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ber never supposed, nor desired, The congress is to be assembled that the United States of America at Panama, at which city the reprewould take part in the congress sentatives from Colombia, Peru, about to be held, in other matters Guatemala, and Mexico, will have than those which, from their nature already arrived, at the date of this; and importance, the late adminis- they will be engaged upon the pretration pointed out and character- liminary rules of the assembly; and ized, as being of general interest likewise upon questions which beto the continent; for which reason long exclusively to the belligerents. one of the subjects, which will oc- The United States of America cupy the attention of the congress, may send their representatives to will be the resistance or opposi- that city, to take part in those tion to the interference of any neu- questions, which, long since, they tral nation, in the question and war were the first in declaring to the of independence, between the new world they regarded as of tranpowers of the continent and Spain. scendant importance to the inte

The government of the under rests of all America ; and in others signed apprehends, that as the to which the formation of the new powers of America are of accord, states will give rise; the concuras to resistance, it behoves them rence in which will moreover acto discuss the means of giving to complish the object so much dethat resistance all possible force, sired, by the respective governthat the evil may be met, if it can- ments, of manifesting, by deeds, not be avoided ; and the only means the disposition and facility which of accomplishing this object, is by the powers of this continent posa previous concert as to the mode sess, to act in concert in the com. in which each of them shall lend mon cause. its co-operation; for otherwise, re- To which end, and in compliance sistance would operate but partial with the tenor of the conversations ly, and in a manner much less cer- held with the honorable secretary tain and effective.

of state, the underwritten minister The opposition to colonizations plenipotentiary invites this governin America by the European pow. ment to send representatives to the ers, will be another of the ques. congress of Panama, with authoritions which may be discussed, and ties as aforesaid, and with express which is in like predicament with instructions in their credentials, the foregoing.

upon the two principal questions ; After these two principle sub- in which step he is likewise joined jects, the representatives of the by the minister of Colombia, and United States of America may be with which he trusts he has fulfilled occupied upon others to which the all that was stipulated to this end. existence of the new states may The subscriber has the honor, give rise; and which it is not easy on this occasion, to present to the to point out or enumerate: for honorable secretary his respects which the government of the Uni- and highest consideration. ted States of Mexico will give in

Pablo OBREGOX. structions and ample powers to its To the Hon. H. Clay, commissioners, and it trusts that Secretary of State, U. S. those from the other powers may bear the same.

MR. CANAZ TO MR. CLAY. vention with that of Colombia, Washington. November 14, 1825. providing for this object; and I,

The government of Central Ame- as its representative, have been inrica, which I have the honor to re- structed to express to the governpresent, as early as the year 1821, ment of the United States, the dewas sensible of the importance, to sire entertained by my government, the independent nations of this con- that it should send a representative tinent, of a general congress of to the general congress. their representatives, at some cen- To fulfil the wishes of my gotral point, which might consider vernment, and convinced, at the upon, and adopt, the best plan for same time, of the importance and defending the states of the new respectability which would attach world from foreign aggression, and, to the general congress of the Ameby treaties of alliance, commerce, rican republics, from the presence and friendship, raise them to that of envoys from the United States of elevation of wealth and power, America, I now address this high which, from their resources, they government upon this subject, in may attain. It also acknowledged, the name of Central America. I that, as Europe had formed a con- am anxious, therefore, to know if tinental system, and held a con- this republic, which has ever gress whenever questions affecting shown itself the generous friend of its interests were to be discussed, the new American States, is disAmerica should form a system for posed to send its envoys to the itself and assemble by its repre- general congress, the objects of sentatives, in cortes, whenever cir- which is, to preserve and confirm cumstances of necessity and great the absolute independence of these importance should demand it republics, and to promote the

