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tuated were the French, that they know what the general was doing actually suffered him to levy new there, and why he had left his new armies, and lead them into Ger- station, and dared to disobey his many, in 1813. By this time, how sovereign's orders? The general, ever, the scene had wholly chan- who is a man of talents, of general ged. On March 13, Alexander information, and of unconquerable and the king of Prussia, proclaimed and sometimes ferocious spirit, with the dissolution of the confederacy energy replied to the aid-de-camp, of the Rhine, and declared their "Go back and tell his imperial maintention of assisting the Austrians. jesty, that the present time is highAfter having been worsted at the ly important, and that I feel anxious battles of Lutzen and Bautzen, for the fate of Russia ; tell him that they agreed to an armistice ; du- henceforth I serve not Alexander, ring which the Russians were join- but my country ; and that I am ed by general Moreau, who, how- here, where I ought to be, at the ever, soon fell by a random shot head of my troops, ready to sacribefore Dresden. After various suc- fice my life in her cause." Such cess the great battle of Leipsic was an uncontemplated and heroic anfought October 16th, 17th, and swer, instead of rousing the furi18th, which completed the deliver- ous, passions of the mind, as might ance of Germany. A short time have been expected, were despotism before this battle, a general, who really absolute, had a very opposite commanded a corps of artillery effect. The emperor seemed palstationed at the imperial head-quar- sied, replied not a word, and was ters, had incurred, on some trifling glad to hush the affair to sleep, lest occasion, the serious displeasure of the general's example should be too the emperor. His majesty very generally known, and become a unceremoniously sent one of his precedent for the future for the ofaids-de-camp, with an order, that ficers of the autocrat army. Bethis officer should give up his com- fore the battle of Mont Martre, the mand, repair, within twenty-four general, who continued in his formhours, to a village the distance of er command, had a station assigntwenty or thirty miles, and take ed him in the midst of danger, on charge of a regiment stationed purpose, it was supposed by some, there. Surprise, indignation, and that his head might be carried away fury, were successively evinced by by a cannon ball, and thus rid the the general, but still he obeyed the emperor of a liberal minded and mandate. He left head-quarters refractory officer. This gentleman, without a moment's loss of time who fears no danger, rejoiced on arrived at his new designation the occasion, fought and conquered. examined it-reviewed the regi. It redounds to the credit of Alexment-and immediately drove back ander, that he called for the geneto his former station. At a review ral on the field of battle, and beof some troops the following morn- stowed upon him the cordon of St. ing, the emperor soon perceived George. Since that period, he has him at the head of his corps. As- been employed on an important tonishment and rage were depicted mission, and at this moment holds in the monarch's physiognomy, and one of the highest and most rehe dispatched an aid-de-camp to sponsible offices of the state.
In the beginning of 1814, the be regarded as one who had, as far allied monarchs crossed the Rhine. as possible, overcome by natural On the 30th March, the allied army goodness of temper, those evil habesieged Paris, and forced it to ca- bits which circumstances seemed to pitulate ; and on the 31st, the em form for him ; and whatever blame peror Alexander and the king of may be attached to his caprice, his Prussia entered it, amid the cries of artfulness, his inflexibility, his vaniVive le Roi! Vivent les Bourbon ! ty, or his gallantry, he nevertheless and Bonaparte soon signed his first had great merit ; and, indeed, his abdication. On the landing of very faults may be said to have been Louis XVIII., Alexander hastened well suited to the part he was desto meet him, and conducted him to tined to sustain, and to the nation Paris, which he entered May 4. A whom he governed. An enemy to treaty of peace was signed at Paris, the costly vanities of some of his May 30, 1814, and Alexander left predecessors, he regulated the exFrance June 1, for London, where penses of his palaces with econo
he was magnificently entertained my, and applied his treasures to the · by the prince regent at Guildhall. foundation of useful establishments,
He returned to St. Petersburg July the promotion of useful public 25. On September 25, he entered works, the equipment of his arseVienna, where he remained until nals, and the augmentation of his the end of October. The ratifica- army. Temperate, active, and intion of the acts of the congress had defatigable, he transacted the busibeen signed February 9, 1815. ness of government through direct When the escape of Bonaparte from correspondence or personal superElba changed the apparent security intendance ; and, familiar with the of Europe into confusion ; great statistics, topography, and interests preparations had been made by the of the various people inhabiting his Russians, when the news of the extensive empire, he cherished the battle of Waterloo put a stop to general prosperity by a polity adapttheir motions. Alexander himself ed to the wants of each and all. set out for Paris, where he arrived The solicitude which he manifested three days after the entry of Louis for the good of his country, and his XVIII. From thence he proceed- humanity, deserve the highest en- . ed to Brussels to view the field of comiums. Waterloo ; and after a short stay, During the campaign, it cannot returned to St. Petersburg, which be questioned that Alexander was he entered amid universal acclama- an example to his whole army. His tions.
