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ber 12, 1798, proclaimed in 1822 succession of events. We cannot constitutional emperor of Brazil; resist the feeling, that the good pro5. Maria-Francescina, born April vidence, whose interpositions, at 22, 1800, married September 29, the great eras of our history, have 1816, to her cousin Don Carlos ever been devoutly acknowledged, Isidor, the present Infant of Spain; was pleased, at the close of the ju6. Isabella-Maria, born July 4, bilee of our national existence, in 1801; 7. Michael, born October the simultaneous departure of the 26, 1802 ; 3. A princess, born two great men, who exercised the February 23, 1803; 9. Maria- leading agency in asserting it, to Anne, born July 25, 1805.
stamp the day, with a perpetual From 1792 his majesty governed seal of sacredness. in the character of regent, in the This extraordinary event, and name of the queen his mother, who the lives and characters of the two was affected with mental aliena- great and venerated statesmen, tion. He succeeded her, March connected with it, have justly been 20, 1816, and was crowned at Rio the theme of celebration, in every Janeiro, to which place he had re- part of our country. Its talent and tired on the invasion of Portugal by its feelings have been lavishly callBonaparte, who, in the hope of ed forth, to do justice to the exalted seizing his person, lost no time in and affecting subject. Our humproclaiming that the house of Bra. ble duty, as chroniclers of the time, ganza had ceased to reign.
calls upon us, also, for an appro
priate notice of two such eminent Joun ADAMS.
personages, removed under such
extraordinary circumstances, at the At Quincy, in the 91st year of close of the past year. his age, John Adams, late presi- The elder of them, John Adams, dent of the United States of Ame- was born in the state of Massachurica.
setts, in that part of the town of Among the remarkable events of Braintree, which has since been the year, of which we have under- erected into the separate township taken to relate the history, the of Quincy, October 19th, (30th,) death of John Adams and Thomas 1736. He was of one of the old. Jefferson, on the fourth of July, is est families of America, (if any the most important. Indeed, the family can be called old, in a young whole range of history may be ap- country,)--a family of farmers, mepealed to, in vain, to produce an chanics, and yeomen. His ancesevent of equal singularity and in- tor, Henry Adams, emigrated from terest. The death of either of Devonshire, in England, in 1632, them, on the fourth of July, would with eight sons, all of whom were have attracted the public notice, as married. From one of these sons, a very affecting coincidence: the John Adams was lineally descenddeparture of both, on the same day, ed. Samuel Adams, the proand that the fiftieth anniversary of scribed patriot, was descended from independence, comes over the another of the sons, and was, conmind, with a sensible impression sequently, a remote kinsman of the of something beyond the ordinary deceased president.
The father of John Adams, an inexperienced youth, fresh from agreeably to a custom not yet ex- college, he wrote a letter to a tinct in New England, but almost friend, which shows a comprehenuniversal a century ago, united sion of views, and a forecast, which the pursuit of a farmer with that would have been deemed extraorof one of the mechanic trades. dinary from any one, and which When his son John had attained are truly wonderful in a young man, the proper time of life, his father not yet quite twenty years of age. proposed to him, either to follow We cannot do justice to the subhis own trade, and receive, when ject, without making an extract he should be of age, an esta from this letter. blishment on a portion of the “Soon after the reformation, a family farm ; or in lieu of the few people came over to this new latter, to receive a college educa- world, for conscience sake. Pertion, and trust to his own resources haps this apparently trivial incident for a support in life. His son may transfer the great seat of emchose the latter part of the alter- pire to America. It looks likely to native, and after the usual prepara- me; for if we can remove the turtory studies, under the care of Mr. bulent Gallicks, [the French in Marsh, of Braintree, he entered Canada] our people, according to Harvard college, as a student, in the exactest computation, will, in the year 1751. At the time of his another century, become more nudecease, he was the second oldest merous than England itself. Should graduate of that institution.* The this be the case, since we have, I students at college, at this period, may say, all the naval stores of the were arranged in their several nation in our hands, it will be easy classes, not alphabetically, but ac- to obtain a mastery of the seas; cording to the supposed rank or and then the united force of all dignity of their parents. John Europe will not be able to subdue Adams' name stands in the middle us. The only way to keep us from of his class.
