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[The following report of the not expect that the United States secretary of state to the president, would change their present neuaccompanied the message of the tral policy, nor was it desired that president of the United States to they should take part in such of the congress on the subject of the Pa- deliberations of the proposed connama mission.]
gress as might relate to the proThe secretary of state, to whom secution of the existing war with the president has referred that part Spain. of the resolution of the house of Having laid before the president representatives, of the 3d instant, what transpired at these conferwhich requests that he would cause ences, his direction was received to be laid before that house “so about a week after they had been much of the correspondence be- held, to inform the ministers of tween the government of the Uni. Mexico and Colombia, and they ted States, and the new states of were accordingly informed, that America, or their ministers, re- their communication was received specting the proposed congress, or with due sensibility to the friendly meeting of diplomatic agents at consideration of the United States Panama, and of such information by which it had been dictated : that, respecting the general character of of course, they could not make that expected congress, as may be themselves a party to the war bein his possession," has the honor tween the new states and Spain, now to report :
nor to councils for deliberating on That, during the last spring, he the means of its further prosecuheld, at the department of state, tion ; that the president believed separate conferences, on the same that such a congress, as was con. day, with the respective ministers templated, might be highly useful of Colombia and Mexico, in the in settling several important discourse of which, each of them puted questions of public law, in verbally stated, that his govern- arranging other matters of deep ment was desirous that the United interest to the American continent, States should be represented at the and in strengthening the friendship proposed congress, and that he and amicable intercourse between was instructed to communicate an the American powers: that, before invitation to their government to such a congress, however assemsend representatives to it; but bled, it appeared to the president that, as his government did not to be expedient to adjust, between ,' know whether it would be agreea- the different powers to be repreble or not to the United States to sented, several preliminary points, receive such an invitation, and, as such as the subjects to which the it was not wished to occasion any attention of the congress was to embarassment to them, he was be directed, the nature and the charged informally to inquire, pre- form of the powers to be given to vious to the delivery of the invi- the diplomatic agents who were to tation, whether it would be ac- compose it, and the mode of its cepted, if given by both of the re- organization and its action. If publics of Mexico and Colombia. these preliminary points could be It was also stated, by each of those arranged in a manner satisfactory ministers, that his government did to the United States, the ministers
from Colombia and Mexico were despatch, instructions were given informed that the president thought to Mr. Everett, to inculcate on that the United States ought to be Spain the necessity of peace, and represented at Panama. Each of to our ministers in France and those ministers undertook to trans. England, to invite the cabinets of mit to his government the answer Paris and London to co-operate in which was thus given to both. the same work. The hope, not
In this posture the overture re- yet abandoned, was indulged, that, mained until the letters were re- by an united exertion of all the · ceived, which accompany this re- great powers, and especially of port, from the ministers of the re- Russia, Spain might be brought to publics of Mexico and Colombia, see her true interests in terminating under date of the 2d and 3d No- the existing war. Other negotiavember, 1825.
tions growing out of, and subordiThe first and only communica- nate to, that which was authorised tion from the minister of the re- in the before-mentioned despatch public of Central America to this of the 10th of May, to Mr. Middepartment, in regard to the con- dleton, have been more recently gress at Panama, is contained in commenced. They have for their his official note.
object the prevention of disorder The secretary of state has also in the Spanish islands of Cuba and the honor to report to the president, Porto Rico, and also to guard the extracts from the instructions which United States against the danger were given by the department of of bad examples and excesses, of state to Mr. Anderson, on the which, in the course of events, twenty-seventh day of May, 1823, those islands might become the and copies of certain parts of the theatre, as well as the conservation correspondence which, since the of our commercial and navigating last session of congress, has taken interests. place between the executive of the All of which is respectfully subUnited States, and the govern- mitted.
