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can be established on no founda- lombia, if permanently organized, tion of human reason, which will to embrace the whole territory not at the same time demonstrate which it now claims, and blessed the right to religious freedom. The with a government, effectually protendency of the spirit of the age is tective of the rights of its people, so strong towards religious liberty, is undoubtedly destined to become, that we cannot doubt it will soon hereafter, one of the mightiest nabanish from the constitutions of the tions of the earth. Its central southern republics of this hemi. position upon the surface of the sphere, all those intolerant reli- globe ; directly communicating at gious establishments, with which once with the Pacific and Atlantic they have hitherto been trammel- oceans, north and south, with the led. Religious and military coer. Caribbean sea and the gulf of cion will be alike discarded from Mexico, brings it into relations of all the institutions framed for the proximity with every other part of protection of human rights, in civil the world, while the number and society of independent nations ; variety of its ports, on every sea and the freedom of opinion and of by which it is surrounded; the faith, will be guarantied by the magnitude and extent of its navi. same sanction as the rights to per- gable rivers, three of which, the sonal liberty and security. To pro. Amazon, the Orinoco and the mote this event by all the moral Magdalena, are among the largest influence which we can exercise, in the world, intersecting with numwhether of example, of friendly berless tributary streams, and, in counsel, or of persuasion, is among every direction, the continent of the duties which devolve upon us South America, and furnishing the in the formation of our future rela- means of water-communications, tions with our southern neighbors; from every point of its circumfeand in the intercourse which is rence, to every spot upon its surhereafter to subsist between us, as face; the fertility of its soil, the their citizens who may visit, or general healthiness and beauty of transiently reside with us, will en- its climate; the profusion with joy the benefit of religious free. which it breeds and bears the predom in its utmost latitude ; we are cious and the useful metals, present bound to claim for our country- a combination of elements, unpamen, who may occasionally dwell ralleled in the location of the hufor a time with them, the recipro- man race; and relieve at least from cal exercise of the same natural all charge of enthusiasın, the senrights.

timent expressed by the late Mr. In the present imperfect state of Torres, that this republic appeared our information with regard to the to have been destined, by the Au. existing commerce between the thor of nature, " as the centre and two countries, and the uncertainty the empire of the human family.” what its future and permanent rela. But it is to man, placed in a pations may be, it would be useless radise like this, that nature with to enter into any further detail of her loudest voice, exclaims : “ God articles, which it may be proper to to thee has done his part-do propose for the intended treaty of thine," and the part of man so commerce. The republic of Co- gifted and so endowed, is to enjoy, and to communicate the bounties ports to it hitherto, have been conof Providence, so largely lavished fined to flour, rice, salted proviupon him, and not to fancy him- sions, lumber, a few manufactured self destined to the empire of the articles, warlike stores and arms, human family. If the natural ad- and some East India productions, vantages, bestowed upon the Co- for which we have received cocoa, lombian territory, were to be im- coffee, indigo hides, copper and proved by its inhabitants, only for specie. Much of this trade has purposes of empire, that, which originated and has continued, only nature has bestowed as a blessing by the war in which that country upon them, would, in its conse- has been engaged, and will cease quences, prove a curse inflicted with it. As producing and rravi. upon the rest of mankind. The gating nations, the United States territory of Colombia contains, at and Colombia will be rather comthis moment, little more than three petitors and rivals than customers millions and a half of souls. Were to each other. But, as navigators it only as populous as its late pa- and manufacturers, we are already rent country, Spain, it would bear so far advanced in a career, upon one hundred millions, and, if as which they are yet to enter, that populous as France, nearly three we may, for many years after the times that number. At the most conclusion of the war, maintain rapid rate of increase, which hu- with them a commercial interman population has ever attained, course, highly beneficial to both even a doubling every quarter of a parties, as carriers to and for them century, the republic of Colombia, of numerous articles of manufac. for two hundred years to come, may ture and of foreign produce. It devote all her exertions to the im- is the nature of commerce, when provement of her internal means of unobstructed by the interference subsistence, for the multiplying my- of authority, to find its own chanriads of her people, without seek- nels, and to make its own way. ing support from the extension of Let us only not undertake to reguher empire beyond her own bor- late that which will best regulate ders. Let her look to commerce itself. and navigation, and not to empire, In the conferences between Dr. as her means of communication Gual and Mr. Todd, the Colomwith the rest of the human family. bian minister of foreign affairs has These are the principles upon spoken of treaties, almost treaties which our confederated republic is of alliance, concluded by the Cofounded, and they are those upon lombian plenipotentiary, Mosquera, which we hope our sisters of the with the governments of Peru and southern continent will ultimately of Chili, and which he expected perceive it to be for their own would also be shortly concluded welfare, no less than for that of with Buenos Ayres. The purport the world, that they should found of these treaties was mentioned by themselves.

