« ПретходнаНастави »
of severe trial there was little time exhortations ; but who, in days or taste, he observes :
like these, will maintain that they “In a period of leisure and security, are superfluous ? Jike ours, the imagination is drawn upon “ In that fold, in his holy and blessed to supply, as it may, that excitement, and church, we have been gathered hy Christ, administer to that novelty which is so na- having been bought with a price, even tural to man. This it is which above all with his own precious blood, and are his blinds the mind's sight to the occasions servants to do his will, and not to seek presented by the hand of God. They are our own. We are to keep a vigilant look not sufficiently striking forsooth, they are
out for the opportunities peculiar to the associated with common-place and the de- several stations which he has assigned us, tail of ordinary life; they are tricked out
and these, if attended to, are sufficient to in none of those brilliant colours with crowd our sphere of duty to fulness. In which it bas invested the day of proof arrogating a wider range, we are assuming and trial. They are, therefore, carelessly a power which he has not accorded us, passed by: Another comes, and still and with a barren ambition, overlooking another, but neither is it yet the time. what he has put legitimately into our He reserves himself for a day of his own
grasp. There, in that calling in which he choosing, and not of God's offering; he hath called us, is his presence chamber ; looks forward in his carnal mind to some there is his holy place, in which only, theatrical exhibition of his faith, and the
he will accept our offerings; there is the future confessor amid his lofty specula- Zion of the living God, where, if he be tion is overthrown, and brought to the
not found, we are bowing before the ground by the slightest and the most des- calves at Bethel. If our own experience pised of daily incidents. For the value haply has not taught us, let us learn from of any excitement of mind, where this the warning voice of others, that if there power is concerned; for the reality of his be one circumstance which more then zeal, his love, his faith, and all on which another imbitters a retrospect, it is the he builds, I would refer him to no un- view of unemployed opportunities. They substantial vision, but an actual scene have glided by perhaps with slight imwhich shortly preceded the death of our pression, and carelessly noticed, but, like blessed Lord. Of all that immense crowd those bowmen of old, are terrible when which with waving boughs of palm, and past, dealing behind them wounds of re. loud hosannas, were conducting him
morse and shame. Then their despiser in through the streets of Jerusalem, over amasement beholds the number which their strewn garments, in triumph to his be has permitted to pass by, and sees temple,-how many but a few days after them blocking up against him that point interfered to save him from the cross, to which they were tending, and might how many did not surround that cross have conducted him. And that is some with mockings and revilings?
blessing from which he now finds himself “Shall the opportunity, then, set before for ever excluded; some honourable sphere, his eyes, serve at best but as a keynote to
perhaps, of usefulness, never now to be a strain of idle dreaming and unprofitable gained; some service in his heavenly speculation? Yet, to use the words of Master's house on earth, replete with the Lawgiver, it is not hidden from him, heart-filling and exalted duties, which is neither is it afar off; it is not in heaven, now unattainable; and finding that future nor beyond the sea, but it is nigh unto
upon which he has been drawing, like a him, that he may do it. O! never let thoughtless spendthrift, entirely empty of the healthy activity of practice yield to a its treasures, sits down bankrupt in hope, morbid babit of speculation. Hurtful as and bemoaning his folly in vain. the effects of such an exchange will be, “ Can he complain that these opporthey will not stop at mere neglect of op- tunities come to him not sufficiently disportunities, but go on to undermine the tinct for his apprehension ?-this is but foundations of religious faith, which can to admit that he was deficient in vigilance. continue pure in doctrine, and vital in His heavenly Master gave him ample nopractice, only by resolutely casting off all tice of their passage.” pp. 99-101. self-conceived notions ; by bringing the imagination in strict subjection to the
We have dwelt, in the above sober tenor of Scripture'; by giving up notice, more particularly on the the heart in all simplicity, and the mind second sermon, because of its in concentrated attention upon its facts bearing upon Dr. Paley's theory of and doctrines, and by seeking diligently every occasion to put the grace of God morals, as contained in his wellinto practical effect."