exemplary endurance of privations, The personal character of the cold, hunger, and fatigue, served to late emperor was chiefly distinguish- animate his troops. His activity ed by great affability and conde- and solicitude were equally the scension, which was carried to such theme of praise, while his affability a degree, as would have been whol- and conciliatory manners gained ly incompatible with his situation, him all hearts. if the government were of any other The simplicity of manners and form than that of an absolute mo- mode of life of Alexander were venarchy. Considering the disad- ry exemplary and praiseworthy. He vantages of his early life, he must slept upon a hard mattress, whether
in the palace or in the camp ; he rally spent the fine season of the rose early, lived very moderately, was year. scarcely ever even merry with wine, The empress had often in vain employed much time in public af- remonstrated with the emperor refairs, and was indefatigable in his specting his connection with Ma. labors. His chief amusement, if dame N- , and she had fresuch it may be called, seemed to quently threatened to abandon her have been the organization and dis- throne, and to retire to her relacipline of the army.
tions in Germany. But the dowaHaving said thus much of the ger empress, who really loved and early life and of some public acts of pitied her imperial daughter-in-law, Alexander's reign, we shall now partly by caresses and entreaties, notice his love affairs.
partly by prudential measures and The unfortunate attachment of persuasion, and partly by her disapthe Czar to Madame N--, soon proval of Alexander's conduct, and after his marriage, gave rise to the her severe remonstrances to her most serious differences between imperial son, succeeded in delaying this monarch and his interesting her design. Yet, however sincere consort. Madame N-bore the might be his vows of amendment at autocrat several children'; one of the moment, the autocrat of all the thern, a female, lately died, when Russias, like other mortals, found about to be married. Being the that the chains of love are not easi. emperor's very picture, she natural- ly ruptured, and after a short ably attracted the notice of the people sence and repentance, he returned as she traversed the streets, or the to sin again. Such was the empepromenades of Petersburg. Her ror's conduct for many years todeath overwhelmed the emperor wards Madame N- ; and, as with grief.
mentioned, the fruit of the interMadame N- was spouse of course was a young family. , Le Grand Vencur, who either wink. The emperor also showed a deed at his lady's infidelity, or was cided predilection to some other obliged to wink at it ; for in the females, and among the rest to the
north, notwithstanding all the ad- wives of two merchants. • vance towards refinement, despo- From the open manifestation of
tism, in some instances, maintains his passion for a few females, and its ground, and acts as it wills, con- from his amorous constitution, it trary to law, justice, humanity, and was inferred that Alexander had religion.
many secret intrigues besides with The lady just alluded to had a the beauties of the court, the theahandsome establishment allowed tres, and of the metropolis ; and her by his imperial majesty, and be there is strong reason to presume sides an excellent town-house that the inference was just. near the residence, she had also a In consequence of such conduct, country-house in one of the islands it was very reasonable for the emformed by the branches of the Ne- press to be highly discontented. In va, and not far distant from the em- the year 1814-15 she was in Gerperor's summer palace. There she many ; and it was reported that she and her illegitimate offspring gene- had refused to return to Russia unless the emperor would bind him. nephews, of the same name as himself under a solemn oath, that he self, the one his aid-de-camp, and would banish Madame N from the other an advocate, did not quit the Russian empire : and even af- his bed for a moment. “I feel," ter a deed to that effect was ob- said he, in a dying tone, “ a disortained, it required the persuasions ganizing power that labors to deand the cunning of the dowager stroy me. I fight with the giant, empress to get her imperial majesty but cannot conquer him." He in motion for the northern metro scarcely slept at all, and even sleep polis.
fatigued him. He did not deceive Madame was accordingly himself upon his approaching end, necessiated to leave Russia with but looked death in the face as he her children. She went to France, did the enemy in the field. The and at present she resides at Paris. nearer the fatal moment approachSince that event, it is stated that the ed, the more did his kindness mani. emperor Alexander had shown his fest itself to those around him. regret at the frolics of his youth by Wishing again to breathe the pure repentence, and the kindest con- air, and see once more the light of duet to his imperial consort, with the sun, his nephews carried him in whom he passed much time in his a chair to the window, which was evenings.