H. CLAY. ments of Russia, France, Spain, Department of state, 14th March, 1826. and Mexico, of which a descriptive list accompanies this report. Extract of a LETTER from MR. In respect to the negotiation which ADAMS, Secretary of State, to Mr. Middleton was authorised by MR. ANDERSON, Minister Ple. the despatch of the 10th of May nipotentiary to Colombia, dated last, (one of the papers now re- 27th May, 1823. ported,) to institute at St. Peters “ The revolution which has seburgh, considering the lapse of vered the colonies of Spanish Ametime, and the great and lamented rica from European thraldom, and event which has lately occurred in left them to form self-dependent Europe, perhaps there is no ade- governments as members of the quate reason for refraining from a society of civilized nations, is communication of it to the house, among the most important events which is recommended by its inti- in modern history. As a general mate connection with the interests movernent in human affairs, it is of the new republics. About the perhaps no more than a developesame period with the date of that ment of principles first brought
into action by the separation of or of reclaiming them to her own these states from Great Britain, control; and has waged, to the and by the practical illustration extent of her power, a disastrous given in the formation and esta- war to that intent. blishment of our union, to the In the mind of every rational doctrine that voluntary agreement man, it has been for years appais the only legitimate source of rent that Spain can never succeed authority among men; and that to recover her dominion where it all just government is a compact. has been abjured, nor is it probaIt was impossible that such a sys- ble that she can long retain the tem as Spain had established over small remnant of her authority yet her colonies, should stand before acknowledged in some spots of the the progressive improvements of South American continent. the understanding in this age, or The political course of the Unithat the light shed upon the whole ted States, from the first dawning earth by the results of our revolu- of South American independence, tion should leave in utter darkness has been such as was prescribed by the regions immediately adjoining their relative duties to all the parupon ourselves. The indepen- ties. Being on terms of peace and dence of the Spanish colonies, amity with Spain, through all the however, has proceeded from other changes of her own government, causes, and has been achieved upon they have considered the struggles principles in many respects differ- of the colonies for independence ent from ours. In our revolution as a case of civil war, to which the principle of the social compact their national obligations prescriwas from the beginning, in imme bed to them to remain neutral. diate issue. It originated in a Their policy, their interest, and question of right, between the go- their feelings, all concurred to favernment in Europe, and the sub- vor the cause of the colonies; and ject in America. Our indepen- the principles upon which the right dence was declared in defence of of independence has been maintainour liberties, and the attempt to ed by the South American patriots, make the yoke, a yoke of oppres- have been approved, not only as sion, was the cause and the justifi- identical with those upon which cation for casting it off.
our own independence was assertThe revolution of the Spanish ed and achieved, but as involving colonies was not caused by the the whole theory of government on oppression under which they had the emphatically American foundabeen held, however great it had tion of the sovereignty of the peobeen. Their independence was ple, and the unalienable rights of first forced upon them by the tem- man. To a cause reposing upon porary subjugation of Spain her- this basis, the people of this counself to a foreign power. They try never could be indifferent, and were, by that event, cast upon their sympathies have accordingly themselves, and compelled to estas been, with great unanimity and blish governments of their own. constancy, enlisted in its favor. Spain, through all the vicissitudes The sentiments of the government of her own revolutions, has clung of the United States, have been in to the desperate hope, of retaining, perfect barmony with those of their
people, and while forbearing, as South America, the conclusion their duties of neutrality prescribed, might well be drawn, that if the from every measure which could power of Spain could not be firm. justly be construed as hostile to ly reseated there, it must be on Spain, they have exercised all the her part a fruitless struggle to moral influence which they pos- maintain her supremacy in any sessed to countenance and pro- part of the American continent. mote the cause of independence. The expedition of Morillo, on its So long as a contest of arms, with first arrival, was attended with a rational or even remote prospect signal success-Carthagena was of eventual success was maintained taken. The whole coast of Terra by Spain, the United States could Firma was occupied, and New not recognize the independence of Grenada was entirely subdued. A. the colonies, as existing de facto, remnant of patriots in Venezuela, without trespassing on their duties with their leader Bolivar, returning to Spain, by assuming as decided from expulsion, revived the cause that which was