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died 1859. See pp. 108, 211,


ISSUE (ish'shoo or ish'oo).
JANTY or JAUNTY (jän'ty).
JEFFERSON, THOMAS, third President
of the United States, was born 1743,
at Shadwell, Va., and was educated
for the bar. Entering the provin-
cial Congress he took a conspicuous
part in its debates and drew up the
famous declaration of independence.
He was a man of splendid abilities
and the acknowledged head of the
Democratic party. He used to say
of slavery, that there was no attri-
bute of the Deity which could side
with the slaveholder. Jefferson
died July 4th, 1826, simultaneously
with John Adams, his immediate
predecessor in the Presidency.

from Tennessee, was born in Ra-
leigh, N. C., Dec. 29, 1808. Having
lost his father, he was apprenticed
at the age of ten to a tailor, with
whom he served seven years. His
mother was unable to pay for his
education, and he never attended
a school a day in his life. But
while learning his trade, he suc-
ceeded in teaching himself to read.
About the year 1826 he removed to
Tennessee and commenced work as
a journeyman tailor. He married,
and it was not till after his twen-
tieth year that he learned to write
and cipher; being indebted to his
wife for his instruction. In 1853 he
was elected governor of Tennessee,
and in 1857 Ü. S. Senator. On the
breaking out of the Confederate re-
bellion (1861) he promptly took part
against it, and committed himself
in the most energetic manner to the
unconditional support of the union
and the government. In June, 1864,
he was nominated by the Republi-
can party for the Vice-Presidency.
He affords in his career a splendid
illustration of the genius of our in-
stitutions in affording to the hum-
blest the means of placing them-
selves by the side of the highest
through honest effort, perseverance,
and native ability.
JOHNSON, DR. SAMUEL, the celebrated
English lexicographer, and one of
the most prominent characters in
English literary history, was born
in Litchfield, England, 1709. He
was educated at Oxford, and in
1737, in company with Garrick, the

actor, who had been one of his
pupils, set out for London. The
first literary production by which
he rose into notice was his "Lon-
don," a poem in imitation of the
third satire of Juvenal. He wrote
an unsuccessful tragedy, entitled
"Irene," and in 1750 commenced
his "Rambler," a series of papers
in imitation of "The Spectator."
In 1755 appeared his Dictionary,
the work by which he will be long-
est remembered. He died 1784.
His life by Boswell presents his pe-
culiarities of character so minute-
ly that there are few men in all
history with whom the reader can
experience so close a personal ac-
quaintance. Johnson had many
noble traits, but was prejudiced,
domineering, and politically bigot-
ed. See p. 424.
lawyer and statesman, was born in
Annapolis, Md., in the year 1796.
Chosen a U. S. Senator from
Maryland he took a decided stand
for government and union against
the slave-power in the rebellion of
1861. See p. 335.
JONES, JOHN PAUL, a naval com-
mander in the American service
during the Revolution, was born at
Selkirk, in Scotland, 1736, and died
in poverty at Paris, 1792. He was a
man of dauntless courage and great
ability as a sea captain.
JONSON, BEN, was born at Westmin-
ster, England, 1573, died 1637. He
became an actor, but was a bad
one; and his life was chiefly spent
in play-writing, in which, in his
own day, he contested the palm
with Shakespeare. See p. 282.
JULIUS. The allusion (p. 141) is to

Julius Cæsar.

KING, CHARLES, was born in New
York, 1789. He received his early
education at the public school at
Harrow, England, while his father,
Rufus King, was American minis-
ter at the court of St. James. Lord
Byron was among the boy's com-
panions here. For many years Mr.
King edited the N. Y. American.
In 1848 he was elected to the Presi-
dency of Columbia College. See p.


