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secure for his writings a more en-
during fame.
His sympathies, in
depicting men and manners in his
own country, are on the right side,
and several of his novels were writ-
ten to promote some popular re-
form. See pp. 72, 89, 304.
DIAMOND (di'a-mond or di'mond).
DIAPA'SON, in music the octave or
interval which includes all the

DIET, an assembly of rulers and del-

DISCERN (diz-zern').
DISMAY' (diz- or dis-).
DISSOLVE (diz-zolv').
DOLOROUS (dol'or-us).
Congress (1864) from Minnesota.
He has been Lieut.-Governor of
the State, and is still quite a young

by her grandmother, a believer in
the doctrines of Rousseau. Married
at the age of seventeen to a country
gentleman of the name of Dude-
vant, a separation was effected in
1831, her husband being allowed to
retain her fortune. She removed
to Paris, and began to write novels,
from the sale of which she derived
a liberal income. For a time she
adopted the male attire, and by her
independent eccentricities acquired
great notoriety. The talent dis-
played in her writings is incon-
testable. In an autobiographical
sketch she says: 66 My religion has
never changed fundamentally; that
eternal doctrine of believers, the
good God, the immortal soul, the
hopes of another life,
remained, unshaken by scrutiny,
by discussion, and even by intervals
of despairing doubt." See an ex-
tract from her novel of "Consuelo,"
p. 173.
DYNASTY (din'- or di'-).
ECONOMICAL (ek- or e-).
EITHER (e- or i'-; the former mode
is preferred by Walker, Worcester,
Smart, Cooley).
ELD, old times; old age.
ENGINE (enjin).
ENGINERY (en'jin-ry).
EPAMINON'DAS, Theban general,
illustrious for his talents and vir-
tues, fell in the moment of victory
at the battle of Man-ti-ne'a, B. C.

all this has



DORIAN (dore're-an), relating to an-
cient Doris in Greece. The Dorian
or Doric style of music was grave
rather than gay.
DRACHMA (drak'ma), an ancient sil-
ver coin.

DRAMA (drāma, drăma, or drama).
DRY'AD, a wood-nymph in ancient
mythology. By "the oak-crowned
sisters and their chaste-eyed queen"
(p. 310), Collins means the Dryads
and Diana.
DRYDEN, JOHN, a celebrated poet,
was born in Northamptonshire,
England, 1631, and educated at
Trinity College, Cambridge. At
first a partisan of Cromwell, he
subsequently became a strenuous
royalist. His veerings in religion,
politics, criticism, and taste,
throughout his life, exhibit a mind
under the dominion of mere im-
pulse. Having to rely on literature
for a support, he wrote poems and
plays. The latter are foul and exe-
crable productions, disgraceful to
the author and to the corrupt social
state which the restoration of mon-
archy, in the person of Charles II.,
introduced. One of the best of
Dryden's minor pieces is his
"Alexander's Feast," an ode in
honor of St. Cecilia's Day, from
which see an extract p. 68.
better known by her assumed name
of George Sand, was born in Indre,
France, in 1804. Left an orphan
at an early age, she was educated


ERE (pronounced air), before.
E'SILL, supposed to be Shakespeare's
mode of spelling Yesel, one of the
branches of the Rhine nearest Den-

ELYSIAN (e-lizh'e-an or e-lizh'yan).
EMMETT, ROBERT, the son of a physi-
cian at Cork, Ireland, was educated
for the law. Being implicated in
the Irish rebellion in 1803, he was
executed. See his speech p. 219.
His brother, Thomas Addis Em-
mett, fled to the United States, and
died in New York, 1827.
EPAULET (ep'aw-let).
most eminent scholars and theolo-
gians of his age; was born at
Rotterdam, Holland, 1467; died

ERRING (er'ring or err'ing).
EU'CLID, a celebrated mathematician
of Alexandria, who flourished 300

