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rope and America are now called tent judge. But it will not be upon patiently to listen.

deemed inconsistent with respect, And, in contemplating the pre- to inquire, if it be possible to besent state of the war, what are the lieve that Spain can bring the new circumstances which must forcibly states again under her dominion ? strike every reflecting observer ? Where does the remotest prospect Throughout both continents, from of her success break out ? In Cothe western limits of the United lombia, Mexico, or Peru ? The States to Cape Horn, the Spanish reconquest of the United States by power is subdued. The recent de- Great Britain, would not be a more cisive victory of Ayachuco has an- mad and hopeless enterprize than nihilated the last remains of the that of the restoration of the Spanish Spanish force. Not a foot of ter- power on those continents. Some ritory, in all that vast extent, owns of the most considerable of the the dominion, not a bayonet sus- new states have established gotains the cause of Spain. The vernments, which are in full and war, in truth, has ended. It has successful operation, regularly colbeen a war between a contracted lecting large revenues, levying and corner of Europe, and an entire maintaining numerous and well apcontinent; between ten millions of pointed arinies, and already laying people, amidst their own extraor- the foundations of respectable madinary convulsions, fighting, at a rines. While they are consolida. distance, across an ocean of three ting their institutions at home, thousand miles in extent, against they are strengthening themselves twenty millions contending at abroad by treaties of alliance among home, for their lives, their liberty, themselves, and of the amity and and their property. Hencefore commerce with foreign states. Is ward, it will present only the image the vain hope indulged that intestine of a war between an exhausted divisions within the new states will dwarf, struggling for power and arise, which may lead to the recall empire, against a refreshed giant, of the Spanish power, as the Stucombatting for freedom and exist. arts were recalled in England, and ence. Too much confidence is the Bourbons in France, at the reposed in the enlightened judg- close of their respective revolument of his imperial majesty, to tions ? allow of the belief that he will We should not deceiveourselves. permit any abatement of his de- Admidst all the political changes, sire to see such a war formally which the new states are destined terminated, and the blessings of to be the theatre, whatever party peace restored, from sympathies or power may be uppermost, one which he may feel, however strong, spirit will animate them all, and for the unhappy condition of Spain. that is, an invincible aversion from These very sympathies will natu- all political connection with Spain, rally lead his imperial majesty to and an unconquerable desire of give her the best and most friendly independence. It could not be advice in her actual posture. And otherwise. They have already tasin what does that consist? His ted the fruits of independence. And imperial majesty must be the ex- the contrast between what their elusive, as he is the most compe- condition now is, in the possession

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of her commerce, liberal institutions ing a war of offensive operations, and all the faculties of their coun- in which Spain has been carrying try, and its population allowed full on hostilities in the bosom of the physical and moral developement, new states, it will become one to and what it was, under Spain, her of a defensive nature ; in which cramped, debased, and degraded, all her future exertions must be dimust be fatal to the chimerical hope rected to the protection and deof that monarchy, if it be cherish- fence of her remaining insular posed, by any means whatever to re- sessions. And thus the Peninsula, establish her power. The cord instead of deriving the revenue and which binds a colony to its parent the aid so necessary to the revival country, being once broken, is never of its prosperity, from Cuba and repaired. A recollection of what Porto Rico, must be further drained was inflicted and what was borne, to succour those islands. For it during the existence of that rela- cannot be doubted that the new tion, the pride of the former go- states will direct their combined and verning power, and the sacrifices unemployed forces to the reduction of the interests of the colony to those of those valuable islands. They of the parent, widen and render the will naturally strike their enemy breach between them, whenever it wherever they can reach him. And occurs, perpetual. And if, as we they will be stimulated to the atmay justly suppose, the embittered tack by the double motive arising feelings excited by an experience of from the richness of the prize, and that unequal connection, are in pro- from the fact that those islands conportion to the severity of the pa- stitute the rendezvous of Spain, rental rule, they must operate with where are concentrated, and from irresistible force on the rupture which issue, all the means of annoywhich has taken place between ing them which remain to her. The Spain and her colonies, since in no success of the enterprise is by no other instance has it been exerted means improbable. . Their proxiwith such unmitigated rigor. mity to the islands, and their ar