KING, THOMAS STARR, the son of a
clergyman, was born in New York
city, Dec. 16, 1824. From the age
of twelve to twenty he was em-

guished as missionary and histo-
rian of South America, was born
1474, died 1566.

ployed as a clerk, but devoted his
leisure to theological studies. In
1846 he was settled over the Uni-
versalist Church in Charlestown,
Mass.; in 1848, over the Hollis
Street Church, Boston; and in 1860
he was called to California to pre-
side over a church in San Fran-
cisco. Here by his intrepid elo-
quence and his unsparing labors he
did much to awaken a wide-spread
opposition to the Confederate re-
bellion, and to save California to
the Union. But in the midst of his
heroic exertions he was stricken by
death. He died of diphtheria, March
4, 1864. See p. 379.
tist and author, was born at Cork,
Ireland, in 1794. His father was a
teacher of elocution, and James fol-
lowed the profession for some years
at Belfast. It was while thus em-
ployed that most of those dramas
on which his fame is built were
composed. He wrote "Virginius,"
"William Tell," "The Hunch-
back," "The Wife," all of which
were among the most popular dra-
mas of the day, and still retain their
place upon the stage. Knowles
tried his fortune as an actor, but
in this sphere was not successful.
About the year 1836 he visited the
United States, and played at the
principal theatres. Returning home
he turned his attention from the
stage to theology and the pulpit.
He became a Baptist clergyman,
wrote theological works, and was
highly esteemed by the members
of the sect to which he attached
himself. He died 1863. Extract
from "Alfred," 6, p. 49. Extract
from Virginius, 4, p. 52. Extract
from Wm. Tell, p. 476.
KO'RAN, literally, the book; appropri-
ately, the Mahometan scriptures.
France in 1811. He is the author
of a political history of the United
States, of some eloquent works
against slavery, and was the active
champion of the United States gov-
ernment during the Confederate
rebellion. See p. 128.
poet of genuine taste and feeling,
was born in New Hampshire, about
the year 1825. See p. 214.
LANGUOR (lang'gwur).
LAS CASAS, a Spanish prelate, distin-

LEGION (le'j'un), a military force or
band; a great number.
LEGISLATIVE (lej'is-la-tiv).
LEIBNITZ (lībe'nitz), an eminent Ger-
man philosopher, was born at Leip-
zig, 1646, died 1716.
LEONIDAS, king of Sparta, immortal-
ized himself by his glorious defense
of the pass of Thermopyla against
Xerxes, 480 B. C.
LIMN (lim), to draw.
LINGARD, DR. JOHN, the Catholic
historian of England, was born in
Winchester, England, 1771; died
1851, having refused a cardinal's

LIVY or LIVIUS, TITUS, an illustrious
Roman historian, was born at Pata-
vium (now Padua), 59 B. C., died
A. D. 18.

LOCHINVAR (lõk'-), p. 362.
author, for many years editor of the
London Quarterly Review, was born
about the year 1790. He wrote the
Life of Sir Walter Scott, whose
daughter he had married. See p. 71.
an American poet, was born at
Portland, Maine, 1807, and gradu-
ated at Bowdoin College in 1825.
To qualify himself for the professor-
ship of modern languages, he trav-
eled in Europe, returned in 1829,
and entered upon his official duties.
In 1835 he was invited to fill the
same post in Harvard University.
He again visited Europe, and re-
turning settled at Cambridge, where
he has since lived, but in 1854 re-
signed his professorship. By his
writings he has achieved a popu-
larity beyond that of any American
poet, not only in his own country
but in England, where his works
are found in all varieties of editions,
from the hot-pressed superbly illus-
trated drawing-room edition to the
shilling volume. Most of his poems
have an eclectic character, showing
his thorough acquaintance with
European literature, but there are
not a few which are purely na-
tional. His "Voices of the Night,"
"Evangeline," and "Golden Le-
gend," are among the best speci-
mens of his powers; but of his
minor poems his "Launching of
the Ship" is one of the most truth-