Entertaining these views, the general good; and which will not government of Central America require that the representatives of voluntarily expressed its willing- the United States should, in the ness to appoint its deputies for least, compromit their present neusuch an object. Sensible of its trality, harmony, and good intelliimportance, which has also been gence with other nations. This, felt by the governments of South my government has deemed it neAmerica, it has resolved to send cessary to state distinctly, in maplenipotentiaries to a general con king the present invitation. gress, to be formed for the pur. Be pleased, sir, to accept ex. poses of preserving the territorial in- pressions of the high consideration tegrity, and firmly establishing the with which I am, respectfully, your absolute independence of each of obedient servant, the American republics. On the 19th of March last, the government

ANTONIO JOSE CANAZ, of Central America formed a con- To the Hon. the Secretary of State,

II.-FOREIGN

SOUTH AMERICA.

AMERICAN CONFEDERATION.

CIRCULAR of His EXCELLENCY the LIBERATOR of COLOMBIA, invested.

with the supreme command of the Republic of PERU, inviting the governments of the other Republics of AMERICA to send their Representatives to the Isthmus of PANAMA, there to form a General Assembly.

Lima, December 7th, 1824. a confederacy, and to assemble at My great and good friend-Af the isthmus of Panama, or any ter fifteen years' sacrifices, conse- other place to be chosen by the crated to the liberty of America, majority, a congress of plenipoto obtain a system of guarantees, tentiaries from each state, which which, in peace and war, may be " might act as a council to us in the shield of our new destiny, it is our distresses, as a rallying point time that the interests and rela in our common danger, as a faithtions which united between them ful interpreter to our public treathe republics of America, before ties, when difficulties might occur ; colonies of Spain, should be found. and, in fine, as a mediator in all ed on some known basis, which our differences.” may render, if that were possible, The government of Peru conthe duration of these states eter- cluded, on the 6th of June, of that nal.

year, a treaty of alliance and conTo establish that system, and to federation with the plenipotentiary consolidate the power of this great of Colombia ; and, by it, both parpolitical body, belongs to the exer- ties were pledged to interpose cise of a supreme authority, which their good offices, that all entering may direct the policy of our go- into the same compact, a general vernments, whose influence may be assembly of the confederates might able to maintain uniformity in our be effected. A treaty, to the same principles, and whose name alone purport, was concluded in Mexico, may be sufficient to appease our on the 3d of October, 1823, by the dissensions. An authority, to car- envoy extraordinary of Colombia ry with it so much respect, can only to that state ; and there are strong be found in an union of plenipo- grounds to hope that the other go. tentiaries, sent by each of our re- vernments will accede to what a publics, and assembled under the regard for their own interests so auspices of victory, obtained by urgently recommends. our arms over Spanish power.

To delay, for a longer period, Deeply penetrated with these the general meeting of the pleniideas, in 1823, as president of the potentiaries from the republics republic of Colombia, I invited the who, de facto, already form a con governments of Mexico, Peru, federacy, until the accession of the Chili, and Buenos Ayres, to form remainder be obtained, would be

depriving ourselves of the advan- of Panama would be selected for tages which that assembly would this august purpose, placed, as it produce from the moment of its is, in the centre of the globe, lookinstallation. These advantages are ing on the one side towards Asia, prodigiously increased, if we con- and on the other towards Africa template the picture presented to and Europe. The isthmus of Paus by the political world, and, more nama has been offered by the go. particularly, the cabinet of Eu- vernment of Colombia, for this obrope.

ject, in existing treaties. The isthThe union of the plenipotentia- mus is at an equal distance from ries of Mexico, Colombia and Pe- the two extremities; and, on this ru, would be delayed indefinitely, if account, might be provisionally it were not promoted by one of the adopted as the place where the contracting parties; unless we were first meeting of the confederates to wait for the result of a new and might be held. special convention upon the time Yielding, therefore, to these conand place relative to this great siderations, I feel strongly inclined event. On considering the diffi- to send to Panama the deputies culties and delays, from the dis- from this republic, the moment I tance at which we are separated, have the honor to receive the wishadded to other weighty motives, ed for answer to this circular. No. emanating from a consideration of thing, certainly, will contribute so our general interests, I have re- much to satisfy the ardent wishes solved to take this step, with a view of my heart, as the co-operation, to promote the immediate meeting which I look forward to, of the of our plenipotentiaries ; whilst, confederated governments, in carin the mean time, the other states rying into effect this august act of celebrate the same conditions as America. already exist between us, relative If your excellency does not conto the appointment and incorpora- descend to join in it, I foresee imtion of their representatives. mense delay and injury, at a time

