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John Adams on Party Divisions........... e - e - - - - - - e. e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11

John Adams on Lost History..................... • e e o e - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. 11

Disputes on Nature of Government............ .................. ... 12

Theory of Sovereignty of the People.............................. - - 12

Theory of State Sovereignty............................. - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. 13.

Views in favor of State Sovereignty............... * - - - - - - - - - - - e - - - - 13

Sovereignty “Retained”. . . . . . . . . . . • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 14

Congress, in 1777, on Articles of Confederation...................... 14

Congress, in 1779, on the Internal Policy of a State.................. 14

Luther Martin on State Sovereignty, and James Madison on Luther

Martin ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - e. e. e. e. e. e. e - - - 15, 16

Justice Samuel Chase on State Sovereignty........ - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e - e - e. 16

Virginia Resolutions of 1798. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ - 16

Views of Virginia House of Delegates in 1799–1800............... ... 17

Kentucky Resolutions of 1799....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Tucker's Blackstone on State Sovereignty........................... 18

John Taylor, of Virginia, on State Sovereignty.................... - - 19

Robert Y. Hayne, of South Carolina, on State Sovereignty and Powers

of Congress....... - - - - - - - e. e. e. e. e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20

John C. Calhoun on State Sovereignty........................ ... . . . 22

John C. Calhoun on Powers of the General Government.............. 23

South Carolina Convention of 1832, on State Sovereignty............. 23

Nashville Convention of 1850, on the Right of Secession.............. 23

National Democratic Convention of 1856, on Kentucky and Virginia

Resolutions............. * * * - - - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e - e. e - e - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e - e - - - 24

National Whig Convention of 1856, on the Nature of the Government

of the United States........... * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 24

Daniel Webster on State Sovereignty.............................. 24

William H. Seward on State Sovereignty........................... 25

Chief Justice Taney on State Sovereignty and the Nature of the

Government of the United States................... - - - - - - - - - - - 25

Justice Catron on State Sovereignty................................ 26.

James Buchanan on Grants of Specific Powers by the States.......... 26

Jefferson Davis on State Sovereignty........ e - - - - - - - - - - - - - e - e. e. e. e. e. -- 26

Sharswood's Blackstone on State Sovereignty.......... ... . . . . . . . . . . 37

PAGE

New American Cyclopaedia on Powers not Expressly Granted to the

Federal Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Geographical Dictionary on Powers not Expressly Conceded to the

General Government... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Justice Clifford on State Sovereignty............................... 28

Chief Justice Chase on State Sovereignty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Edward Everett on Sovereign Republics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

C H A PTE R. II.

Influence of Authorities....... • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - e. e. e - e. 29

Contradictory Theories... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Relating to Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Contemporaneous Construction... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Rules of Construction... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

C EIA PTE R III.

Definitions . . . . . . . * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33

Grotius on Sovereignty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Blackstone on Sovereignty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Bouvier on Sovereignty...... to e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34

Political Sovereignty......... • e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e - - - - - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. 34

Story on Sovereignty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Justice Blair on Sovereignty, and the word “Retain”................ 35

Nathan Dane on Sovereignty...................................... 36

Austin on Sovereignty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • e - e s - e. 36

M. D'Alembert on the Sovereign Power in a Republic..... .......... 37

James Madison on Sovereignty........................ . . . . . . . . . . - - - 37

Lewis Cass on Sovereignty in the United States........... - e. e. e. e. e o 'o e e 37

C EIA PTE R IV.

Of Nations and States. Noah Webster's definition of a Nation....... 39

Encyclopædia Britannica on the word Nation. ...................... 39

Phillimore on a State... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Judge Story on a Sovereign State..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 40

Wheaton on Independent States....... e - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e s - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. 40

James Madison on the term States.................................. 40

New American Cyclopædia on the Sovereignty of a State....... e - e. e. e. e. 41

Montesquieu on Sovereign States, and Crab on the term States........ 41

The State of Great Britain...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

San Marino, a State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Tobasco, a State............ • e e s e e o 'o e e < * * * * * * * * * * * e e s - e < * * * * * * * * * * 42

Austin on Confederated States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 42

Mr. Pendleton, of Virginia, in 1788, on the phrase “We, the People”. 42

Mr. Corbin, of Virginia, in 1788, on “We, the People”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Mr. Wilson, of Pennsylvania, in 1788, on “We, the People of the

United States”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. 43

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Views of the Colonists at the beginning of the Revolution............
Germans, in 1775........................... e e e - e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e. e
C H A PTE R W I. -

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CH A PTE R W II.

Articles of Confederation proposed............................. e - - -

Mr. Wilson, of Pennsylvania, on Confederation......................

John Adams on Confederation.....................................

Congress on Confederation, in 1777.................................

“Address of Congress to the Inhabitants of the United States of

America,” in 1778. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........................

Treaty of 1778..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Treaty of 1778. . . . . . . . . . . ........................................

Maryland Gazette, in 1778.........................................

New York Journal, in 1778........................................

Mew Jersey Gazette, in 1779.......* - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - * * * * * * * * * * *

King of France, in 1780.............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Anthony Wayne and other officers, in 1780..........................

Proclamation by Congress, in 1781.................................

John Adams, in 1781... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pennsylvania Journal, in 1782.....................................

House of Delegates of Virginia, in 1782............................ -

Congress, in 1788. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Secretary of Foreign Affairs, in 1783................................

Congress, in 1788... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e

Treaty of 1783........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Treaty of 1785. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - e e s - - - - -

Lord Sheffield, in 1783. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Sardinian Minister, in 1783.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Congress, in 1783. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - -

Oration at Boston, in 1783.........................................

Washington, in 1783... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dr. Witherspoon's Opinion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Pennsylvania Journal, of 1788. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Washington, in 1788. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHA PTE R W III.

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