known and popular work, which We quote one passage more, like continues to be a text book in the the last, of a directly practical university of Cambridge. A most character. It may be said there valuable work, in many respects, is a coldness and legality in such it is, and we know not where to look for a treatise that would most powerful defence of it which wholly supersede it; but the main has hitherto appeared, in a recent principle on which the writer's publication by the Rev. Latham moral philosophy is based is un- Wainewright. It is but justice to sound : it not only was not need refer our readers to this reply to ed as a rule of moral conduct, by the objections of Mr. Dugald Stewthose who have the light of Chris- art, Mr. Gisborne, Dr. Pearson, tianity to guide them, but it is ab- Dr. Brown, and Dr. Whately, solutely prejudicial, as it professes against Dr. Paley's theory; and to derive right practice from mo- we are quite willing to concede tives which were in themselves to Mr. Wainewright, what we have inadequate, or improper. Mr. stated again and again years ago, Evans deserves the thanks of the that Paley may have been partly Christian student for raising his misunderstood, and that he did voice against Paley's system ; and not mean, as he himself tells us, also for the masterly manner in to shut out Scripture as the suwhich he has acquitted himself in preme guide of the Christian, or this enterprise. We would not to set up expediency or utility utter a word to derogate from the against the will of God. But it is just praise of Paley. To say no- clear to us, and our perusal of thing of his preliminary work on Mr. Wainewright's "Vindication" Natural Theology, his Evidences has only confirmed us in the opiof Christianity and his Horæ nion, that, to say the least, Paley, Paulinæ entitle him to be grate- in his view of utility and expedifully mentioned by Christians; and ency, grievously neglects, if he some of his sermons, particularly does not wholly overlook, the very those written in his latter years, point on which Mr. Evans so powcontain admirable vindications of erfully dwells—the cross of Christ. scriptural statements and doc- The advocate for Paley might reply, trines. Let then his works main- that the cross of Christ is a motain their just place in the estima- tive, not a law; but, take it either tion of the Christian world ; way, and we think it partakes of they will maintain it, so long as both,) it forms an essential part of calm discussion and sound argu- the “ theory of (Christian) morals," ment are considered suitable in- and it was for Christians that Paley struments for defending the cause was writing. Dr. Young was not of truth : but the Moral Philoso- less correct as a moral philosophy is fundamentally defective, as pher than as a theologian, when a code for Christians; and we trust he affirmed: the day is not far distant when it Talk they of morals ? O thou bleeding shall cease to possess much of its Lamb! present weight and authority. It The great morality is love to Thee. is no small advantage gained, that, We see not how a Christian can filling a most responsible situation separate utility, or expediency, in the university of Cambridge, from this all-absorbing "theory; Mr. Evans has come forward un- a theory not barren or unfruitful, equivocally to express his consci- but connected with every detail of entious conviction, and to utter practical duty. We differ from his solemn warning, upon the sub- Paley, much as we think Mr.Evans ject.
would differ from Mr. Wainewright, We offer these remarks with the on this topic; for we think that distinct recollection in our minds even when Paley, and Mr. Waineof the arguments which have been wright himself, speak of the will offered in favour of Paley's system, of God as the highest standard and fresh from the perusal of the of expediency, the idea of “the
cross of Christ” does not of ne- ing, turned into what was expecessity pass through their minds, dient was right. It is not to the as a necessary element in the purpose of the present remarks question; so that their “theory of to settle the point between them. morals" is practically defective by Hume's“what is good is useful,” is the whole difference between a better than Paley's “what is useful revelation which makes known to is good;" though the truth of both us God in his self-existing rela- propositions must depend upon tions, and God as a reconciled Fa- what is meant by good," and ther in Christ Jesus. To shew still more upon what is meant by that we have not overstated this “ useful." Smith did not like the difference (which we should be coldness of either the expediency the more unwilling to do, as the of goodness, or the goodness of author might think we dislike expediency, and argued for the
theory of morals” from re- instinctive affections of our namembering his strictures, in a for- ture, as an essential part of morals. mer work,
on what he was pleased But in one point all three bend to call “the Evangelical party'), the same way—the two philosowe copy the following passage, phers altogether, and Paley we which he quotes with approbation fear too much practically—that is, from Dr. Adam Smith:
in not making the cross of Christ “When it is asked,” says Dr. (we keep to Mr. Evans's text) an Smith, “why we ought to obey essential and predominant part of the will of the Deity; this ques- the theory of morals, as morals are, tion, which would be impious and orought to be, explicated by a Chrisabsurd in the highest degree, if tian. And have we spoken untruly asked from any doubt that we in so asserting, when we find Mr. ought to obey him, can admit but Wainewright, in his defence of of two different answers. It must Paley, quoting from Adam Smith, either be said that we ought to whose “admirable practical obserobey the will of the Deity, because vations and precepts he is a Being of infinite power, rizes, the above passage, in which who will reward us eternally if we “ obedience to the will of the do otherwise; or it must be said, Deity” is avowedly placed upon that, independent of any regard to the grounds of simple Deism? Thus our own happiness, or to rewards rises the climax : Virtue, says the and punishments of any kind, there philosopher, is to be followed, beis a congruity and fitness that a cause it is useful ; but utility itself, creature should obey its Creator, adds he, upon second thoughts, that a limited and imperfect being should have reference to the "will should submit to one of infinite of the Deity,” where that will is and incomprehensible perfections. known; and for two reasons, first, Besides one or other of these two, because of future rewards and puit is impossible to conceive that nishments, and, secondly, because any other answer can be given to of the natural congruity of a finite this question.”
