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tain as departing largely from the extreme limit to which I was aufull extent of her right, and that, thorised to go: and that, in being if accepted by the United States, willing to make this change, I too it would impose upon her the ne- considered the United States as cessity, ultimately, of breaking up abating their rights, in the hope of four or five settlements, formed by being able to put an end to all her subjects within the limits that conflict of claims, between the two would become prohibited ; and that nations, to the coast and country they had formed, under the belief in dispute. of their full right, as British sub- The British plenipotentaries, afjects, to settle there. But their ter having this modification of my government was willing, they said, first proposal a fortnight under to make these surrenders, for so consideration, rejected it, and they they considered them, in a spirit of made me no new proposal in recompromise, on points where the turn. two nations stood so divided.

They did not, in terms, enter I instantly declared to the British their rejection of this, my second plenipotentiaries my utter inability proposal, on the protocol, and I to accept such a boundary as they did not urge it, thinking that their had proposed. I added, at the abstinence, as far as it could have same time, that I knew how the any effect, might tend to leave the spirit of just accommodation also door somewhat less permanently animated the government of the closed against re-consideration, United States upon this occasion. should the proposal, as so modi. That, in compliance with this spirit, fied by me, ever be again made. and in order to meet Great Britain But it is right for me to state, that on ground that might be deemed they more than once declared, at middle, I would consent so far to the closing hours of the negotia. vary the terms of my own proposal, tion, that the boundary marked out annexed to the twelfth protocol, as in their own written proposal, was to shift its southern line as low as one from which the government of 49, in place of 51. I desired it to the United States must not expect be understood, that this was the Great Britain to depart.

General Convention of PEACE, AMITY, COMMERCE, and NAVIGATION,


ARTICLE 2d. There shall be a perfect, firm, The United States of America, and inviolable peace and sincere and the Federation of the Centre friendship between the United of America, desiring to live in States of America and the Federa- peace and harmony with all the tion of the Centre of America, in other nations of the earth, by all the extent of their possessions means of a policy frank and equaland territories, and between their ly friendly with all, engage mutupeople and citizens, respectively, ally not to grant any particular without distinction of persons or favor to other nations, in respect places.

of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become com- any foreign country, can be, from mon to the other party, who shall time to time, lawfully imported into enjoy the same freely, if the con- the Central Republic, in its own cession was freely made, or on al- vessels, may be also imported in lowing the same compensation, if vessels of the United States, and the concession was conditional that no higher or other duties,

ARTICLE 3d. . upon the tonnage of the vessel, or The two high contracting par- her cargo, shall be levied and colties, being likewise desirous of lected, whether the importation be placing the commerce and naviga- made in vessels of the one country, tion of their respective countries or of the other. And they further on the liberal basis of perfect agree, that whatever may be lawequality and reciprocity, mutually fully exported, or re-exported, from agree, that the citizens of each may the one country, in its own vessels, frequent all the coasts and coun- to any foreign country, may, in like tries of the other, and reside and manner, be exported, or re-exporttrade there, in all kinds of produce, ed in the vessels of the other counmanufactures, and merchandise, try. And the same bounties, duand they shall enjoy all the rights, ties, and drawbacks, shall be alprivileges, and exemptions, in navi- lowed and collected, whether such gation and commerce, which na- exportation, or re-exportation, be tive citizens do or shall enjoy, sub- made in vessels of the United mitting themselves to the laws, States, or of the Central Republic. decrees, and usages, there esta

ARTICLE 5th. blished, to which native citizens No higher or other duties shall are subjected. But it is understood be imposed on the importation into that this article does not include the United States of any articles, the coasting trade of either coun- the produce or manufactures of the try, the regulation of which is re- Federation of the Centre of Ameserved by the parties, respectively, rica, and no higher or other duties according to their own separate shall be imposed on the importalaws.

tion into the Federation of the ARTICLE 4th.