B. C. He immortalized his name | EYRY (e'ry or a'ry).
by his books on geometry.
EU-REKA (Greek, I have found it).
EUROPEAN (Yoo-ro-pe'an).
EVERETT, EDWARD, one of the most
accomplished of American orators,
was born in Dorchester, Massachu-
setts, 1794. He entered Harvard
College at the age of thirteen, and
graduated with distinguished credit
in 1811. Having studied for the
ministry, he was chosen, at the ear-
ly age of nineteen, to succeed the
eloquent Buckminster at Brattle
Street Church, Boston. In 1815, he
was elected Greek professor at Har-
vard College. He now visited Eu-
rope, and made the acquaintance of
Scott, Byron, Campbell, Jeffrey, and
other distinguished persons. In 1824
he was elected to Congress. He was
subsequently Governor of Massa-
chusetts for four years. In 1841 he
was appointed minister to England,
and resided in London about five
years. In 1846 he was elected Pres-
ident of Harvard College, but re-
signed the post in 1849. On the
decease of Daniel Webster, he was
appointed Secretary of State of the
United States, and in 1853 succeed-
ed John Davis as national Senator,
but soon resigned his seat, and re-
tired from official life. Since that
period he has been devoted to ob-
jects of public benevolence, and has
given his best energies to the ad-
vancement of great national inter-
ests. On the breaking out of the
Confederate rebellion (1861), he ar-
rayed himself unhesitatingly on the
side of the government, and did
good service by his speeches and
writings. Mr. Everett was one of
the foremost statesmen of his day.
Bringing a generous culture as a
scholar into political discussion, he
stamped his public addresses with
a value which will not perish with
the agitations the hour. His
style is elegant, glowing, and unarti-
ficial; his sentiments are noble and
liberal; his patriotism is lofty and
sincere; his republicanism hearty
and consistent. His works will long
be regarded as an honor to Ameri-
can literature.
EXAGGERATE (egz-aj'er-ate).
EX'E-UNT (Latin, they go out).
EXHORT (egz-hort').
EXQUISITE (eks'kwi-zit).
EXTRAORDINARY (cks-tror'di-na-ry).

FABER, FRED.WM., formerly a clergy-
man of the Church of England, but
afterward a Catholic priest. He is
the author of several volumes of
poems, one of Catholic hymns, and
a number of theological works, pub-
lished between 1840 and 1850, all
showing high ability and thorough
culture. See p. 486.
FABRICIUS, CAIUS, a Roman general,
twice consul. He was a pattern of
virtue in his integrity and contempt
of riches. He died 250 B. C.
FAIRY (fare'ry).
FALCONER (faw'kn-ur).
FAUN, in ancient mythology a wood-
land deity.
FAWKES, GUY (ghi), a native of York,
England, who was engaged in 1605
in a plot for blowing up the House
of Lords with gunpowder. He was
executed with seven others, Janu-
ary, 1606.
FED'ER-AL (from the Latin fœdus, a

compact), relating to a league or

FICHTE (fik'tā), JOHANN G., a cele-
brated German philosopher and
metaphysician, was born in 1762,
in Upper Lusatia; died 1814. He
led a pure, heroic life; and, in his
theoretic philosophy, amid much
that is erroneous, there is much
that is noble and good. See p.


Italian poet, was born at Florence,
1642; died 1707. See p. 422.
FINE'LESS, endless, boundless.
FELL, a skin or hide.
FLAMBEAU (flam'bo).
FOREHEAD (fōr'ed or for❜hed).
FORUM (fore'um or fo'rum).
FORWARD (forward).
FRANCHISE (fran'chiz).
FRONTIER (front'eer).
GAL-I-LE'O, GALILEI, a distinguished
astronomer, was born at Pisa, in
Italy, 1564. While a child he was
very skillful in constructing toys
and pieces of machinery. At the
age of twenty-four he was a mathe-
matical professor. Having declared
his conviction of the Copernican
system of the universe, he was
charged with heresy, and compelled
to recant his notions, but he stamp-
ed his foot and muttered, "Yet it
moves!" He died 1642.

