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al manner, all persons inhabiting thousand eight hundred and twents. the territories of Colombia, from five. taking any part in such traffic:

PEDRO GAUL, Art. 14. And inasmuch as it is PEDRO BRICENO MÉNDEZ, convenient and necessary to facili John Potter HAMILTON, tate to the utmost, a mutual good

PATRICK CAMPBELL. understanding between the two Additional Article. Insomuch as, contracting parties, and to remove in the present state of the Colombeforehand every kind of difficulty, bian marine, it would not be possible and that other articles may be pro- for any Colombian to take the bene. posed and added to the present fit of the reciprocity established in treaty, which, for the want of time, the fifth, sixth, and seventh articles and the pressure of circumstances, of the treaty signed this day, if that cannot now be drawn up with the part which stipulates that, in order proper precision, it has been agreed to be considered as a Colombian and is hereby agreed, on the part of vessel, the vessel must have been both powers, that they shall mu- really built in Colombia, it has been tually endeavor, with the least pos- agreed, that for the space of seven sible delay, to treat and agree upon years, reckoned from the date of the articles that may be found want the ratification of this treaty, all ing in this treaty, and which may vessels, wherever they may hare be judged mutually advantageous; been built, that are bona fide the and such articles, when they are property of one or more of the citi. agreed upon and duly ratified, shall zen of Colombia, and whose cap. form part of the present treaty of tain and three-fourth parts of the friendship, commerce, and naviga. mariners, at the least, are Colom

bian citizens, except in those cases Art. 15th. The present treaty of especially provided for by law, shall friendship, commerce, and naviga. be considered as Colombian vessels. tion, shall be ratified by the presi- His majesty, the king of the United dent or vice-president, entrusted Kingdom of Great Britain and Irewith the executive power of the land, reserving to himself the right, republic of Colombia, with the con- at the end of the said term of seven sent and approbation of the congress years, to enforce the principle of of the same, and by his majesty the 'inutual restriction stipulated in the king ofthe United Kingdom of Great seventh article above referred to, if Britain and Ireland, and the ratifi- the interests of the British shipping cations shall be exchanged in Lon- should be injured by the present don within six months from the pre- exception of that reciprocity in sent day, or sooner if possible. favor of Colombian vessels.

In testimony of which, the re- The present additional article spective plenipotentiaries have mu- shall have the same force and valitually signed and sealed these pre- dity as if it had been inserted, word sents.

for word, in the treaty signed this Given in the city of Bogota, the day: it shall be ratified, and the eighteenth day of the month of ratifications exchanged at the same April, in the year of our Lord one time.


In faith of which, the respective plenipotentiaries have severally signed and put their seals to it.

Given in the city of Bogota, the eighteenth day of the month of April, in the year of our Lord one

thousand eight hundred and twentya

Pedro GUAL,

The following extracts are made from an answer made by MR. CANNING,

to the remonstrances of the Spanish Ambassador in London, against the new relations which the British government had formed with the new American governments.

6. The separation of the Spanish an obligation to fulfil their establish. colonies from the mother country ed international duties, and to inhas neither been our work, nor the demnify any violation of the rights object of our desires ; it has been of others committed by their citi. caused by events in which the En- zens or subjects. Now, since the glish government took no part, but mother country must continue to which, we think, might have been be responsible for acts over which prevented, if our advice had been it cannot exercise the shadow of listened to in time.