being obeying the Infinite. And Now let us see how this matter besides these, concludes the phihangs together. Dr. Smith was the losopher, there is no other answer bosom friend of Hume; with whom to the question, Why should we he too much fraternized in scep- obey God? Thus the Bible is ticism, though hediffered from him virtually excluded. We are to obey in his theory of morals. Smith God, says Smith, says Paley, and pleaded for sympathy; Hume virtually says Mr. Wainewright, urged that what was right was because it is expedient, and beexpedient; which Paley, convers- cause it is congruous (Paley in
cluded congruity); but the true adverted to from its connexion Christian ought to say, that we with Mr. Evans's argument, will, should obey God whether we upon further consideration, admit think it useful or not, or decorous that the objections to the doctrine or not, because He has commanded of expediency and utility are of it. The plain argument is, “Thus more importance than he had allowsaith the Lord ;" in addition to ed; for, could we conquer all minor which, there is a second argument, objections (especially that of the the argument of love,-“ The love utter practical invalidity of the rule, of Christ constraineth us;” “I no man knowing all the ultimate beseech you by the mercies of God, relations of general utility, so as to that ye present your bodies a living make it a guide to his actions), yet sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, we could not set aside the palpable which is your reasonable service.” fact that the scheme is virtually Whereas, then, Adam Smith said founded on a basis independent (and Mr. Wainewright concurs with of the peculiarities of Divine Reand adopts his statement),that there velation, and what are most truly were but two reasons, both derived called “ the doctrines of grace. from mere Deism, we see that there Hume went as far as he knew and are at least twomore, derived imme- believed ; and Adam Smith went diately from Revelation-namely, somewhat further and better, not direct precept, and the law of love; excluding moral sensibility, or, as the latter, and indeed both, as Mr. the Apostle, with true philosophy, Evans has ably shewn, flowing, not expresses it, “ a conscience accusfrom mere abstract views of Deity, ing or excusing ;” but a Christian but from the Cross of Christ. If divine ought to go much further Mr. Wainewright should reply, still : and Mr. Wainewright asthat doubtless Paley meant to in- suredly will not consider it as an clude all this, and that he himself over-refinement of what he calls does also, we can only reply, that we “the Evangelical party,” but the are heartily glad to hear it, but that plain teaching of Scripture, in the inference is not very naturally which all true Christians, without derived from the adoption of the any party distinctions, are agreed, only two reasons of a writer who that we assert, with Mr. Evans, certainly did not include either copying Chrysostom, and Chrythe command of Christ or the sostom copying the Apostles, that cross of Christ in his theory of no theory of morals, based on any morals. We do not say that either foundation whatever, is of any. Paley, or other professed Chris- value, except that which flows tians, in their treatises on moral directly from the cross of Christ : philosophy expressly intend to “ when we rise, the cross; when impugn or contravene the Gospel we lie down, the cross; in our of Christ—the supposition would thoughts, the cross; in our stube unjust and uncharitable—but dies, the cross; in our conversatoo often, in point of fact, they tion, the cross; everywhere, and at contrive nearly to forget it ; and to everytime, the cross shining more construct their arguments, though glorious than the sun.” If Paley's designed for Christians, in nearly expediency can be shewn really the same form which they would to come to this, we shall rejoice have used had they never heard to learn the fact; but his own of Redemption, or a Mediator, or statements, we repeat, would never the law of the new covenant of have left such an impression on grace in Christ Jesus.