GALLIARD (gal'yard), a brisk, gay
man; also, a dance."
GARRULOUS (gar'roo-lus).
GASCA, PEDRO DE, born in Castile,
Spain, 1497, was sent to Peru, 1545,
and died in Valladolid, 1567. See
p. 163.

GENIUS (jene'yus or je'ni-us).
GIBBON, EDWARD, the historian of
the decline and fall of the Roman
empire, was born in Surrey, Eng-
land, in 1737, and died in London,
1794. His style is somewhat ornate,
and his diction gives evidence of a
partiality for the French language.
His history is hostile to Christianity,
but his objections have been well
answered by Rev. Dr. Milman in
his edition of Gibbon's great work.
GILES (pronounced jilez).
GLORY (glore'ry).
GANG VON, was born at Frankfort-
on-the-Main, in Germany, 1749;
died at Weimar, 1832. His is one
of the most celebrated names in
European literature. As poet, nov-
elist, philosopher, he was alike emi-
nent. See p. 210.
GOLDSMITH, OLIVER, the son of an
Irish curate, was born 1728, died
1774. He was the friend of Dr.
Johnson, and his life has been writ-
ten by Washington Irving.
As a
poet, dramatist, and novelist, he ex-
hibited noble talents and gained a
great reputation. Gentle, generous,
and good-hearted, he was at the
same time irresolute, vain, and im-

love of a good mother he was in-
debted for a superior education. His
life was spent chiefly at the univer-
sity of Cambridge, amid his favorite
studies. Here, like a monk in his
cell, he read and wrote untiringly.
He was a man of ardent affections,
of sincere piety, and practical benev-
olence. Of his scanty poems the

GONE (gon or gawn).
GRACCHI (grak'ki). Two brothers,
frequently mentioned in the history
of ancient Rome. Sprung from the
aristocracy, they yet nobly devoted
themselves to the rescue of popular
liberty. Tiberius Sempronius Grac-
chus, the elder brother, was slain
B. C. 133. Caius Sempronius Grac-
chus, nine years younger than Ti-
berius, perished B. C. 121, at the
age of thirty-three.
GRATTAN, HENRY, an Irish statesman

and orator, was born in Dublin, 1750.
His fiery eloquence, guided by good
taste and strong judgment, gave him
a commanding influence. He died
1820. See Madden's account of
his oratory, p. 277; extracts from
speeches, pp. 56, 70, 144, 310.
GRAY, THOMAS, the son of a scrivener,
was born in London, 1716. To the


Elegy in a Country Churchyard"
is the most famous. Corrected and
re-corrected line by line, it yet
shows no sign of elaboration; its
melancholy grace is the perfection
of art. There are writers with
whom a slovenly style stands for
nature, and rude unpruned stanzas
for the fairest growths of poetry.
Gray was not of these. His classi-
cally formed taste was too pure and
too fastidious to be content with
any but carefully polished verses.
His chief prose writings are letters,
written in a clear, picturesque style.
He died of gout, 1771. See Elegy,
p. 189.

GRIFFIN, GERALD, a novelist and
poet, was born in Limerick, Ireland,
1803. Emigrating to London, he
became a reporter for the press, and
subsequently an author. He wrote
"The Collegians," a novel, several
poems, and a tragedy, founded on a
Grecian story. All these works
display remarkable powers.
1838 he joined the Christian Broth-
erhood (Catholic), but in 1840 died
of fever. See p. 156.
GUARDIAN (gard'i-an).
GUIDE (ghide).
GUIZE (ghize).

GUIZOT (gwe-zo), F. P. G., a French
statesman and writer, was born at
Nismes, 1787, of a Protestant family.
He is the author of a 66
History of
the English Revolution," "Shake-
speare and his Times," a brief me-
moir of Washington, "Moral Medi-
tations and Studies," &c. He was
a member of the cabinet of king
Louis Phillipe, after whose fall he
retired from public life. See p. 100.
GUTTURAL (gut'ur-al), formed in the