authority, the inhabitants of those “ But this separation has pro- countries whose political independuced a state of things to which dence has been established, but the British government must adapt whose title has not been recogniits measures and its language not zed, must be placed in a situation precipitately, but with mature re- in which they are responsible for flection and circumspection

their actions, or must be punished 66 The continuing to call by the like pirates placed beyond the pale name of a Spanish possession, a of law, for those deeds which sup. territory in which Spanish power ply a ground of complaint to other and occupation have been extin- nations. In the first part of this guished, can be of no practical alternative, the total irresponsibility utility to the mother country, and of the states not recognized is too may endanger the peace of the absurd to be maintained ; and in

the last, the treatment of their in" It cannot be denied that even habitants as pirates is too monin 1813, Great Britain would have strous to be applied to a great pormade peace with Bonaparte, if he tion of the habitable globe. had not been so immoderate in his “M. Zea says, that the king of pretensions; Spain cannot be ig- Spain will never recognize the new norant, that even since the fall of states of Spanish America, and that Bonaparte it was a question among his majesty will not cease to emthe allies, whether it would be pro- ploy force of arms against his rebel per to place on the throne of France subjects in that part of the world. à sovereign who was not a Bour. “We have neither the pretension bon."

nor the desire to control the con6 All political communities are duct of his catholic majesty-but responsible to each other for their this declaration of M. Zea is a conduct that is, they are all under complete justification of our con

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duct, as it proves that we have lic majesty, which dictated the seized the proper moment to put measures of the English governour relations with the new states ment—that his Britannic majesty upon a firm footing. A further will not cease to entertain the most delay on our part could not have anxious wishes for the prosperity satisfied Spain, or produced any of Spain, and that his majesty is benefit, seeing that Spain has de- still disposed to renew, and has cidedly pronounced herself against commanded the undersigned to reall arrangement, under any circum- new, to the government of his castances, or at any time ; and that tholic majesty, the ofler of the good she is resolved upon interminable offices of his majesty to bring to war with her ancient colonies. an issue any amicable arrangement

“ The undersigned is also char- which may be practicable between ged to declare to the ministers of his catholic majesty and the counSpain, that it was not a sentiment tries of America which have separaof ill-will, nor even of indifference ted from Spain." towards the interests of his catho


The following is the King's Speech, delivered on opening the Chambers,

January 31. Gentlemen-It is with genuine I have concluded with his Bri. satisfaction that I find myself again tannic majesty, a convention which among you. Watchful of the pub- will render less burdensome the lic sentiment, and of the course of conditions now attached to the rethings, I have concluded that no ciprocal navigation of the two serious considerations required that kingdoms and their colonies. I the period at which your meeting anticipate from the arrangement, was to take place, should be has- advantageous results for our mari. tened. My foresight has been jus. time commerce. tified, and I am happy in not having I have resolved at last, to settle abridged the repose on which you (fixer) the fate of St. Domingo. had a right to calculate.

The time had arrived for closing Death has just stricken in the so dangerous a sore, and to put an midst of his career, one of our end to a state of things which commost magnanimous allies—this promitted so many interests. The loss has profoundly afflicted my final separation of that colony, lost heart. I receive from his suc- to us for thirty years, will not discessor, and from all other powers, turb the security of those we rethe most positive assurances of the tain. continuation of their friendly dis- A law for the apportionment positions ; and I have the convic- of the indemnity which I have tion that nothing will alter the good stipulated for the ancient inhabi. understanding existing between my tants, becomes necessary. It will allies and myself, for the repose of be proposed to you. the nations.

I shall cause to be submitted to you immediately, the accounts for Measures will be proposed to 1824-a sketch of the receipts and you, gentlemen, to re-establish the expenses for 1825, and the budget uniformity which ought to exist in of 1826.

the political and in the civil law, The development of our com- and to preserve the patrimony of merce, and of our industry, which families, without restricting, howfrom day to day is adding to the ever, the liberty of disposing of product of the taxes on consump- one's goods. tion and operations, will permit The preservation of families an amelioration of the condition brings about and secures political of the ministers of our holy reli- stability, which is the first want of gion, to increase the funds for other states, and which particularly is services, and in addition to the de- that of France, after so many vie crease which has already been made cissitudes. this year in the direct taxes, will You will second me, gentlemen, allow a further diminution of nine- in the accomplishment of the plans teen millions. (About $3,800,- I have meditated, and in assuring 000.)