Dr. Gual only in general terms, but The materials of commercial he said that Mr. Salazar would be intercourse, between the United authorised to communicate copies States and the Colombian republic, of them to this government, and are at present not many. Our ex- eventually to propose that the United States should accede to to listen to overtures on her part, them, or take a part in the system, unaccompanied with an acknowwhich it was their purpose to ori. ledgment of the independence of ginate. In January last, about the all.” same time when Dr. Gual was Mr. Prevost, as well as Dr. making this confidential communi- Gual, entertains higher expectacation to Mr. Todd, we learn by tions of the success of this negodespatches from Mr. Forbes, that' tiation at Buenos Ayres than Mr. Mr. Mosquera was at Buenos Forbes. Mr. Prevost thinks that Ayres, and had made his proposals it must succeed, although the goof negotiation to the government verninent of Buenos Ayres is sethere. Mr. Forbes speaks doubt- cretly averse to it, and implicated fully of his prospects of success. in secret intrigues with the PortuThe general intention, but not the guese government and general Le specific purport of the treaties, Cor, for a contederacy of a differhad also been communicated by ent character. Dr. Gual told Mr. Mr. Mosquera to Mr. Forbes. Tood that proposals had been made But the Colombian minister had by the Portuguese government at been more confidential with Mr. Lisbon, to Colombia, for a general Prevost, who, in a despatch dated confederacy of all America, north the 14th of December last, states and south, together with the conthat he had obtained a sight of the stitutional governments of Portuoriginal treaty. He describes it in gal and Spain, as a counterpoise a preceding letter, as a treaty of al- to the European holy alliance ; liance offensive and defensive, con- but he said they had been rejected taining " a pledge from each of the on account of their European ascontracting parties to send depu- pect. Loose and indefinite proties to the isthmus, within a limited jects of the same kind have been time, for the double purpose of ef- presented by the present Portufecting an union in support of a guese government to us, but they representative system throughout, have never been considered even and of preventing partial associa- as objects of deliberation : Brazil tions with any one of the powers has declared its own independence in Europe. An agent (he adds) of Portugal, and constituted itself has gone to Mexico with the same into an empire with an emperor at object, and it is in contemplation, its head. General Le Cor has lost as soon as the several treaties shall the real command of his own army, be ratified by Colombia, to invite a and has been, or cannot fail shortly representation from the United to be, compelled to embark, with States, to preside at a meeting in- all his European Portuguese troops, tended to assimilate the politics of for Lisbon. Then will come the the south with those of the north ;" question between Buenos Ayres and in a letter of 14th December, and Brazil, for Monte Video and after having seen the treaty, he the Oriental Band of La Plata. says, “it embraces in the most Of this mighty movement in huexpress terms, the several objects man affairs, mightier far than that to which I alluded, together with a of the downfal of the Roman emstipulation not to enter into partial pire, the United States may conarrangements with Spain, and not tinue to be, as they have been

hitherto, the tranquil, but deeply on our concurrence with it. An attentive spectators. They may, agent from France, named Molien, also, in the various vicissitudes by and Mr. Lorich, the consul-general which it must be followed, be call- of Sweden in the United States, ared to assume a more active and rived at Bogota in January last. leading part in its progress. Float Dr. Gual told Mr. Todd, that Mo. ing, undigested purposes of this lien had no letters or avowed powgreat American confederation have ers, though he had intimated he been for sometime fermenting in was there by authority ; that he the imaginations of many specu- was considered as a spy on behalf lative statesmen, nor is the idea to of a faction in France. "He had be disdainfully rejected, because insinuated that the United States its magnitude may appal the un- were influenced by interested moderstanding of politicians accus- tires, in recognizing the new gotomed to the more minute, but vernments in South America, that more complicated machinery of a our influence in Europe had been contracted political standard. impaired by a measure which was

