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ercise of a right which was always this new situation, the government indisputable, nor leave to their of the United Provinces retains fate, at the mercy of events, an the same spirit of moderation and armed, courageous, and exaspe- justice that has served as the basis rated population, capable of pro- of its policy, and guided the enceeding to all extremities in de- deavors which it has heretofore fence of their rights.

made in vain, to obtain restitution On this account it was, that at of the oriental province by amicathe sitting of the 25th of October ble negotiation, a spirit of which last, the congress decreed thus : it will give fresh proofs as often as it In conformity with the general its dignity will allow it so to do. and constant wish of the provinces In any event, it will strike only in of the state, and that which the self defence, and to recover the oriental provinces has deliberately occupied posts ; its aim being simrepeated, by the legitimate organ ply to maintain the integrity of the of its representatives in the law of territory of the United Provinces, the 25th of August of the present and solemnly guaranty for the fuyear, the congress, in the name of ture, inviolability of their limits the communities which it repre- against force or seduction. sents, declares the said province Under such circumstances, and to be re-incorporated in fact with after having made known to your the republic of the United Pro- excellency the intentions and wishvinces of Rio de la Plata, to which es of the government of the Uniit has of right belonged, and de- ted Provinces of Rio de la Plata, sires to belong."

it remains for the undersigned to By this solemn declaration, the add that the establishment of a general government is pledged to peace, exceedingly precious for provide for the defence and secu- the contiguous states, and even rity of the eastern province. It for the whole continent, will dewill fulfil this pledge by all the pend solely on the will of his immeans in its power, and by the perial majesty. same will expedite the evacuation The undersigned salutes your of the only two military posts which excellency. are still held by the troops of his

MANUEL J. GARCIA. imperial majesty.

To the Minister of Foreign The undersigned is at the same Affairs of the Empire of time authorised to declare, that, in Brazil.

BRAZIL. "Phe - Diario de Rio de Janeiro,of Dec. 27, contains the following de

cree or Declaration of War, by the Emperor. The government of the United Lord! that thou consentest that Provinces of Rio de la Plata, ha- the rebels should triumph over an ving committed acts of hostility empire of the holy cross ? No, against this empire without provo- thou art not unjust. cation or previous formal declara- Fear nothing, then, fellow-comtion of war, rejecting thus the forms panions, assisted by the hand of established among civilized nations, our Lord-nor lose a moment of as required by the dignity of the time, to take up your arms against Brazilian people, and the rank which the enemy of the empire! belongs to us ainong powers, that Or are we, perhaps, not the I, having heard my council of state, same Brazilians who declared the should declare, as I now do, WAR independence? Separating, could against the said provinces and their we be the same who fought once government ; directing that by sea against the Portuguese, and drove and land, all possible hostilities be from our territory 14,000 of their waged upon them ; authorising troops? We are the same, and, if such armaments as my subjects possible, still more valiant and more may please to use against that na- enterprising ! tion; declaring that all captures Let us prove, then, fellow-comor prizes of whatever nature, shall panions, that we have not left off accrue entirely to the captors, with- to be Brazilians, when appearing out any deduction in favor of the in the battle, and that the 19 impublic treasury. Follows the re- perial stars shall always exist unigulation for the publication and dis- ted. tribution of the decree. .

The province of Rio Grande Rio de Janeiro, 10th December, wants help which animates its in1825 ; fourth year of the indepen- habitants, which assists them and dence and the empire.

which shows them, that in their

sovereign they have a wise, carePROCLAMATION,

ful, and loving father, who looks Of his majesty, Don PEDRO 1st, out to protect them against the

emperor of the Brazils, given at horrors, which, as he thinks, hang Rio JANEIRO, at the review on over them like a showery cloud. the 16th of November, 1825. What greater glory can there be

Fellow companions.-What a for a soldier than to show himself field of glory is now opened! useful to his country, and to risk Where would be the soldier who his life for it! Will not the redares not hasten to it? What venger of the national honor still Brazilian, of even in the most dis- be blest by the following generatant province, would not wish to tion ? support his promises, the existence Do not think, fellow-compaof the monarchy, and the integrity nions, that I speak to you to enof this colossal empire, which once thusiast you-no, enthusiasm is frightened the whole known world. born with a Brazilian soldier, and

Can it be possible, O! eternal that is his staff! No, I speak to you to make known the necessity Let us go then, fellow-compawhich obliges me, if even with all nions, the national bonor, which is the feelings of my imperial heart, offended, calls and the world will to separate some of you from your say-long live the Brazilian troops. families, and from me who loves (Signed) EMPEROR. you so much!

TREATY made between his imperial majesty and his most faithful ma

jesty, on the recognition of the empire of Brazil, August 29, 1825, and ratified by his imperial majesty the day after.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST HOLY AND INDIVISIBLE TRINITY. His most faithful majesty, con- nated by his imperial majesty.) stantly cherishing in his royal mind His most faithful majesty has the most lively wishes to re-esta- nominated the most illustrious and blish peace, friendship and harmo- excellent knight, sir Charles Stuny between kindred nations, whom art, privy councillor of his Britannic the most sacred ties should concili- majesty, &c. ate and unite in perpetual alliance; And the said plenipotentiaries to accomplish those important ends, having seen and exchanged their promote general prosperity, assure respective powers, have agreed, in political existence, and the future conformity with the principles exdestinies of Portugal as well as pressed in this preamble, that the Brazil; and desirous of removing present treaty be formed. at once, all obstacles which might Article ist. His most faithful impede the said alliance, concord, majesty recognizes Brazil as an and happiness of both states, by independent empire, and separated his decree, (diploma,) of the 13th from the kingdoms of Portugal and May of the current year, recog. Algarves, and his pre-eminently nizes Brazil as an independent beloved and valued son as empeempire, and separated from the ror, ceding, and of his free will kingdoms of Portugal and Al- transferring, the sovereignty of thc garves, and his pre-eminently be said empire to his said son and his loved and valued son Don Pedro, legitimate successors, his faithful as emperor, and freely ceding and majesty taking only, and reserving transferring the sovereignty of the for his own person, the same title. said empire to his said son, and his Art. 2d. His imperial majesty, legitimate successors, and taking as an acknowledgement of respect only and reserving for his own per- and love for his august father and son the same title.