Centre of America, of any articles, They likewise agree, that what- the produce or manufactures of the ever kind of produce, manufacture, United States, than are, or shall be, or merchandise, of any foreign payable on the like articles, being country, can be, from time to time, the produce or manufactures of lawfully imported into the U.States, any other foreign country ; nor in their own vessels, may be also shall any higher, or other duties, imported in vessels of the Federa- or charges, be imposed in either tion of the Centre of America; and of the two countries, on the exthat no higher or other duties, portation of any articles to the upon the tonnage of the vessel, or United States, or to the Federaher cargo, shall be levied and col- tion of the Centre of America, lected, whether the importation be respectively, than such as are payamade in vessels of the one country, ble on the exportation of the like or of the other. And in like man- articles to any other foreign counner, that whatever kind of produce, try: nor shall any prohibition be manufactures, or merchandise, of imposed on the exportation or im

portation of any articles, the pro- favor and protection for repairing duce or manufactures of the Uni- their ships, procuring provisions, ted States, or of the Federation of and placing themselves in a situathe Centre of America, to or from tion to continue their voyage withthe territories of the United States out obstacle or hindrance of any or to or from the territories of the kind. Federation of the Centre of Ame

ARTICLE 9th. rica, which shall not equally ex- All the ships, merchandise, and tend to all other nations.

effects, belonging to the citizens ARTICLE 6th.

of one of the contracting parties, It is likewise agreed, that it shall which may be captured by pihe wholly free for all merchants, rates, whether within the limits of commanders of ships, and other its jurisdiction or on the high seas, citizens, of both countries, to ma- and may be carried or found in the nage themselves, their own busi- rivers, roads, bays, ports, or doness, in all the ports and places minions, of the other, shall be desubject to the jurisdiction of each livered up to the owners, they other, as well with respect to the proving, in due and proper form, consignment and sale of their their rights, before the competent goods and merchandise, by whole- tribunals; it being well undersale or retail, as with respect to stood, that the claim should be the loading, unloading and sending made within the term of one year off their ships ; they being, in all by the parties themselves, their these cases, to be treated as citi. attorneys, or agents of the respeczens of the country in which they tive governments. reside, or at least to be placed on

ARTICLE 10th. a footing with the subjects or citi- When any vessel belonging to zens of the most favored nation. the citizens of either of the conARTICLE 7th.

tracting parties, shall be wrecked, The citizens of neither of the foundered, or shall suffer any dacontracting parties shall be liable mage on the coasts, or within the to any embargo, nor be detained dominions of the other, there shall with their vessels, cargoes, mer- be given to them all assistance chandise, or effects, for any mili- and protection, in the same mantary expedition, nor for any public ner which is usual and customary or private purpose whatever, with with the vessels of the nation out allowing to those interested a where the damage happens, persufficient indemnification,

mitting them to unload the said ARTICLE 8th.

vessel, if necessary, of its merchanWhenever the citizens of either dise and effects, without exacting of the contracting parties shall be for it any duty, impost, or contriforced to seek refuge or asylum in bution whatever, until they may be the rivers, bays, ports, or dominions, exported. of the other, with their vessels,

ARTICLE 11th. whether merchant or of war, public The citizens of each of the conor private, through stress of weath- tracting parties shall have power er, pursuit of pirates, or enemies, to dispose of their personal goods they shall be received and treated within the jurisdiction of the other, with humanity, giving to them all by sale, donation, testament, or

otherwise, and their representa cases which may concern them, tives, being citizens of the other and likewise at the taking of all party, shall succeed to their said examinations and evidence which personal goods, whether by testa- may be exhibited in the said trials. ment or ab intestato, and they may

ARTICLE 13th. take possession thereof, either by It is likewise agreed, that the themselves or others acting for most perfect and entire security of them, and dispose of the same at conscience shall be enjoyed by the their will, paying such dues only citizens of both the contracting as the inhabitants of the country, parties in the countries subject to wherein said goods are, shall be the jurisdiction of the one and the subject to pay in like cases : And other, without their being liable to if, in the case of real estate, the be disturbed or molested on acsaid heirs would be prevented count of their religious belief, so from entering into the possession long as they respect the laws and of the inheritance, on account of established usages of the country. their character of aliens, there Moreover, the bodies of the citi. shall be granted to them the term zens of one of the contracting of three years to dispose of the parties, who may die in the terrisame, as they may think proper, tories of the other, shall be buried and to withdraw the proceeds in the usual burying grounds, or in without molestation, and exempt other decent or suitable places, and from all duties of detraction, on shall be protected from violation or the part of the government of the disturbance. respective states.


