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ity is never more conveniently lodged, than when she lies concealed under the disguise of eminent humility.

Sometimes, Vanity, to gain her point, disclaims even her own existence. I say it without vanity-I speak it without the least ostentationis often made the prelude to self commendation.

It is questionable whether man would be a laughing animal, if he were not a vain one. But without all question, it is vanity that most generally affects his risibles when he laughs at his fellow man.

In many instances, Public Virtue would never have gone so far, if Vanity had not borne it company. Jehu, for example, never had driven so furiously to carry forward a holy cause, had not vanity rode with him. “Come see my zeal!"

What is called Liberality, frequently is nothing more than the vanity of giving. We are exceedingly prone to give, (whenever we give at all,) hoping to receive if not in kind, at least in credit and honor. So, also, Vanity gives praise, in hopes of receiving it back with interest

It is owing to vanity that we voluntarily endure unhappiness, to appear happy; that we rób ourselves of necessaries, to appear as if our circumstances were plentiful and affluent. Many a one is at more expense in maintaining Vanity's brood, than it would cost him to bring up, in a plain way, a family of children.

Vanity undervalues itself with a view to extort praise. “When any one" (says Dr. Johpson)" complains of the want of what he is known to possess in an eminent degree, he waits with impatience to be contradicted."

Reproof is often given, not so much to mend the reproved, as to make it appear that the reprover's self is free from the faults which he reproves.

Advice is often offered, rather to give the adviser the air of wisdom, than to benefit the advised.

Secrets oftentimes are divulged, more from the vanity of one's having been intrusted with them, than from any other motive.

As vanity-in various proportions, variously directed, mixed up with different elements, and displaying itself in different forms is a universal quality or principle in mankind, so it belongs to our species exclusively, perhaps. For we have no reason to think that, either above or below us, in the whole universe of God, there is any

other race or order of creatures like man in this respect.

Nor man, nor woman, is there, who hath not so much as a little spice of vanity, either in external conduct, or in the secret folds of the mind. In a moderate degree, this marvellous quality is not inconsistent with real and great moral excellence: but in the extreme, or when it is the master principle, it is then, that plague of the heart which taints all the springs of action. Neither is there any thing more carefully to be guarded against, and nipt in the bud, in the course of early education. Because the extreme of vanity is of near kin to the extreme of avarice. The

very
vain
person,
like the

very avaricious one, makes every thing centre in self, and will use as many low and vile tricks for applause, as does the other for wealth. Moreover, vanity, like avarice, commonly incroncos withi'nma more plenteously it is fed, the more voracious becomes its appetite.

A word on Egotism :-it is not always to be censured with asperity. There are egotists of amiable dispositions and estimable characters. The egotism which is the effect of good natured vanity, rather than arrogant self-conceit, is a foible that claims a large share of indulgence. One who has a proper sympathy with poor human nature, will not be strict to inark the little weaknesses and failings from which none are entirely exempt..

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CHAP. LV.

Of the rueful consequences of living too fast.

Few practical errors, of a secular nature, are of so innocent intention, and yet of so direful consequence, as that of OVERLIVING, for the special sake of making a figure. Those who are first the subjects of this er

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ror, and then its victims, are not usually of the baser sort. So far from it, they are, for the most part, of liberal views, and generously animated with a desire of distinction. Ardently bent upon that object, and knowing that, in this strange world, nothing confers distinction so much as wealth, they assume, and strive hard to hold up, the semblance of wealth, though unfortunately destitute of the reality. And hew can they do otherwise, without suffering the agonies of mortification ? Endowed with keen sensibility, it touches them deep, that some of their neighbors, no better than themselves, should make a better appearance, and of course attract more notice. How can they put their sons and their daughthers, as well as wives, upon a footing with those who are fashionably called good families, unless they equal, or nearly approach them, in the expenses of the table and in personal habiliments ?