Viewing the war as practically mies being perfectly acclimated, terminated, so far, at least, as re- will give to the united efforts of the lates to Spanish exertion on the republics great advantages. And, continent, in considering the third if with these be taken into the esbranch of the inquiry which I pro- timate the importance and well posed, let us endeavour to antici- known fact, that a large portion of pate what may be expected to hap the inhabitants of the islands is prepen, if Spain obstinately perseveres disposed to a separation from Spain, in the refusal to conclude a peace. and would, therefore, form a powIf the war has only a nominal con- erful auxiliary to the republican tinuance, the new republics cannot arms, their success becomes almost disband their victorious armies with certain. But even if they should out culpable neglect of all the prove incompetent to the reducmaxims of prudence and precau- tion of the islands, there can be but tion. And the first observation little doubt that the shattered rethat occurs is, that this protracted mains of Spanish commerce would war must totally change its charac- be swept from the ocean. The ter and its objects. Instead of be- advantages of the positions of Colombia and Mexico for annoying greatly diminished, during a state that commerce, in the gulf of Mexi- of war. These incomes, upon the co and the Carribean sea, must be restoration of peace, or the proevident from the slightest observa ceeds of the sales of the estates tion. In fact, Cuba is in the mouth themselves, might be drawn to of a sack, which is held by Colom- Spain, and would greatly contribute bia and the United Mexican states. towards raising her from her preAnd if, unhappily for the repose of sent condition of embarrassment the world, the war should be con- and languishment. If peace should tinued, the coasts of the Peninsula be longer deferred, and the war itself may be expected soon to should take the probable direction swarm with the privateers of the re- which has been supposed during its publics. If, on the contrary, Spain further progress, other powers, not should consent to put an end to the now parties, may be collaterally war, she might yet preserve what drawn into it. From much less remains of her former American considerable causes, the peace of possessions. And surely the re- the world has been often disturbed. tention of such islands as Cuba and From the vicinity of Cuba to the Porto Rico is eminently worthy of United States, its valuable comserious consideration, and should merce, and the nature of its popusatisfy a reasonable ambition. The lation, their government cannot be possessions of Spain in the West indifferent to any political change to Indies would be still more valuable which that island may be destined. than those of any other power. The Great Britain and France also war ended, her commerce would re- have deep interest in its fortunes, vive, and there is every reason to which must keep them wide awake anticipate, from the habits, preju- to all those changes. In short, dices and tastes of the new repub- what European state has not much lics, that she would find in the con- at stake, direct or indirect, in the sumption of their population, a con- destiny, be it what it may, of that stantly augmenting demand for the most valuable of all the West India produce of her industry now ex- islands? The reflections and the excluded from its best markets. And perience of the emperor, on the her experience, like that of Great vicissitudes of war, must have imBritain with the United States, pressed him with the solemn duty would demonstrate that the value of all governments to guard against of the commercial intercourse even the distant approach of that would more than indemnify the most terrible of all scourges, by loss, whilst it is unburdened with every precaution with which human the expense, incident to political prudence and foresight can surround connection.

the repose and safety of states. A subordinate consideration, Such is the view of the war bewhich should not be overlooked, is, tween Spain and the new republics, that large estates are owned by which the president desires you Spanish subjects, resident in Spain, most earnestly, but respectfully, to which may possibly be confiscated, present to his imperial majesty. if the war be wantonly continued. From this view, it is evident, that If that measure of rigor shall not it is not so much for the new states be adopted, their incomes must be themselves, as for Spain, that peace has become absolutely necessary. could be in operation. In the state