open; but feeling himself sinking, The next heir to the throne of he said to them— My good friends, Russia in order of primogeniture, put me upon the bed. God will was the grand duke Constantine do the rest." These were his last Cesarovitch, who was born May 8, words. Two minutes after his bo1779, and married Feb. 26, 1796, dy rendered up to the Author of all Julia, princess of Saxe Cobourg, things the great soul that it had resister to his royal highness the ceived from him. prince of Saxe Cobourg. This On opening the body after death, marriage was dissolved by an impe- the heart was found twice as volurial Ukase, dated April 2, 1820, minous as in the natural state, soft, and the grand duke married, se- and gorged with coagulated blood, condly, May 24, 1820, Jane, born which it had no longer strength to countess of Grudzinska, and crea- put into circulation. Mirabeau, it ted princess of Lowicz.
will be recollected, according to Constantine, however, after be the report of Cabanis, likewise ing proclaimed, resigned, his right sunk under a disease of the heart, to the throne in favor of the grand augmented by the fatigue of the duke Nicholas, who has according- tribune, and the cares and anxie ly been proclaimed.
ties inseparable from business.
This officer was educated for the GENERAL Foy.
bar, but on the breaking out of the
November 28. revolution, he entered the artillery, Of an aneurism of the heart, at in which he was rapidly promoted. his residence in the Rue de la From the first campaigns of the Chaussée d'Antin, Paris, aged 50, revolution, to the battle of Watergeneral Maximilian Sebastian Foy. loo, he was in incessant action, and For eight days the disorder had frequently distinguished himself. made rapid progress. Two of his He was wounded in Moreau's re
treat, at the battle of Orthes, and His funeral was celebrated Deat Waterloo. His activity in Spain cember 6, at Notre Dame de Lowas well known to many officers retto. An immense crowd, comof the English army. Though his puted at 100,000 persons, flocked fate was bound up with the military to the cemetry. A considerable profession, he refused, previously to number of deputies, generals, and the expedition to Egypt, the ap- officers of all ranks, thronged the pointment of aid-de-camp to Bo- apartments. At a quarter past one naparte, whose views he seems to the body was brought down into have suspected ; and he also op- the yard of the hotel. Eight young posed Napoleon's. elevation to the persons presented themselves to supreme power. It is related of carry it on their shoulders into the the general, that, after one of church. After divine service, the Bonaparte's victories, he was at same persons again carrried the a dinner of the officers; when, corpse. Shortly after, the crowd upon the health of the emperor” made way to allow the children of having been given, he alone de- the general, conducted by his doclined drinking it. In vain was he mestics, to pass through them. pressed on the point. "I am not The procession moved in the folthirsty,” said he. By Bonaparte's lowing order :-A detachment of abdication he lost a marshal's ba troops of the line in two platoons ; ton; but his military promotion, a platoon of chasseurs of the nawhich then ceased, was compen- tional guard ; the mourning coach, sated by popular honors and dis- drawn by two horses, in which was tinctions, which he could not have an officer ; afterwards followed attained or enjoyed under the impe nearly six thousand persons; a plarial government. Since his first toon of troops of the line at the admission to the chamber of depu- head of the equipages. All the ties in 1819, he had been one of its pupils of the school of law and most prominent orators; and in the medicine, without exception, joinlast session he was, without ex- ed the procession. The Duke de ception, the most powerful oppo- Choiseul, notwithstanding his great nent of the ministry. Being one age, went to the grave, and would of the few members gifted with the have delivered an address, but was talent of extemporaneous speaking, overpowered by his feelings, and he was enabled to make or to repel compelled to abandon his intenattacks with promptitude and effect. tion. M. Royer Collard, although The general has left a widow and on the preceding day he had witfive young children ; but so strong. nessed the interment of his distinly has the public feeling been ex- guished brother, attended the funecited in their favor, that a subscrip- ral, but in the road to Pere Lation, amounting to more than 20,- chaise he became indisposed, and 0001. has been raised for their sup was conveyed to a house on the port. Portraits of the general have Boulevard. Among the followers been engraved, medals have been were the viscount Chateaubriand, struck in his honor, and a public M. Lafitte, M. Gohier, formerly monument is to be erected to his president of the directory, Horace memory
Vernet, Marshals Oudinot and