ful, picturesque, and well-con-
structed. See extracts from this
poem, pp. 67, 330; Seaweed, p. 349.
ed as a poet and political writer, was
born in Boston, 1819. Early devot-
ed to the cause of freedom, he has
written much and well upon the sub-
ject. For two or three years he
edited the "Atlantic Monthly." He
succeeded Longfellow in the profes-
sorship of modern languages in Har-
vard University, and subsequently
became one of the editors of the
"North American Review." In
poetry, had his range been more
limited, he would perhaps have at-
tained a higher reputation. His
verses give unmistakable evidence
of the possession of the "faculty di-
vine"; and the rare beauty of such
poems as "She came and went,"
"A Day in June," etc., makes
us regret that he has not followed
out the sweet vein further. In genu-
ine poetical genius he is as yet un-
surpassed by any American bard.
LOWERING (lou'-), frowning.
LUCRECE or LUCRETIA, one of the
noblest names in Roman history,
having been dishonored by Sextus
Tarquinius, the king's eldest son,
stabbed herself with a poniard. Her
fate led to the expulsion of the Tar-
quins from Rome by Junius Brutus.
LUNT, WM. P., a clergyman, was born
in Newburyport, Massachusetts,
about the year 1807. He was set-
tled at Quincy. Massachusetts, but
visiting the Old World for his health,
died abroad, 1857.

born in Norfolk, England, 1805. He
was the son of General Bulwer, but
changed his name to Lytton on
being raised to a baronetcy. Edu-
cated at Cambridge, he published
a volume of poems in 1826, and in
1828 put forth the novel of "Pel-
ham." A number of romances of
unequal merit followed from his pen,
among the best of which are
Novel," "The Caxtons," and "What
will he do with it?" He also wrote
two highly successful plays,
Lady of Lyons." and "Richelieu ”
(reesh'loo). His most ambitious
poems are
"The New Timon" and
King Arthur." In 1831 he entered
Parliament. In 1835 he published
"The Crisis," a political pam-
phlet which powerfully influenced



the elections, and won for him
a baronetcy. He has exhibited
throughout his career immense lit-
erary industry. Few writers of the
age have shown at once such fertility
and versatility in composition. Ex-
tracts from his latest work may be
found pp. 177, 386.
born in Leicestershire, England,
1800, and educated at Trinity Col-
lege, Cambridge. Throughout his
entire university career he was not-
ed as an omnivorous devourer of
literature, fortunate in a memory
surprisingly retentive of words and
things. He was only twenty-five
when his brilliant essay on Milton
appeared in the "Edinburgh Re-
view. ""
This was the starting-point
of his literary fame. In 1830 he
entered Parliament. In 1834 he
accepted a lucrative post in India,
but returned home in 1838. In 1847
he withdrew from political life, and
devoted himself to historical and

literary studies. In 1849 he com-
menced the publication of his ad-
mirable history of England, a work
which attained an instant and wide
popularity, both at home and in
America. He gives us such a pic-
ture of Old England in the days of
the Stuarts as no writer had ever
given us before. From novels, plays,
pictures, maps, poems, diaries, let-
ters, and a hundred other such
sources, he collected, with patient
industry, his materials. As a de-
scriptive poet, in his "Lays of An-
cient Rome." his "Battle of Ivry,"
&c., Macaulay has shown transcen-
dent genius. These lays have never
been surpassed by any poems of
their kind. In 1857 Macaulay was
raised to the peerage as a tribute to
his eminent literary merit. See
Thackeray's account of him, p. 351.
See also pp. 158, 266, 442.
MACE, originally a club of metal; now
an ensign of authority, frequently
borne before magistrates.
MACHINATION (mak-i-na'-).
MADDEN, DANIEL O., an English bar.
rister, editor of the select speeches
of Henry Grattan. See p. 277.
MARIUS, CAIUS, one of the greatest
soldiers and dictators of the Roman
republic, was born about 157 B. C.
In 101 he obtained a great victory
over the Cimbri, and was hailed

