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and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.”

2d.—“That all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people.”

3d.-" That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community."-Code of Va., 1849,

p. 32.

IV.

Declaration of Independence, 1776.

On the 4th of July, 1776, in the Continental Congress, the representatives of the United States of America, “in the name and by the authority of the good people of these Colonies,” proclaimed the independence of the United States of America. The first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence contains an intimation of the unity and nationality of the people in behalf of whom the Declaration was made—viz. : “When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station * to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation."

V.

Congress of 1776.

On the 4th of July, 1776, after the Declaration of Independence was engrossed and signed, Congress resolved .that the Declaration “be proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head of the Army." --Journals of Congress.

* Not stations.

VI.

New York Convention in 1776.

In Convention of the Representatives of the State of New York, at White Plains, July 9, 1776, it was “Resolved unanimously, That the Delegates of this State, in the Continental Congress, be, and they are hereby, authorized to concert and adopt all such measures as they may deem conducive to the happiness and welfare of the United States of America.”—Journals of Cong., Vol. I,

p. 410.

VII.

Congress of 1776. In Congress, July 9, 1776, it was resolved, “That the Delegates of Virginia be empowered to write to the several County Committees in that State where they think it most proper and probable for the men to be raised, requesting the said Committees to recommend officers for the appointment of Congress, to fill up Colonel Stevenson's regiment; the officers so recommended to have power immediately to enlist their men, and commissions to be sent to them as soon as possible.” *** -Journals of Cong.

VIII.

Congress of 1776. In Congress, on the 11th of July, 1776, it was resolved that “Congress will observe the same rule of conduct towards New Jersey as towards other Colonies.”Journals of Congress.

IX.

Congress of 1776.

In Congress, July 11, 1776, it was resolved, “that it be notified to the Convention of Virginia, that the Congress are willing to take into Continental possession, the forts at the mouths of Wheeling and the great Kanhaway, and the fort at Pittsburg, now in possession of that Colony, and also to receive on the Continental Establishment, the garrisons in these forts, if the said Convention shall desire it." - Journals of Congress.

X.

Congress of 1776.

In Congress, on the 19th of July, 1776, it was resolved that a copy of certain circular letters, and a declaration from Lord Howe, “be published in the several gazettes, that the good people of these United States may be informed of what nature are the commissioners, and what the terms, with expectation of which, the insidious Court of Great Britain has endeavored to amuse and disarm them, and that the few, who still remain suspended by a hope founded either in the justice or moderation of their late king, may now, at length, be convinced, that the valor alone of their country is to save its liberties." — Journals of Congress.

XI.

John Hancock, President of Congress, 1776.

In a letter signed by John Hancock, President of Congress, dated Philadelphia, September 24, 1776, and addressed to the assemblies of the several States, the following passage appears : “If we do but remain firm, if we are not dismayed at the little shocks of fortune, and are determined at all hazards that we will be free, I am persuaded, under the gracious smiles of Providence, assisted by our own most strenuous endeavors, we shall finally succeed agreeably to our wishes, and thereby establish the independence, the happiness, and the glory of the United States of America." — American Archives, fifth series, Vol. II, p. 490.

XII.

Congress of 1776.

In Congress, September 16, 1776, it was resolved, " That 88 Battalions be enlisted as soon as possible, to serve during the present war, and that each State furnish their respective quotas in the following proportions, viz. :

Battalions.

Battalions. New Hampshire, 3 Delaware,

1 Massachusetts, 15 Maryland,

8 Rhode Island, 2 Virginia,

15 Connecticut,

8 North Carolina, 9 New York, 4 South Carolina,

6 New Jersey

4 Georgia, Pennsylvania,

12 American Archives, fifth series, Vol. II, p. 1341.

XIII.

Population of the Union in 1775.

The population of the United American Colonies in 1775, was estimated, by members of the Continental Congress, as follows:

Inhabitants.
New Hampshire,

100,000
Massachusetts,

150,000 Rhode Island,

58,000 Connecticut,

200,000 New York,

200,000 New Jersey,

130,000 Pennsylvania,

300,000 Delaware,

30,000 Maryland,

250,000 Virginia,

400,000 North Carolina,

200,000 South Carolina,

200,000 Georgia,

30,000 “Georgia,” says Mr. Jefferson, “had not joined the revolutionary Colonies when the estimate was made; but the population of that Colony, in 1776, was about 30,000. This estimate of the population of the United American Colonies amounted aggregately to two millions four hundred and forty-eight thousand persons of every condition.” *_Jefferson's Complete Works, Vol. IX, pp. 272, 273.

XIV.

Instructions to Commissioners in 1776.

On the 23d of October, 1776, Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee, were appointed Commissioners to negotiate a treaty between France and the United States. The commission which was issued to these negotiators, by Congress, contains the following passage : “A trade upon equal terms, between the subjects of his most Christian majesty the King of France and the people of these States, will be beneficial to both Nations."

According to another estimate, the population, in July, 1775, amounted to 3,000,000.- Vide Spark's Dip. Cor. of Rev., Vol. VI, p. 235.

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