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to their representations." --Journals of Congress, July 11, 1780.

XII.

Anthony Wayne, and other Officers, in 1780. The General and Field Officers, Captains and Subalterns, of the American Army in Philadelphia, on the 5th of April, 1780, adopted the following Resolution, which was signed by Anthony-Wayne, and others: “Resolved, That we will not associate, or hold communication, with any person, or persons, who have exhibited by their conduct an enemical disposition, or even lukewarmness, to the independence of America."- Remembrancer, Vol. X,

P. 60.

XIII.

Congress of 1781.

A proclamation agreed to in Congress, March 20, 1781, refers to the connection between the United States and France, as "a mutual and lasting benefit to both nations." - Journals of Congress.

XIV.

John Adams, in 1781.

“The people who at this time compose the United States of America,” is a phrase that appears in a Memorial, dated April 19, 1781, and written by John Adams, Agent for the American Congress.Remembrancer, Vol. XI, p. 350.

XV. Pennsylvania Journal of 1782. An Address to the People of America, published in the Pennsylvania Journal, of April 3, 1782, says: “Government and the People do not, in America, constitute distinct bodies. They are one, and their interest is the same. Members of Congress, members of Assembly or Council, or by any other name they may be called, are only a selected part of the people. They are the representatives of majesty, but not majesty itself. That dignity exists inherently in the universal multitude; and though it may be delegated, cannot be alienated."

XVI.

House of Delegates of Virginia, in 1782.

On the 24th of May, 1782, the House of Delegates of Virginia passed the following resolution : “Resolved, unanimously, that a proposition from the enemy for treating with any assembly or body of men in America, other than the Congress of these United States, is insidious and inadmissible.”

XVII. .

Congress of 1783.

In a Convention, ratified by Congress, on the 23d of January, 1783, the United Netherlands and the United States of America are called “the two Nations." -Journals of Congress.

XVIII.

Secretary of Foreign Affairs, in 1783.

On the 12th of April, 1783, Robert R. Livingston, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, in a letter addressed to the Governor of Virginia, said: “A national character is now to be acquired. I venture to hope that it will be worthy of the struggles by which we became a Nation.”

XIX.

Congress of 1783.

Extract from an “Address to the States, by the United States in Congress assembled,” agreed to in Congress, April 24, 1783 : “No instance has heretofore occurred, nor can any instance be expected hereafter to occur, in which the unadulterated forms of republican government can pretend to so fair an opportunity of justifying themselves by their fruits. In this view the citizens of the United States are responsible for the greatest trust ever confided to a political society.Journals of Congress.

XX.

Treaty of 1783.

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce which was concluded between Sweden and the United States of America, on the 3d of April, 1783, mentions “the two parties,”? “the two contracting parties,” and “both nations”meaning Sweden and the United States.-Folwell's Laws of the United States, Vol. II, p. 248.

XXI.

Treaty of 1785.

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce which was negotiated between the United States of America and Prussia, on the 10th of September, 1785, mentions "both parties,” and “the two contracting parties," meaning, in each case, the United States and Prussia.

XXII.

Lord Sheffield, in 1783.

In a pamphlet written by Lord Sheffield, a member of the British Parliament, the writer said: “It will be a long time before the American States can be brought to act as a Nation; neither are they to be feared as such by us.”Pennsylvania Journal, Dec. 20, 1783.

XXIII.

Views of the Sardinian Minister, in 1783.

Extract of a letter from John Adams to Robert R. Livingston, dated “The Hague, July 31, 1783,”—giving an account of the views of Count Montagnini de Mirabel, the Minister Plenipotentiary from the King of Sardinia : “The Count said his advice to Congress would be to write a Circular letter to every power in Europe, as soon as the definitive treaty should be signed, and transmit with it a printed copy of the Treaty. In the letter, Congress should announce that on the 4th of July, 1776, the United States had declared themselves a sovereign State, under the style and title of the United States of America ; that France, on the 6th of February, 1778, had acknowledged them; that the States-General had done the same, on the 19th of April, 1782 ; that Great Britain, on the 30th of November, 1782, had signed with them a treaty of

peace, in which she had fully acknowledged their sovereignty ; that Sweden had entered into a treaty with them, on the 5th of February, 1783; and that Great Britain had concluded the definitive treaty, under the mediation of the two empires, if that should be the fact, &c."-Sparks' Dip. Cor. of Rev., Vol. VI, p. 122.

XXIV.

Congress of 1783. Extract from a “Proclamation by the United States in Congress assembled,” October 18, 1783 : “And whereas, by the blessing of Divine Providence on our cause and our arms, the glorious period is arrived when our national independence and sovereignty are established, and we enjoy the prospect of a permanent and honorable peace.” - Journals of Congress.

XXV.

Oration in 1783.

Extract from an Oration by Dr. Thomas Welsh, delivered at Boston, March 5, 1783 : “America, separated from the nations of Europe by a mighty ocean, and from Britain by the mightier hand of heaven, is acknowledged an independent nation: she has now to maintain her dignity and importance among the kingdoms of the earth.”Principles and Acts of the Revolution, p. 58.

XXVI.

Washington, in 1783. In Congress, December 23, 1783, on resigning the office of Commander-in-Chief, Washington said : “Happy in the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable nation, I resign with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task; which, however, was superseded by a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the Union, and the patronage of Heaven.' Journals of Congress.

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