lord, Don John VI., consents that And these august sovereigns ac- his most faithful majesty shall take cepting the mediation of his Bri- for himself the title of emperor. tannic majesty for the adjustment Art. 3d. His imperial majesty of every question incident to the promises not to admit propositions separation of the two states, have from any Portuguese colonies to nominated plenipotentiaries ; to unite themselves to the empire of wit: (Here follow the names and Brazil. titles of the plenipotentiaries nomi. Art. 4th. Henceforth, there shall

be peace and alliance, and the most derstood that the claims shall be perfect friendship between the em- preferred within the term of a year pire of Brazil and the kingdoms of from the formation of the commisPortugal and Algarves, with a com- sion, and that in case of an equal plete oblivion of past feuds between division in opinion, the point shall the respective powers.

be decided by the representative of Art. 5th. The subjects of the two the mediating sovereign. Both go. nations, Brazillian and Portuguese, vernments will designate the funds shall be considered and treated in from which the first claims liquithe respective states, as those of dated are to be paid. the most favored and friendly na- Art. 9th. All the public demands tion, and their rights and property or reclamations of government on shall be religiously observed and government, shall be mutually reprotected, it remaining understood ceived and decided, either with that the actual possessors of real restitution of the objects claimed, estates shall be maintained in the or with indemity of the precise peaceful possession of the same. amount. For the adjustment of

Art. 6th. All real or moveable such claims, both the high conproperty, or property in funds, se tracting parties agree to conclude questered or confiscated, belong. a direct and special convention. ing to the subjects of the two Art. 10th. The relations of comsovereigns of Brazil and Portugal, merce shall be immediately re-estashall be forthwith restored, as well blished between the two nations, as their past revenues, the expenses the Brazilians and Portuguese; all of administration be deducted, or merchandise paving reciprocally their owners reciprocally indemni- fifteen per cent. in duties of confied in the manner specified in the sumption provisionally ; the duties 8th article.

on exportation and re-exportation Art. 7th. All vessels and cargoes remaining as before the separation. seized, belonging to the subjects of Art. 11. Ratifications of the prethe two sovereigns, shall be in like sent treaty shall be exchanged in sort restored, or their owners in the city of Lisbon within the space demnified.

of five months, or sooner, if posArt. 8th. A commission, nomi- sible, computed from the day of nated by the two governments, signing the present treaty. composed of Brazilians and Portu. In testimony of which, we, the guese in equal numbers, and esta undersigned plenipotentiaries, &c. blished where the respective go- CHARLES STUART. vernments shall deem most conve Luiz Joze DE CARVALHOE MELLO, nient, shall be charged with inve- Baram DE SANTO AMARO. stigating the matters of the sixth FRANCISCO VILELLA BARBOSA. and seventh articles; it being iin

SPEECH of his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, delivered in the Senate

Chamber, on the 6th of May, 1826, at the opening of the National Assembly.

August and most dignified Rep- owe much to Brazil, and who are resentatives of the Brazilian na- now aided by the government of tion-For the second time I have Buenos Ayres, which is actually the pleasure of presenting myself struggling against us. before you, at the opening of the The national honor demands national assembly. I infinitely re- that the Cisplatina province should gret that it has not been opened on be sustained, for the integrity of the day marked out by the consti- the empire is sworn to. tution, after the government had On the 15th November of last contributed on its part as far as it year, the independence of Brazil could to avoid a postponement of was recognized by my august fathe law.

ther, Don John the sixth, of gloOn the 12th November, 1823, I rious memory, which was followed dissolved the constituent assem- by that of Austria, England, Swe. bly, painful as it was, and from den, and France, the same having motives which are not unknown to been done long before by the Uni. you. I, at the same time, pro- ted States of America. mised the project of a constitu- On the 24th April, of the pretion ; this was accepted, and sent year, the anniversary of the sworn to, and this day it is the po- embarkation of my father, Don litical constitution which reigns in John sixth, for Portugal, I received this empire, and in virtue of which the unfortunate and unexpected this assembly is re-united.

intelligence of his death. The harmony which it is desired The most poignant pain has posshould exist among political de- sessed my heart. Finding myself, partments, prevails in this consti- when least expected, the legitimate tution in the best possible manner. king of Portugal, Algarves, and The whole empire is tranquil, ex- their dominions, the course which cept the province of Cisplatina. I ought to pursue is presented to The continuation of this quiet, me suddenly. Grief and the sense the necessity of the constitutional of duty alternately occupying my system, and the desire which I soul ; but putting all other consi. have that the empire be governed derations aside, I look to the inteby it, point at the harmony that rests of Brazil. Attending to my should guide the senate and the word, I shall sustain my honor ; I chamber of deputies, and also the am free to congratulate Portugal; government and both chambers; and it would be indecorous of me and that all may be persuaded that not to do so. What would not be revolutions are not the fruit of this the affliction tormenting my soul system, but of those persons who, when seeking the congratulations under its shade, seek to put in prac- of the Portuguese nation, without tice their own private ends. offending the Brazilian, and of se

The Cisplatina province, as I parating them, (although already have already said, is the only one ' separated,) that they should never not in a state of quiet, for there again be united! have revolted ungrateful men, who I have confirmed the regency in

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