precisely the ques- of independence, and after the cam. tion of the war. In the history paign of 1819, in which they reof South American independence, conquered the whole of New Grethere are two periods clearly dis- nada, the demonstration became tinguishable from each other. The complete, that every effort of Spain first, that of its origin, when it to recover the South America conwas rather a war of independence tinent must thenceforward be a desagainst France than against Spain, perate waste of her own resources, and the second, from the restora- and that the truest friendship of tion of Ferdinand the seventh, in other nations to her, would consist 1814. Since that period, the ter- in making her sensible that her ritories, now constituting the re- own interest would be best conpublic of Colombia, have been the sulted, by the acknowledgment of only theatre upon which Spain has that independence which she could been able to maintain the conflict no longer effectually dispute. offensively, with even a probable To this conclusion the governcolor of ultimate success. But ment of the United States had, at when, in 1815, she made her great an earlier period, arrived. But, est effort in the expedition from from that emergency, the president Cadiz, commanded by Morillo, has considered the question of reMexico, Peru and Chili, were yet cognition, both in a moral and pounder her authority, and had she litical view, as merely a question succeeded in reducing the coast of of the proper time. While Spain Terra Firma and New Grenada, could entertain a reasonable hope the provinces of La Plata, divided of maintaining the war, and of reamong themselves, and weakened covering her authority, the acknowby the Portuguese occupation of ledgment of the colonies, as indeMonte Video, would probably not pendent states, would have been a have held out against her long wrong to her ; but she had no right, This at least was the calculation of upon the strength of this principle, her policy, and from the geogra- to maintain the pretension, after phical position of these countries, she was manifestly disabled from which may be termed the heart of maintaining the contest, and by
unreasonably withholding her ac- to her authority, was actually maknowledgment, to deprive the inde- tured and finally failed at that place, pendents of their right to demand only by the refusal of Great Britain the acknowledgment of others. to accede to the condition of emTo fix upon the precise time, when ploying force eventually against the the duty to respect the prior sove- South Americans for its accomreign right of Spain should cease, plishment. Some dissatisfaction and that of yielding to the claim was manifested by several memof acknowledgment would com- bers of the congress at Aix La mence, was a subject of great de Chapelle, at this avowal, on the licacy, and, to the president, of part of the United States, of their constant and anxious solicitude. readiness to recognize the indepenIt naturally became, in the first in- dence of Buenos Ayres. stance, a proper subject of con- The reconquest in the campaign sultation with other powers, having of 1819, of New Grenada to the relations of interests to themselves, patriot cause, was immediately folwith the newly opened countries, lowed by the formation of the reas well as influence in the general public of Colombia, consisting of affairs of Europe. In August, three great divisions of the prece1818, a formal proposal was made ding Spanish government, Veneto the British government for a con- zuela, Cundinamarca and Quito. certed and cotemporary recogni- It was soon succeeded by the distion of the independence of Buenos solution of the Spanish authority Ayres, then the only one of the in Mexico; by the revolution in South American states, which, Spain itself; and by the military having declared independence, had operations which resulted in the no Spanish force contending against declaration of independence in it within its borders, and where it, Peru. In November, 1820, was therefore, most. unequivocally ex- concluded the armistice between isted in fact. The British govern- the generals Morillo and Bolivar, ment declined accepting the pro- together with a subsequent treaty, posal themselves, without, however, stipulating that in case of the reexpressing any disapprobation of newal of the war, the parties would it; without discussing it as a ques. abstain from all hostilities and praction of principle, and without as- tices not consistent with the mosigning any reason for the refusal, dern law of nations, and the huother than that it did not then suit mane maxims of civilization. In with their policy. It became a February, 1821, the partial indesubject of consideration at the de- pendence of Mexico was proclaimliberations of the congress of Aix ed at Yguala ; and in August of La Chapelle, in October, 1818. the same year was recognized by There is reason to believe, that it the Spanish vice-roy and captaindisconcerted projects, which were general O'Donoju at Cordova. there entertained, of engaging the The formation of the republic of European alliance, in actual opera- Colombia, by the fundamental law tion against the South Americans, of 17th December, 1819, was noas it is well known that a plan fortified to this government, by its their joint mediation, between Spain agent, the late Don Manuel Torres, and her colonies, for restoring them on the 20th of February, 1821,