So far as the proposed Colom- considered premature ; and that he bian confederacy has for its object supposed we were now endeavor. a combined system of total and un ing to procure exclusive advantages qualified independence of Europe, for having been the first to recog. to the exclusion of all partial com- nize.” And Dr. Gual added, that positions of any one of the eman. Mr. Molien undertook “ to give cipated colonies, with Spain, it him some advice as to our views." will have the entire approbation Mr. Lorich came with authority. and good wishes of the United The political systems of Europe States, but will require no special are all founded upon partial rights agency of theirs to carry it into and exclusive privileges. The coeffect.

lonial system had no other basis ; So far as its purposes may be to and having no generous or liberal concert a general system of popu- views of their own, it is not surlar representation for the govern- prising that they should entertain ment of the several independent and disseminate suspicions of the states which are floating from the disinterestedness of others. The wreck of the Spanish power in French government sends an agent America, the United States will to Bogota, without daring to trust still cheer it with their approba. him with a credential or an avowed tion, and speed with their good power; and he executes his comwishes its success.

mission by misrepresenting our And so far as its objects may be motives, upon suspicions, which to accomplish a meeting, at which those to whom he makes the misthe United States should preside, representations know to be unto assimilate the politics of the founded, and by testifying to those south with those of the north, a who were benefitted by our recog. more particular and definite view nition, that we had made it by the of the end proposed by this de sacrifice of some part of our influsign, and of the means by which ence in Europe. It must be adit is to be effected, will be neces- mitted that the address of the sary to enable us to determine up- agent in the performance of his trust, was upon a level with the the request of Mr. Torres, on his candor and frankness in which it dying bed, and signified to us after originated.

his decease, Mr. Rush was inWe are well aware that our re- structed to give every aid in his cognition of South American in- power, without offence to the Bridependence was not palatable to tish government, to obtain the adthe taste of any of the European mission of Mr. Ravenga; of which governinents. But we felt that it instruction we have recent assuwas a subject upon which it be- rances from Mr. Rush that he is came us to take the lead, and as constantly mindful. Our own rewe knew that the European go- cognition undoubtedly opened all vernments, sooner or later must the ports of Europe to the Colomand would, whether with good or bian flag, and your mission to Cowith bad grace, follow our exam- lombia, as well as those to Buenos ple, we determined that both Eu- Ayres and Chili, cannot fail to rope and America should have the stimulate the cabinets of maritime benefit of it. We hope, also, and Europe, if not by the liberal mothis is the only return which we tives which influenced us, at least ask, and have a right to ask, from by selfish impulses, to a direct, the South Americans for our for- simple, and unconditional recogniwardness in their favor, that Eu- tion. We shall pursue this policy rope will be compelled to follow steadily through all the changes to the whole of our example ; that is, be foreseen, of European affairs. to recognize without condition and There is every reason to believe without equivalent. We claim no that the preponderating tendency exclusive privilege for ourselves. of the war in Spain, will be to pro. We trust to the sense of justice, as mote the universal recognition of well as to the interest of the South all the South American governAmericans, the denial of all ex- ments; and, at all events, our clusive privileges to others. The course will be to promote it by Colombian government, at various whatever influence we may postimes, have manifested a desire that sess.” the United States should take some “ One of the complaints of Mr. further and active part in obtaining Lowry, was relative to the case of the recognition of their indepen- the ship Caravan, from Providence, dence by the European govern- captured by a Colombian cruiser, ments, and particularly by Great and carried into La Guayra, where Britain. This has been done even the vessel had been cleared as neubefore it was solicited. All the tral; and the cargo condemned as ministers of the United States in enemy's property. Mr. Lowry had Europe, have, for many years, been invoked the stipulations of various instructed to promote the cause, treaties establishing and recogniby any means consistent with pro- zing the principle that free ships priety, and adapted to their end, at make free goods; the application the respective places of their re- of which is denied by Dr. Gual, sidence. The formal proposal of who appealed to the instructions a concerted recognition was made from Mr. Pickering, in 1797, to to Great Britain, before the con- Messrs. Marshall, Pinckney, and gress of Aix La Chapelle. At Gerry, our envoys in France.

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