Their independence of her, what- of possession which Spain has, there ever intestine divisions may, if in would be a ready acquiescence testine divisions shall yet unhappily of those very foreign powers, all await them, is fixed and irrevoca- of whom would be put into angry ble. She may, indeed, by a blind activity upon the smallest prospect and fatal protraction of the war, of a transfer of those islands. The yet lose more ; gain, for her, is im- United States could not, with indif. possible. In becoming the advo- ference, see such a transfer to any cate for peace, one is the true ad- European power. And if the new vocate of Spain. If the emperor republics, or either of them, were shall, by his wisdom, enlighten the to conquer them, their maritime councils of Spain, and bring home force, as it now is, or, for a long to them a conviction of their real time to come, is likely to be, would interest, there can be no fears of the keep up constant apprehensions of success of his powerful interposi- their safety. Nor is it believed tion. You are authorised, in the that the new states desire, or will spirit of the most perfect frankness attempt the acquisition, unless they and friendship which have ever shall be compelled, in their own characterized all the relations be- defence, to make it by the unnecestween Russia and the United States, sary prolongation of the war. Actto disclose, without reserve, the ing on the policy which is here unfeelings and the wishes of the folded, the government of the UniUnited States, in respect to Cuba ted States, although they would and Porto Rico. They are satisfi- have been justified to have seized ed with the present condition of Cuba and Porto Rico, in the first those islands, now open to the com- protection of the lives and the merce and enterprise of their citi- commerce of their citizens, which zens. They desire, for themselves, have been a prey to infamous pino political change in them. If rates, finding succor and refuge in Cuba were to declare itself inde- Spanish territory, have signally dispendent, the amount and the cha- played their patience and moderaracter of its population render it tion by a scrupulous respect of the improbable that it could maintain sovereignty of Spain, who was herits independence.

self bound, but has utterly failed, Such a premature declaration to repress those enormities. might bring about a renewal of Finally, the president cherishes those shocking scenes of which a the hope that the emperor's deneighboring island was the afflict- votion to peace, no less than his ing theatre. There could be no friendship for Spain, will induce effectual preventive of these scenes, him to lend the high authority but in the guaranty, and a large of his name to the conclusion of resident force of foreign powers. a war, the further prosecution of The terms of such a guaranty, in which must have the certain effect the quotas which each should con- of an useless waste of human life. tribute, of such a force, would No power has displayed more solicreate perplexing questions of very citude for the repose of the world, difficult adjustment, to say nothing than Russia, who has recently of the continual jealousies which given the strongest evidence of her

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unwillingness to disturb it in the of pacific counsel to the mother east, by unexampled moderation country, has been communicated and forbearance. By extending to to the allied cabinets, and I am America the blessings of that peace fully of opinion, that the majority, which, under the auspices of his im- if not the whole of them, will agree perial majesty, Europe now enjoysto it. If such should be the event, : all parts of this continent will have the diplomatic committee sitting at grateful occasion for regarding him, Paris will be instructed according. as the United States ever have ly. The chief difficulty to be overdone, as their most potent and come, will be in the cabinet of the faithful friend.

king of Spain, where it is underThis despatch is confined to your stood, that all parties are opposed discretion to be communicated in to the independence of the coloextenso, or its contents disclosed in nies. The necessity of the case, such other manner, to the govern- however, begins to be so crying, ment of Russia, as shall appear to that a hope may be entertained, that you most likely to accomplish its even there, the counsels of wisdom object.

may, ere long, be listened to. For I have the honor to be, sir, with obvious reasons we must not exgreat respect, your obedient and pect to learn, officially, that such very humble servant,

advice, as that alluded to above, H. CLAY. has been given, unless it should be

attended to. MR. MIDDLETON TO MR. CLAY. I have the honor to be, sir, very To the Secretary of State, &c. &c. faithfully, your very obedient ser

St. Petersburg. 27th Aig. 1825. vant, HENRY MIDDLETON. Sir-I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of the an- Count NESSELRODE TO MR. Midswer of the Russian secretary of

DLETON. state, to my note of 2d July last, The undersigned, secretary of by which I had communicated to state, directing the imperial admithis government, in extenos, the nistration of foreign affairs, hasteninstructions I had received by your ed to submit to the emperor the despatch, No. 1.

note with which Mr. Middleton, I think I am warranted in con- envoy extraordinary and minister sidering this answer to be, in sub plenipotentiary of the United States stance, (when divested of diploma of America, did the honor to adtic garb,) in every respect as fa- dress him, on the 2d July last, acvorable to the views developed in companying a copy of the despatch your despatch, as could possibly be from Mr. Clay, in which that miexpected to be given by this govern- nister, in the name of the cabinet ment, standing in the predicament at Washington, urges the necessity it now does. We are left to infer of confirming the general peace, from it, that the proposal that the by terminating the contest of the emperor shall lend his aid towards Spanish colonies against the gothe conclusion of the war between vernment of his catholic majesty ; Spain and her colonies, by inter- of securing to Spain the peaceful posing his good offices in the form possession of the islands of Cuba

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