our minds, fain to hope that Mr. Wainewright, whose recent vindication of Paley we have thus incidentally
“ This valuable order of husbandmen, A Memoir of the Rev. Alexander who constituted a very considerable proWaugh, D. D. By the Rev. J. portion of the population, were, at this
period, of the third generation in descent HAY, M. A. and the Rev. H. from the Covenanters who lived towards BELFRAGE, D.D. 8vo. London. the latter end of the seventeenth century; 1830.
to whom their country owes a deep debt
patient sufferings, and their severe, longThe subject of this interesting protracted, and ultimately successful strugmemoir was a Presbyterian, a gle with a despotic and persecuting goSeceder, and, till Christianity tri
vernment. Like their ancestors, whose umphed over party dissensions, memory for the most part they warmly
cherished and venerated, besides being an Anti-burgher; and had he been zealous Presbyterians, they were disliving we might have been dis- tinguished by frugal habits, simple manposed to hold a few friendly ar- ners, and an ardent regard for evangelical guments with him—if not with the doctrines. In addition to a regular and
exemplary attendance on the public ordihope of mutual conviction, at least
nances of Divine worship, they faithfully with the expectation of learning performed the exercises of devotion in from his example how to smooth their families, and laboured, with patridown asperities without violating of their children and domestics the prin
archal diligence, to instil into the minds conscience, and to make even con
ciples of sound doctrine and a holy life. troversy a banquet of affection. The strict and regular observance of the For deceived we are not, we can
duties of family religion, appears to have not be, by that beaming portrait in scriptural knowledge, in sobriety of that eyes us as we open the vo
manners, as well as in every domestic lume; and if the portrait did not virtue, for which the northern part of speak, the book does, and tells us Great Britain was then justly celebrated.”
“ The habitation of a Scottish husbandof one whose gentle and saintly spirit, beyond that of most of seventy years ago, was generally a plain,
man in the southern counties, sixty or his fellows in the school of Christ, substantial building, holding a middle rank was conformed to that of his Di- between the residences of the inferior vine Exemplar. Our pleasing task gentry, and the humble cottages of the
The farm-house, will be to exhibit him by the ad.
with the small windows of its second duction of a few passages from the story often projecting through the thatched memoir, with as little of our own roof, occupied, for the most part, the one remark as will serve to bind to- side of a quadrangle, in which the young
cattle were folded; the other three sides gether the extracts.
being enclosed and sheltered by the barns, We commence with the follow- stables, and other farm offices. A kitchen ing graphic sketch of the class of garden stocked with the common potScottish society among which Dr. herbs theu in use, and sometimes with a Waugh was born and educated ; sheltered perhaps by a hedge of boortree
few fruit-trees, extended on one side, and between whom and the pre- or elder, and often skirted by a few aged sent living race (too much dege- forest trees; while the low, thatched nerated, we fear, from this lovely dwellings of the hinds and cotters stood simplicity), he formed one of the cabbage-garden, or kail-yard, behind, and
at a little distance, each with its small few remaining links.
its stack of peat or turf fuel in front. “ Alexander Waugh was born on the “ An upland farm, of the common ave16th of August, 175+, at East Gordon, a rage size, extending to about four or five small village in the parish of Gordon, hundred acres, partly arable and partly Berwickshire. Thomas Waugh and Mar- pastoral, usually employed three or four garet Johnstone, bis parents, belonged to ploughs; and the master's household, the class of small farmers, who for some exclusive of his own family, consisted of centuries were the cultivators of the soil six or seven unmarried servants, male and throughout every part of Scotland; and female. The married servants,-namely, who, being generally considered by their a head shepherd, and a hind or two (as landlords as the hereditary feudatories of the married ploughmen were termed),their families, were accustomed to succeed occupied cottages apart; as likewise did each other from father to son, with nearly the cotters, who were rather a sort of as little variation as the proprietors them- farm retainers than servants, being bound selves.
only to give the master, in lieu of rent,