setting up for ourselves is to disuAfter leaving college, John Ad- nite us. ams repaired to Worcester, where “ Be not surprised that I am he found employment in that occu- turned politician. The whole town pation, which has been pursued in is immersed in politics. The inthe interval between college and terests of nations, and all the dira professional life, by a large ma- of war, make the subject of every jority of the educated men in conversation. I sit and hear, and New England. He taught the after having been led through a grammar school of the town of maze of sage observations, I someWorcester, pursuing, at the same times retire, and laying things totime, the study of the law, under the gether, form some reflections, direction of colonel James Putnam, pleasing to myself. The produce a lawyer of eminence in that place of one of these reveries you have
On his first arrival at Worcester, read above."|
* He is preceded on the college catalogue, by the venerable Dr. Holyoke, of Salem, now 99 years old, who took his degree in 1745.
+ This letter is dated October 12, 1755.
After having pursued the study of and at the age of twenty-four, Mr. the law for three years, Mr. Adams Adams was present at Boston, on was admitted to the bar in 1758. the argument before the supreme At this time, he removed to his na- court, respecting writs of assisttive town of Braintree. His first ance, and heard the celebrated and considerable professional effort was patriotic speech of James Otis, on made in a criminal cause, at the that subject. The effect of that Plymouth court. His reputation appeal was not less indelible on the rapidly increased. By his master, mind of Mr. Adams, than it was colonel Putnam, he was introduced powerful and general, at the time, to the friendship of the celebrated in the community. In the letters Jeremy Gridley, then attorney ge- published toward the close of his neral of the province. At the first life, after a most interesting acinterview, they became friends. count of this cause, and of the arGridley at once proposed Mr. gument of Otis, Mr. Adams adds, Adams for admission to the bar of “I do say, in the most solemn Suffolk, and formed a strong at- manner, that Mr. Otis' oration tachment to him. It is related, against writs of assistance, breathed that soon after his admission to the into this nation the breath of life.” Suffolk bar, Mr. Gridley led his In the year 1765, Mr. Adams young friend into a private cham- published in the newspapers, his ber, with an air of secrecy, and essay on the canon and feudal law. pointing to a book case, said, "sir, Being printed without his name, it there is the secret of my eminence, was ascribed to Jeremy Gridley, of which you may avail yourself, whose reputation as a statesman if you please." It was a pretty and political writer, was, at this good collection of works in the period, above that of any other civil law.
man in the province.* The object While still living at Quincey, of this work is to show, that our
* The following notice of this work is contained in a note in Mr. Everett's “address, in commemoration of Adam, and Jefferson.”
“ The copy I possess of this work, was printed by Almon in 1768, as a sequel to some other political pieces, with the following title and preliminary note: “ The following dissertation, which was written at Boston, in New England, in the year 1765, and then printed there in the Gazette, being very curious, and having connection with this publication, it is thought proper to reprint it."
“ The author of it is said to have been Jeremy Gridley, Esq. attorney-general of the province of Massachusetts bay, member of the general court, colonel of the first regiment of militia, president of the marine society, and grand master of the free masons. He died at Boston, September 7, 1767.
“A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law.” This copy formerly belonged to Dr. Andrew Eliot, to whom it was presented by Thomas Hollis. Directly above the title is written, apparently in Dr. Andrew Eliot's hand-writing, " The author of this dissertation is John Adams, Esq.” And at the foot of the page is the following note, in the same hand-writing, but marked with inverted commas, as a quotation, and signed T. H.
“The Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law is one of the very finest productions ever seen from N. America."
“ By a letter from Boston, in New England, signed SUI JURIS, inserted in that valuable newspaper, the London Chronicle, July 19, it should seem the writer of it happily yet lives!” T. H.
This was said fifty-eight years ago!
New England ancestors, in con- men was however undertaken by senting to exile themselves from John Adams, and his friend Josiah their native land, were actuated Quincy also, one of the most armainly by the desire of delivering dent of the sons of liberty." Their themselves from the power of the course on this occasion, and the hierarchy, and from the monarchi- verdict of acquittal, by a Boston cal and aristocratical political sys- jury, constitute one of the most hotems of the other continent; and norable passages, in the history of to make this truth bear with effect our revolution. on the politics of the times. Its As a member of the general tone is uncommonly bold and ani- court, Mr. Adams took an active mated, and its reception was high- lead on the popular side. He was ly flattering, both in America and upon the committee, who reported Europe.
