselves magazines, appurtenances, and the of the stipulations embraced in the troops, deposited in, and stationed fifth article their property will be at, the different garrisons. subjected to the ordinary duties, but Answer. Granted : the same forthat of individuals belonging to the malities will be observed at the dearmy to be free of duties.
livery of Callao. The provinces Answer. Granted.
will be delivered to the independent Eighth. The state of Peru will authorities in fifteen days, and the acknowledge the debts contracted places the most remote in all the hy the administration of the Spanish present month.