HA'BE-AS CORPUS (Latin, have the
body), a writ to a jailer to produce
his prisoner in court, or for removing
a person from one court to another.
See p. 260.
HASTINGS, WARREN, was born in
England, in 1733. In 1774 he was

appointed governor-general of Ben-
gal. For his conduct in office his
impeachment was moved by Burke,
April 4th, 1786. The trial began in
1788, and did not terminate till 1795.
He was acquitted, and died 1818.
See extract from Burke's speech,
p. 65.

can writer of rare and peculiar
genius, was born in Salem, Massa-
chusetts, about the year 1807, and
graduated at Bowdoin College, in
1825. A man of sensitive nature
and secluded habits, one of his first
productions was a tale, entitled

The Gentle Boy," which was pub-
lished anonymously. His reputa-
tion gradually widened, until, in
1850, his "Scarlet Letter" placed
him among the foremost of the im-
aginative writers of his day. This
work was followed by "The House
of Seven Gables," "The Blithedale
Romance," "The Marble Faun,"
"Our Old Home," and several
minor productions, all marked by
singular beauty and felicity of
style, and by a vigor and originality
of invention, which distinguished
him signally among contemporary
authors. He died in Plymouth, N.
H., May 19, 1864. See p. 315.
HEARTH (härth).
HEATHER (heth'er or heth'er).
HEAVEN (hev'vn).

HE'BE, in Grecian mythology, was the
goddess of youth, whose office it
was to hand round the nectar at the
banquets of the gods.
HECUBA, the wife of Priam, king of
Troy. On the capture of Troy she
was carried away as a slave by the

HEL'I-CON, a celebrated range of
mountains in Boeotia. Here sprang
the celebrated fountains, Aganippe
and Hippocrene, sacred to the Mu-


HELM (not helum).
HEMANS, FELICIA, was born at Liver-
pool, 1793, and was the daughter of
a merchant. Her maiden name was
Browne. Her youth was spent in
Wales. Her marriage with Captain
Hemans was far from happy. Ap-
pearing before the public as a poet-
ess in her 15th year, she continued
at intervals to produce works of ex-
quisite grace and tenderness, until
some three weeks before her death,

which took place in Dublin, 1835.
Her death-bed was an affecting scene
of Christian fortitude, resignation,
and hope. Mrs. Hemans will be
best known by her smaller poems,
some of which are remarkable for
lyrical spirit and beauty. Had she
not been compelled by circumstan-
ces to write hastily, and for pay, she
would probably have done things
far more worthy of her undoubted
genius, and left unwritten much
that will not add to her fame. See
pp. 218, 565, 297, 319.
HENCHMAN, a page, a servant.
HENRY, PATRICK, an American orator
and statesman, was born in Virginia,
in 1736. His early life was spent in
poverty, and his means of education
were limited. He was one of the
delegates to the first general Con-
gress of the Colonies, and distin-
guished himself in that body by his
boldness and eloquence. He died
1799. His life was written by Wm.
Wirt. See pp. 401, 460.
HERBAGE (herb'- or erb'-).
HERO (here'ro or he'ro).
HESSIAN, relating to Hesse in Ger-

HOARD (hōrd).
HOLMES, OLiver Wendell, an emi-
nent American poet and humorist,
was born in Cambridge, Mass., 1809,
and graduated at Harvard College,
1829. Some of his earliest produc-
tions were published in "The Col-
legian," edited by John O. Sargent
and others. Choosing medicine as
a profession, he visited Europe; re-
turned and distinguished himself as
a lecturer to medical students. But
circumstances gradually drew him
back to the exercise of those talents
with which he was peculiarly en-
dowed; and medicine finally had
to give way to literature. When
the Atlantic Monthly " was started
in 1855, Holmes became a leading
contributor, and his writings did
much to give position and circula-
tion to the Magazine. Here his
"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table,"
and his novel of "Elsie Venner"
first appeared. As a poet, Holmes
is distinguished by his cleanly cut,
sculpturesque style, never vague or
hazy, by the subtle grace and felicity
of his diction, and by the appropri-
ateness and beauty of his poetical
imagery. As a humorist, he stands
first among American writers. He

is a ready and accomplished speak-
er, and his thorough scientific cul-
ture gives added strength to his liter-
ary accomplishments. See pp. 32,
215, 417.