It shall be lawful for the citizens . Both the contracting parties of the United States of America promise and engage, formally, to and of the Federation of the Cengive their special protection to tre of America to sail with their the persons and property of the ships, with all manner of liberty citizens of each other, of all occu- and security, no distinction being pations, who may be in the terri- made who are the proprietors of the tories, subject to the jurisdiction merchandise laden thereon, from of the one or the other, transient any port, to the places of those who or dwelling therein ; leaving open are now, or hereafter shall be, at and free to them the tribunals of enmity with either of the contractjustice for their judicial recource, ing parties. It shall likewise be on the same terms which are usual lawful for the citizens aforesaid, to and customary with the natives sail with the ships and merchandise or citizens of the country in which beforementioned, and to trade they may be ; for which they may with the same liberty and security, employ, in defence of their rights, from the places, ports, and havens, such advocates, solicitors, nota-' of those who are enemies of both, ries, agents, and factors, as they or either party, without any oppomay judge proper, in all their sition or disturbance whatsoever, trials at law; and such citizens or not only directly from the places of agents shall have free opportunity the enemy beforementioned, to to be present at the decisions and neutral places, but also from one sentences of the tribunals, in all place, belonging to an enemy, to

another place, belonging to an fiscation, except such property as enemy, whether they be under the was put on board such vessel bejurisdiction of one power or under fore the declaration of war, or even several. And it is hereby stipu- afterwards, if it were done without lated, that free ships shall also give the knowledge of it; but the con- freedom to goods, and that every tracting parties agree, that two thing shall be deemed to be free months having elapsed after the and exempt, which shall be found declaration, their citizens shall not on board the ships belonging to the plead ignorance thereof. On the citizens of either of the contract contrary, if the flag of the neutral ing parties, although the whole does not protect the enemy's prolading, or any part thereof, should perty, in that case the goods and appertain to the enemies of either, merchandise of the neutral, emcontraband goods being always ex- barked in such enemy's ships, shall cepted. It is also agreed, in like be free. manner, that the same liberty be

ARTICLE 16th. extended to persons who are on This liberty of navigation and board a free ship, with this effect, commerce shall extend to all kinds that, although they be enemies to of merchandise, excepting those both, or either party, they are not only which are distinguished by to be taken out of that free ship, the name of contraband, and ununless they are officers or soldiers, der this name of contraband, or and in the actual service of the prohibited goods, shall be comenemies : Provided, however, and prehendedit is hereby agreed, that the stipu- 1st. Cannons, mortars, howitzlations in this article contained, ers, swivels, blunderbusses, musdeclaring that the flag shall cover kets, fuzees, rifles, carbines, pisthe property, shall be understood tols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, as applying to those powers only spears, halberds, and granades, who recognise this principle; but, bombs, powder, matches, balls, if either of the two contracting and all other things belonging to parties shall be at war with a third, the use of these arms. and the other neutral, the flag of Adly. Bucklers, helmets, breast the neutral shall cover the property plates, coats of mail, infantry belts of the enemies, whose govern- and clothes, made up in the form ments acknowledge this principle, and for a military use. and not of others.

3dly. Cavalry belts and horses, ARTICLE 15th.

with their furniture. It is likewise agreed, that, in 4thly. And generally all kinds the case where the neutral flag of of arms and instruments of iron, one of the contracting parties shall steel, brass, and copper, or of any protect the property of the enemies other materials manufactured, preof the other, by virtue of the above pared, and formed, expressly to stipulation, it shall always be un- make war by sea or land. derstood that the neutral property

ARTICLE 17th. found on board such enemy's ves- All other merchandise and things sels shall be held and considered not comprehended in the articles of as enemy's property, and as such contraband explicitly enumerated shall be liable to detention and con- and classified as above, shall be,

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