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OF THE WAR

BY

EVA MARCH TAPPAN, PH.D.

Author of The Little Book of the Flag"

"An Elementary History of our Country".
"American Hero Stories,England's Story"

Old World Hero Stories"
Our European Ancestors"

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her graof History. Harding, to Mr. Woof His

For their kindness in reading and criticizing her manuscript, the author wishes to express her gratitude to Dr. Evarts B. Greene, Professor of History at the University of Illinois, to Dr. Samuel B. Harding, Professor of History at Indiana University, to Mr. Waldo G. Leland, Member of Staff, Department of Historical Research of Carnegie Institute, and to Mr. Hanson Hart Webster of the Editorial Staff of the publishers.

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CONTENTS

I. THE SPARK THAT EXPLODED THE MAGAZINE . . .

The Turks and Turkey — The unrest of the Balkan peo-

ples — The Balkan Wars — Serbia — Belgrade – The in-
dependence of the Serbians — The desire of the Balkan
peoples to be divided according to their nationalities -
Causes of their discontent — The assassination of the Arch-
duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Serajevo - The Aus-
tro-Hungarian note and Serbia's reply - Russia's resources
and wishes — Germany's aims — The condition of Austria-
Hungary - The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente -
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

III. “KITCHENER'S MOB” . . . . . . 28

Japan and Montenegro join the Allies — Japan captures

Kiao-chau - German aims in Turkey - How Turkey was
tricked into the war — The two groups of combatants
How Germans are trained for war — Rapidity of their mo-
bilization - Lord Kitchener creates a volunteer army -
His letter - His death – Trenches and trench fighting —
Dangers in captured trenches — Pranks of the Irish - The
double line of trenches — The Eastern Front — Von Hin-
denburg's success - The Russians in Galicia --- How Serbia
was saved by King Peter — How Germany's fleet was bot-
tled up - Results of the war at the end of 1914.

less telegraphy and the telephone — Tanks — Flying ma-
chines and anti-aircraft guns — Work of the aircraft
Submarines — Teleferica — Value in war of mules, horses,
pigeons, and dogs — The Blue Star and the Red Star.

V. THE TROUBLES OF NEUTRALS . . . . . . 52

“Quiet" times on the Western Front - Attacking a
trench — Neuve Chapelle - The Canadians at Ypres —
Energy of the French and the English - The duties and
rights of neutrals — England interferes with American
trade - Germany's undersea warfare — American sales of
guns and ammunition - Torpedoing of Red Cross ships.

VI. THE WAR IN 1915 . . . . . . . . . 62

“Frightfulness" — Destruction of the Lusitania – De-
feat of the Russians at the Mazurian Lakes — The siege of
Przemysl — Retreat of the Russians in Galicia - Fall of
Lemberg and Warsaw - The Grand Duke Nicholas sent to
the Caucasus - Typhus fever in Serbia - Bulgaria joins
the Central Powers — Serbia is overrun - Russia's geo-
graphical difficulties - The plan to capture Constantinople
- The Dardanelles and their fortifications — Failure of the
fleet — The struggle at Gallipoli - The Allied forces with-
draw — Results of the year 1915.

VII. THE WAR IN 1916 . . . . . . . . . 73

Failure of the attempt to capture Verdun - Battle of the
Somme - Naval battle of Jutland - Portugal and Italy
enter the war “Italia Irredenta" - San Marino becomes
an ally-New “Fronts" - The Turks aim at the Suez
Canal — Massacres of the Armenians - The Grand Duke
Nicholas captures Erzerum and Trebizond - The Russians
make a successful drive into Galicia -The English surrender
to the Turks in Mesopotamia - Bravery of the Italians
Rumania joins the Allies, is overrun by the Central Powers
- Montenegro is devastated — Results of the year 1916.

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VIII. THE UNITED STATES ENTERS THE WAR . . . .

The United States proclaims her neutrality - German
spies - Dishonorable acts of the German Embassy --The
crimes of Germany - Submarine warfare - Count von
Bernstorff receives his passports - The United States de-
clares war - Democracy - Autocracy - The Government
of Germany - Why we are fighting.

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IX. THE CRUMBLING OF RUSSIA . . . . . . .

The grievances of the Russian people - Their revolution

- Effect upon the war — "America is our ally” – Service
of our Navy - Many nations join the Allies — “Spurlos
versenkt” — Greece enters the war — Explosion of mines
- Armored tanks at Cambrai — The Italians on the Piave
- The English capture Bagdad, Beersheba, Gaza, Joppa,
and at length enter Jerusalem - History of Jerusalem
Tact of General Allenby — A national home for the Jews —
Capture of Jericho - Germany seizes the Ukraine - The
allies in Murmansk and Vladivostok-The Czecho-Slovaks
— The independence of Siberia — The unconditional sur-
render of Bulgaria.

X. THE AMERICANS AS HELPERS . . . . . . . 109

Plattsburg — "Intensive training" — "Selective draft"

- Soldiers' and sailors' insurance - Cantonments – The
salute - General Foch in command — Americans as
soldiers --Teaching English at the cantonments — Ameri-
cans struggle with French — Our Navy - How our Gov-
ernment gets money for the war -- The Y.M.C.A. — The
Knights of Columbus — The Y.M.H.A. — The Red Cross
- Its Indian members - The American Fund for French
Wounded – The Friends — Work of college boys and col.
lege girls – The nurses' camp at Vassar - The Salvation

Army – Boy Scouts — Girl Scouts and Campfire Girls.

POSTSCRIPT. THE END OF THE WAR . . . . . 126

APPENDIX. PRESIDENT Wilson's PEACE TERMS. . 132

PRONUNCIATION OF THE PROPER NAMES . . 134

INDEX . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

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