HOMER, the great poet of antiquity,
born about B. C. 1044. He appears
"to have been an Asiatic Greek. He
wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.
See an extract from the former, p.


HOSTLER (hos'lur or os'ler).
HOUSEWIFE (huz' wif or hous'wife).
HOVEL (hov'el, - not huvvl).
HOWE, SIR WM., commanded the
British forces at the battle of Bun-
ker Hill, but the next spring was
compelled by Washington to evacu-
ate Boston. In 1776 he gained the
battle of Long Island, and occupied
New York. He died 1814.
HULKS, old or dismasted ships, used as

IDEA (i-de'a, — not i-dee).


IM'PROVISE (-vize).

HOOD, THOMAS, the son of a book-
seller in London, was born there in
1798. He learned the art of engrav-IMAGERY (im-āje-ry or im'a-jĕr-y).
ing; but in 1821, having already
contributed fugitive papers to peri-
odicals, he became sub-editor of the
London Magazine, and for the rest
of his life was an author by profes-
sion. His career was that of an
honorable, kindly, industrious man,
who was never able to raise himself
above the necessity of toiling for a
livelihood; and who, long suffering
under ill health, continued bravely,
even on his death-bed, his efforts to
provide for his wife and children.
His wild and vigorous 66
Song of
the Shirt" was written shortly be-
fore his death, which took place in
1845. As a punster, Hood was in-
imitable. He could twist language
into every comical shape of pun and
quibble; but wit was not his best
quality: he possessed sterling be-
nevolence and genial philanthropy,
and could move the best feelings
of our nature by genuine tender-
ness and compassion. See pp. 53,

IND (Ind), a contraction of India.
INDIAN (ind'yan or in'de-an).
INGRATE (in grate or in-grāte').
INFANTILE (in'fant-il).
INHERENT (in-here'ent).
INQUIRY (in-quire'ry).
INSATIATE (in-sa'sh'āte).
the city of New York, April 3, 1783.
His father was a native of Scotland,
his mother an English woman. Irv-
ing began his literary efforts by con-
tributing to a newspaper, edited by
his brother. He visited Europe in
1804; returned home, and after
coquetting with the law, became a
partner in a mercantile house. Mis-
fortunes ensuing, while on a second
visit to Europe, he took up literature
as a profession. In 1819 appeared
"The Sketch Book," which at once
gave him a reputation that enabled.
him to command high prices from
publishers. "Bracebridge Hall,"


Tales of a Traveller," "The Life
of Columbus," and other works of a
sterling character succeeded, the
sale of which continues large. In
1842 he was appointed minister to
Spain. Returning to his native
country in 1847, he settled at his
beautiful little place on the Hudson,
and devoted himself to the life
which Thackeray has so genially
described (p. 351). His last literary
production was his admirable "Life
of Washington." The style of Irv-
ing is pure, luminous, and graceful;
correct without effort, at once ele-
gant and easy. While in England
he enjoyed the greatest considera-
tion and popularity. Oxford con-
ferred on him a doctorate and a
public dinner; and George the
Fourth's fifty-guinea gold medal,
for eminence in historical com-
position, was awarded him. He

HULL, ISAAC, a commodore in the
American navy; commanded the
frigate Constitution in her encounter
with the Guerrière. Died 1843.
HUMBLE (hum'bl or um'bl).
HUMOR (hu'mur or yoo'mur).
HUNDRED (hun'dred).

works are "Researches on Light,"
"The Poetry of Science," "Elemen-
tary Physics." See p. 283.
HURRAH (hoor-räh').
HY'DRA, the fabulous many-headed
monster, slain by Her'cu-les.
HYMENEAL (hi-men-e'al).
IAGO (e-ah'go).

I'AMB or I-AM'BIC, a poetical foot; in
Latin, a long and short syllable; in
English, an unaccented and an ac-

HUNT, ROBERT, a self-made man of
science, was born at Devonport,
England, in 1807. His best known

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