the address to the governor, and The reputation of Mr. Adams the protest against the removal of was now established as a lawyer, a the general court to Cambridge. politician, and especially as a pa- When the house finally consented triot, or a “son of liberty” in the to proceed in its business, notwith. language of the times. With a standing the refusal of the governor view to silence him, governor Bar- to restore them to Boston, he was nard offered him in 1768, the office one of the minority, who voted of advocate general, in the court of against proceeding. He was chairadmiralty ; an office lucrative at man of the committee, who drew the time, and the sure road to the up the answer to the governor's highest promotion in the colonies. message, relative to the enacting But he promptly declined the offer. style of the laws ; in which, he Two years after thus declining the contended that by omitting the favors of the government, he re- words“ in general court assemceived from the people of Boston, bled,” it was intended to reduce his first political distinction ; being the province to the footing of a elected one of their representatives corporation in England; and open of the town, in that year. He was the way for destroying the character from this time forward, acknow- of the government. These, howledged as one of the most promi- ever, are but a few of the commitnent of the popular leaders. tees raised upon political questions,
His standing in this respect enti- of which he was a member. tles him to the greater credit, for Having, in 1773, rendered himthe part, which he took, the same self particularly obnoxious, as the year, as counsel for captain Preston author of a series of essays against and the soldiers, on their trial for the payment of the judges by the murder, in consequence of the crown, Mr. Adams was, when transaction of the 5th of March, elected counsellor that year, nega1770. The popular excitement tived, with two others, by governor against the defendants was extreme. Hutchinson; and the same mark A word from those, who influenced of displeasure was repeated the the counsels of the patriots, would next year, by governor Gage, tohave been sufficient, to set the town ward him and eleven others of the and the province in a flame. The counsellors, chosen by the assemdefence of captain Preston and his bly. The essays alluded to, ap
peared in the Boston Gazette, sign- Adams, as a delegate to the contied by the author's name.
nental congress, and before his deThe time had now approached, parture for Philadelphia, he met when a more extensive union of the friend of his youth and fellow counsels was required. A general student, Jonathan Sewall, attorney congress of delegates, from all the general of the province; at the colonies, having been proposed and session of the court, which they agreed to; the house of representa- were both attending at Falmouth. tives, on the 17th June, 1774,* In a long and confidential interelected James Bowdoin, Thomas view, Sewall made a last powerful Cushing, Samuel Adams, John attempt to shake the resolution of Adams, and Robert Treat Paine, his friend, and deter him from goas delegates from Massachusetts. ing to the congress. He pictured This appointment was made at to him the power of the parent Salem, where the general court had state : “ that Great Britain was debeen convened; in consequence of termined on her system ; her power the Boston port bill. While the was irresistible; and would be dehouse was engaged in this important structive to him, and all those who business, the governor having been should persevere in opposition to informed of what was passing, sent her designs.” To these suggeshis secretary, with a message, dis- tions, Mr. Adams replied: “I solving the court. The secretary's know Great Britain has determined approach was anticipated, and the on her system, and that very fact door locked upon him. Unable to determines me on mine; that he enter, he ordered the messenger to knew I had been constant and unigo and inform the speaker, that form in opposition to her measures ; the secretary was at the door, that the die was now cast ; I had with a message from the governor. passed the Rubicon-swim or sink, The messenger returned and in- live or die, survive or perish with formed the secretary, that the or- my country, was my unalterable ders of the house were, that the determination.” This was the last doors should be kept fast; where- meeting of the two friends. The upon the secretary read upon the conversation was terminated by stairs, a proclamation dissolving Mr. Adams saying to his friend : the general court. The general “I see we must part; and with a court adjourned itself, as a provin- bleeding heart, I say, I fear forever. cial congress to meet at Concord; But you may depend upon it, this and thus terminated forever, the adieu is the sharpest thorn on which actual exercise of the political I ever set my foot.” power of England in and over It was with these principles and Massachusetts. Of the five gen- feelings, that Mr. Adams repaired tlemen named above, the four last to the congress in Philadelphia, in accepted their appointments and September, 1774. He was placed on took their seats in congress, the several of the most important comfirst day of its meeting, September mittees, particularly on that which 5, 1774, at Philadelphia.
stated the rights of the colonies, After the appointment of Mr. and prepared the address to the
* On the same day, next year, the battle of Bunker hill was fought,