more and more the happiness of You will rejoice with me, gen. the people whom Divine Provitlernen, to find thus, in the progress dence has committed to my care. of our internal prosperity, the You will not be more disturbed Ineans of reducing those charges than myself by that thoughtless restwhich weigh most heavily on the lessness which still agitates some tax payers.

bosoms in spite of the security we Legislation should provide for enjoy. This security shall not be the successive improvements of all impaired, gentlemen ; rely upon the wants of society. The pro- my watching, with equal solici. gressive cutting up (morcellement tude, over all the interests of the of landed estates, essentially con- state, and that I shall know how to trary to the spirit of a monarchical conciliate the exercise of all legal li. government, would enfeeble the berty, with the maintenance of orguarantees which the charter gives der, and the suppression of licen. to my throne and to my subjects. tiousness.



Petersburg, Dec. 26. perial majesty. In reference to Whereas his imperial highness, this important event, the following the grand duke Constantine, has imperial manifesto has appeared: declared that he will resolutely ad- Manifesto.-By the grace of God, here to his former abdication of the Nicholaus I., emperor and autocrat imperial crown, the grand duke Ni- of all the Russias. In the grief of cholaus has, to-day, ascended the our heart, amidst the general pain throne of the Russian empire, and which oppresses us, our imperial all the proper authorities, and the house, and our beloved country, we different divisions of the army, have can only bend before the impenetaken the oath of fidelity to his im- trable decrees of the Almighty, and

we can only seek for strength and of the deed of abdication of the consolation with him. It has plea- Cezarowitsch grand duke Constansed him to call before him the em- tine, establishes, that we, the next peror Alexander I., of glorious in age, are heir to the crown, acmemory, and we have lost a father, cording to the fundamental laws of a ruler, who, during twenty-five the empire. years, was the happiness of Russia We were further informed, that and of us.

documents of the same tenor had When, on the 27th Nov. the in- been deposited with the directing formation of this disastrous event senate, with the holy synod, and in reached us, we hastened, even this the cathedral church of the Ascenmoment of the most acute grief, to sion at Moscow. These informafulfil a sacred duty, and, listening tions could not alter our resolution only to the dictates of our hearts, once taken. We observed in these we rendered the oath of fidelity to documents only a renunciation of our elder brother, the Cezrowitsch his imperial highness during the life grand duke Constantine, as legiti- of the emperor and confirmed by mate heir to the Russian throne in the consent of his imperial majesty : virtue of primogeniture. Scarcely but we had neither the wish nor the had we discharged this sacred duty, right to consider this abdication, when we were apprised by the which, when it took place, was not senate, that there had been deposit proclaimed publicly, and had not ed in their hands, on the 15th Oc- received the power of a law as irretober, 1823, a letter, with the seal vocable. We would manifest by of the deceased emperor, and with this our veneration of the first fundathe superscription in the own hand mental law of our country, and of writing of his imperial majesty : the unalterable order of succession, “ To be preserved by the senate and faithful to the oath we had tauntil my further commands ; in ken, we insisted that the whole case of my death, however, this empire should follow our example. packet is to be opened in an extra. Under these momentous circumordinary sitting, before any other act stances, it was not our intention to is proceeded in :" that this most dispute the validity of the resolugracious command had been com- tion pronounced by his imperial plied with, and the following do- highness, much less was it our incuments were contained in the tention to bring ourselves in oppopacket :

sition to the will of the deceased 1. A letter of the Cezarowitsch emperor, our common father and grand duke Constantine, dated 14th benefactor, which will always reJanuary, 1822, addressed to his main sacred to us. We endeavored majesty, the deceased emperor, by solely to protect the law, regulating virtue of which his imperial high- the succession to the throne, from ness renounces the succession to every infringement, to show the the throne, belonging to him by purity of our sentiments, and not to primogeniture.

leave our beloved country one sin2. A manifesto, dated August 16, gle moment in uncertainty respect1823, bearing the autograph signa- ing its legitimate sovereign. ture of his imperial majesty, where. This resolution, taken with a by his majesty, after the ratification pure conscience, and before God

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