the third founder of Rome." He
was the avowed chief of the plebeian

MARSEILLES (mär-sālz).
MARS, in the solar system the fourth
planet in the order of distance from
the sun. A ruddy, fiery color char-
acterizes its light.
MARSTON. The battle of Marston
Moor, England, in which Cromwell
defeated the royalists under Prince
Rupert, took place July 3, 1644.
MAUSOLEUM (mau-so-le'um).
MI'DAS, a king of ancient Phrygia, of
whom it is fabled that everything
he touched turned to gold.
MIGNONETTE (min-yun-et').
MILTON, JOHN, the second great poet
of England, was born in London,
Dec. 9, 1608, and educated at
Christ's College, Cambridge. He
has himself related that the love of
letters was deeply rooted before he
was twelve years old. He studied
languages, ancient and modern, de-
lighted especially in poetical read-
ing, and cultivated music. In 1637
he visited Italy, and made the ac-
quaintance of Galileo. He returned
home to devote himself to the cause
of movement and of freedom. The
next twenty years were the times
of the Civil War, the Common-
wealth, and the Protectorate. Dur-
ing this stormy period the poet's
lyre was mute; but his political and
controversial writings made him
renowned over Europe. He was a
zealous republican; and his eccle-
siastical opinions, adverse to epis-
copacy from his youth, were ma-
tured by the conflict around him
till he attached himself to the In-
dependents. His literary services
procured him, in 1649, the office of
Latin secretary to the council of
state under Cromwell; but in 1652
he had become totally blind. The
distractions that followed the death
of Cromwell were finally terminated
by the restoration of the profligate
King Charles II. And now the
poet, blind yet bold, sat down in
poverty, affliction, and obscurity,
to work out the immortality which
had been the object of his earliest
aspirations. His later years were
employed in the composition of
Paradise Lost; Paradise Regained;
Samson Agonistes; and in the re-
publication of his minor poems,

among which are some noble son-
nets. His life was pure and spirit-
ual; his sympathies and best efforts
were freely given to all the noblest
interests of humanity; he acted
from his youth "as under his great
Taskmaster's eye." He hated every
form of oppression, was the elo-
quent advocate of the freedom of
the press, and the consistent cham-
pion of human rights. His poetry,
in its diction and its sentiments,
reaches the highest flights of sub-
limity and power. Milton died in
1674. A tomb was erected to his
memory in Westminster Abbey, in
1737. See pp. 55, 136, 232, 238,
416, 430.

MINE. When this word (says Smart)
is used adjectively before a word
beginning with a vowel or h mute,
as in saying "On mine honor," the
absence of accentual force will per-
mit the shortening of the sound into
MIRABEAU (mir'ră-bo), Honore Ga-
briel Raquetti, Comte de, the great-
est orator of France, was born of a
noble family at Bignon, near Ne-
mours, 1749. At the commence-

ment of the national troubles in
1789, being rejected by his own
order, the noblesse, as a deputy, he
threw himself into the arms of the
popular party and was elected. He
was a man of splendid genius, but
in the early part of his life licen-
tious and unprincipled. It is prob-
able, however, that his patriotism
was sincere, and that he meant the
honor and welfare of France. He
died suddenly, April 2, 1791. See
pp. 40, 41, 397.
MIRAGE (me-räzh').
MIS-E-RE'RE, the name of a Latin
chant, beginning Miserere me'i,
Dom'i-ne, Have mercy on me, O


tinguished as an astronomer and a
military man, was born in Union
County, Kentucky, 1810, and grad-.
uated at West Point, 1829. He
devoted himself to astronomical
studies, became director of the Ob-
servatory at Cincinnati, in 1845, and
of the Dudley Observatory at Al-
bany, in 1859. He is the author of
several popular and eloquent works
on astronomy. When the Con-
federate rebellion broke out, he
sought active service in the field,
and was appointed brigadier-general