This path, bordered on every side with precipices, is often gone into unawares at first. It is indiscretion mixed up with vanity, and that without a single particle of the corrupt leaven of intentional dishonesty. But though overliving may, in its commencement, be owing to mere indiscretion combined with a seemingly harmless vanity, yet in its progress, it becomes deserving of a far worse name. That is indeed a pernicious and mortal error, whereby one puts himself into circumstances which, as it were, compel him to commit new errors, increasing in magnitude as fast as in number.

When a man is once resolved to keep up expensive appearances till he can hold out no longer, his moral frame goes to wreck as fast as his circumstances. However honest, however trust-worthy he had been in his better days, he no longer possesses these estimable qualities, nor any just sense of honor. He casts about him for arts of shift and evasion. The perpetual duns at his door he tries to satisfy with fair promises, which he has no expectation or intention of performing. His heart becomes callous towards his creditors, and he grows quite regardless of their feelings, however deplorably they have to suffer by him. Like a drowning man, he catches at every thing. To gain a little respite, he will inveigle his near friend into suretyship, and will drag his friend along with him to ruin.

Poor human nature is seldom proof against strong temptations voluntarily run into; and as seldom, per haps, in the instance under consideration, as in any other. Nor are there any who are fairly entitled to promise themselves beforehand, that their integrity can stem the moral whirlpool in which so many characters, once fair, have been overwhelmed.

An excellent rule has been laid down by the eminent moralist, Dr. Johnson; and it were to be wished that young men in particular would remember it, and make a practical use of it at the outset of active life: the rule is this—“A man's voluntary expenses should not exceed his income.” A vast mass of misery and mischief might be prevented, were it the general custom to adhere to this maxim as far as circumstances might admit.

But as respects most of the American population, whose incomes depend altogether upon their personal exertions, it is not enough that they are fully adequate to their expenses: in the prime and health of life they should resolutely reduce their expenses below their gains, or they will suffer want in sickness and age. If they spend as fast as they earn, and that without urgent necessity, their improvidence is no less pitiful than that of the storied savage, who cut down the tree in order to enjoy the fruit. Not to mention that those who are parents of small children are bound by sacred ties, 'not only to give them a present support, but to provide if possible against the contingency of their becoming orphans: a condition doubly calamitous to those hapless children, who, from the enjoyment of superfluities, suddenly sink into poverty, and suffer the pinching want of necessaries.

CHAP. LVỊ.

Of banqueting upon borrowing.

“Be not made a beggar by banqueting upon borrowing, when thou hast nothing in thy purse."

ECCLES. xviji. 38.

The moral philosopher of old Jewry, who penned this admirable book, is practical in his observations, and at the same time, acute and discriminating. He dips not into the incomprehensible subtleties of abstract science, relative to the mysterious frame and texture of humanity, but describes the wonderful creature Man, such as he is shown to be by his actions, and adapts his moral and prudential cautions and precepts to man as he is to his condition and conduct in real life.

Whether the sage had himself been taken in, by some of them, or from whatever cause, he hits off certain borrowers of his own time, with a peculiar keenness of description, in the passage that here follows:

“ Many, when a thing was lent them, reckoned it to be found, and put them to trouble that helped them. Till he hath received, he will kiss a man's hand; for his neighbor's money he will speak submissively; but when he should repay, he will prolong the time and returu words of grief, and complain of the time. If he prevail, he shall hardly receive the half, and shall count as if he had found it: if not, he hath deprived him of his money, and he hath gotten him an enemy without cause: he payeth him with cursings and railings; and for honor he will pay him disgrace."

The sage next proceeds to relate how the aforesaid conduct of some certain borrowers went to discourage all liberality in lending. “Many therefore have refused to lend for other men's ill dealing, fearing to be defrauded."*

And here one might amuse himself not a little with comparing the past with the present-things relative to borrowing and lending, as they stood some thousand *Chapter xxix.

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