With respect to the period of when the movement of the world the installation of the assembly, I accelerates all things, accelerating venture to believe, that no difficulty them, perhaps, to our disadvancan be opposed to its taking place tage. within the space of six months, After the first conferences, becounting from the present date; tween the plenipotentiaries, have and, I likewise venture to flatter been held, the residence of the asmyself, that the ardent desires, sembly, as well as its attributions, which all Americans feel, to exalt may be determined in a solemn the power of the Colombian conti- manner by the majority; and then nent, will abridge the difficulties all our aim will be accomplished. and delays which ministerial pre- The day on which our plenipoparations might require, and the tentiaries exchange their full powdistance which exists between the ers, will form a memorable era in capitals of each state and the cen- the diplomatic history of America. tral place of meeting.

When, an hundred ages hence, It seems that, if the world had posterity seeks the origin of our to choose its capital, the isthmus international law, and recalls to

mind the conventions which con- in fresh calamities. The dangersolidated her existence, she will re- ous principle of foreign interfe. spectfully consult the records of the rence, which some cabinets of the proceedings in the isthmus. In old world have embraced and eathem she will discover the basis of gerly put into practice, calls for our our first alliances, which will regu- serious consideration, both from late the system of our relations its tendency to keep alive the dying with the universe. What will the hopes of our obstinate enemies, and isthmus of Corinth then be to that from the fatal consequences which of Panama ?

the introduction of a maxim so deGod preserve your excellency. Structive of the sovereign rights of Your great and good friend,

the people would produce in Ame(Signed) BOLIVAR. rica. The minister of government and But, however great our desires foreign affairs, J. S. CARRION. may be to lay, at least, the founda

tion of this work, the most stuANSWER of Vice-President Sar. pendous that has ever been con

TANDER. of COLOMBIA, to Boli- ceived since the fall of the Roman VAR, in the relation to the pro- empire, it appears to me that it is posed Congress of PANAMA.

for our mutual interest, that the asPalace of government, Bogota, sembly of plenipotentiaries, agreed March 6, 1825.

upon, should take place in the isthMy great and good friend and mus of Panama, with the concurfaithful ally-I have read, with the rence of all, or of the greater part greatest pleasure, your very es- of all the American governments, teemed communication, dated from as well belligerents as neutrals, all the city of Lima, on the 7th of equally interested in resisting this December last, in which you ex- pretended right of interference, to press your ardent wishes to see which some of the powers of the united, within six months, if possi. south of Europe have already fallen ble, the assembly from the confede- victims. rate states of what was formerly For the purpose of obtaining Spanish America.

this concurrence, instructions were It is to me extremely satisfactory given, under date of the 15th July to assure you, that, being actu- last, to our charge d'affaires at ated by the same feelings as your Buenos Ayres, to endeavor to perself, I have, beforehand, taken all suade the government there of the the steps calculated to accelerate propriety of sending plenipotentiathe carrying into effect of a design ries to the isthmus of Panama, not. so essential to our security and withstanding the ill success of the future happiness. The wants of negotiation, which, for this laudathe new American states, their po- ble purpose, was opened between sition with regard to Europe, and the two parties in 1824. On this the obstinacy of the king of Spain, account, also, the ratification of render it imperative now, more the treaty of alliance and perpetual than ever, on us and our dear alconfederation with the state of lies, to adopt a system of political Chili, of which, until now, we combinations, which may stifle, at have had no intelligence, has been its birth, any attempt to involve us waited for with the greatest anxie.

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