of volunteers. He showed great celerity and energy in all his military operations. Sent to South Carolina, in 1862, he died there, Oct. 30th of that year, regretted by the whole loyal people of the United States, who confided in his unconditional patriotism, and had formed high hopes of his military skill. See pp. 251, 483. MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL, born in Hampshire, England, in 1786, died 1855. She wrote Our Village," a series of charming sketches of rural life; also the successful tragedy of 66 Rienzi," from which see an extract. 7, p. 50. MOLECULE (mŏl'e-kule). MOORE, THOMAS, celebrated as a song-writer, was born in Dublin, 1779. The works for which he is chiefly remembered are his "Irish Melodies," exquisite specimens of polished and most musical verse; and his "Lalla Rookh" (Tulipcheek), a glittering picture of Eastern life and scenery. He has also written lives of Sheridan and Byron. See p. 422. MOULD or MOLD (Webster). MOULDER or MOLDER. MOZART, JOHANN WOLFGANG, the great musical genius of his age, was born in Salzburg, in Austria, 1756; died 1792, before he had reached his 36th year. His works are in all styles of musical art, and all great.

MUSEUM (mu-ze'um). MY. They in this word when used without emphasis, takes its regular short sound, as "I took down my hat"; "my lords and gentlemen," &c.

NAPOLEON, LOUIS (loo'e) BONAPARTE, proclaimed Emperor of the French, 1852, a nephew of the great Napoleon, and was born in Paris, April 20, 1808.

NATURE (nate'yur).
NE'ER (nare), a contraction of never.
NEITHER (ne'thur or ni'thur; the for-

mer is the preferred mode). NEWMAN, REV. JOHN HENRY, D. D., was born in London, 1801, and eduIcated at Oxford. In 1845 he was admitted into the Catholic Church, and, in 1852, became Principal of the Catholic university in Dublin. See p. 229. NICHOL, J. P., LL. D., Professor of Astronomy in the University of Glasgow, was born in Montrose, Scot

land, 1804. He lectured in the United States some years since, and has written much and well on his favorite science.

NILE. The battle of the Nile between the British and French fleets, in which the former, under Nelson, were victorious, took place August 1, 1798.


NINE. By the nine" is meant, in ancient poetry, the nine Muses, personifications imagined to preside over poetry, science,the fine arts, &c. Nr'o-BE, in ancient mythology, a queen of Thebes, who, proud of her numerous offspring, provoked the anger of Apollo and Diana, who slew them all. She was changed into a rock from which a rivulet, fed by her tears, continually flows. NONE (nun).

NORTON, CAROLINE E. S., the second
daughter of Thomas, and the grand-
daughter of the celebrated R. B.
Sheridan, was born in London, about
1812. Her marriage with Mr. Nor-
ton was not a happy one. She has
published two volumes of poetry,
"The Sorrows of Rosalie," and the
"Undying One."` Some of her
shorter pieces show genuine poetical
ability and exquisite taste in expres-
sion. See p. 462.
NOTHING (nuth'ing).

Nu'BI-A, the name of countries on and
around the valley of the Nile.
NYMPH (nimf).

OBEISANCE (-bā'- or -bē′-).
OBLIGE (o-blīje').
ODIOUS (o'di-us or ōd'yus).
OLIGARCHY (ol'e-gark'y), a govern-

ment by an exclusive few. O-LYM'PI-AN, pertaining to Olympus,

in Greek mythology, the chief seat of the gods of whom Jupiter was the principal. ORMUS, an island in the Persian Gulf, once the emporium of all the riches of India.

OSSA, one of the highest mountains of Greece, connected with Pelion on the southeast. It is mentioned by Homer in the legend of the war of the giants. OS'SIAN, the name of a supposed Scottish bard, who lived in the third century. His productions were first given to the world in an English version by James M'Pherson, in 1760, with the assurance that these

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