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was not concerned with politics, national or international. At such an hour as this all Christians were in the widest sense political, and those on whom special burdens of responsibility were laid could find no nobler interest than that of helping to make the coming peace of such a nature as to render the recurrence of the events of the last three years impossible. There were two ways of bringing about the escape from the war idea. In the first place by a change in the hearts and minds of men—the work to which the Church has set itself from the beginning, but wherein it has many times and in many ways lamentably failed. They did not, of course, despair of accomplishing that work, but they saw that it would be long before this change would come about. The other way was by turning to account what was certainly at the moment growing in Europe—the desire for peace-by forming somehow a convention of nations, each of which would pledge itself to employ its power to protect any one of the members of the convention from aggression, by finding a satisfactory means of settling by arbitration the difficulties that arise. If this were done we should have adopted the best means of preventing a recurrence of the horrors of the last three years. They were right to do all in their power to bring about the accomplishment of the hopes inspired by the suggestion of a League of Nations, because in so doing they were looking forward to something which is in accord with the mind of our Master Christ, the Prince of Peace. The Bishops of Norwich and Peterborough also spoke in support and the House of Convocation carried the resolution by a unanimous vote.
Extract from The Inter-Allied Labour War Aims
MAKING THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY
II. Whatever may have been the objects for which the war was begun the fundamental purpose of the InterAllied Conference in supporting the continuance of the struggle is that the world may henceforth be made safe for democracy.
Of all the conditions of peace none is so important to the peoples of the world as that there should be henceforth on earth no more war.
Whoever triumphs, the peoples will have lost unless an international system is established which will prevent war. What would it mean to declare the right of peoples to self-determination if this right were left at the mercy of new violations, and were not protected by a supernational authority? That authority can be no other than the League of Nations, in which not only all the present belligerents, but every other independent state, should be pressed to join.
The constitution of such a League of Nations implies the immediate establishment of an International High Court, not only for the settlement of all disputes between states that are of justiciable nature, but also for prompt and effective mediation between states in other issues that vitally interest the power of honour of such states. It is also under the control of the League of Nations that the consultation of peoples for purposes of selfdetermination must be organized. This popular right can be vindicated only by popular vote. The League of Nations shall establish the procedure of international jurisdiction, fix the methods which will maintain the freedom and security of the election, restore the political rights of individuals which violence and conquest may have injured, repress any attempt to use pressure or corruption, and prevent any subsequent reprisals. It will be also necessary to form an International Legislature, in which the representatives of every civilized state would have their allotted share and energetically push forward, step by step, the development of international legislation agreed to by, and definitely binding upon, the several states.
By a solemn agreement all the states and peoples consulted shall pledge themselves to submit every issue between two or more of them for settlement as aforesaid. Refusal to accept arbitration or to submit to the settlement will imply deliberate aggression, and all the nations will necessarily have to make common cause, by using any and every means at their disposal, either economical or military, against any state or states refusing to submit to the arbitration award, or attempting to break the world's covenant of peace.
But the sincere acceptance of the rules and decisions of the super-national authority implies, complete democratization in all countries; the removal of all the arbitrary powers who, until now, have assumed the right of choosing between peace and war; the maintenance or creation of legislatures elected by and on behalf of the sovereign right of the people; the suppression of secret diplomacy, to be replaced by the conduct of foreign policy under the control of popular legislatures, and the publication of all treaties, which must never be in contravention of the stipulation of the League of Nations, with the absolute
responsibility of the government, and more particularly of the foreign minister of each country to its legislature.
Only such a policy will enforce the frank abandonment of every form of imperialism. When based on universal democracy, in a world in which effective international guarantees against aggression have been secured, the League of Nations will achieve the complete suppression of force as the means of settling international differences.
The League of Nations, in order to prepare for the concerted abolition of compulsory military service in all countries, must first take steps for the prohibition of fresh armaments on land and sea and for the common limitation of the existing armaments by which the peoples are burdened; as well as the control of war manufactures and the enforcement of such agreements as may be agreed to thereupon. The states must undertake such manufactures themselves, so as entirely to abolish profit-making armament firms, whose pecuniary interest lies always in the war scares and progressive competition in the preparation for war.
The nations, being armed solely for self-defence and for such action as the League of Nations may ask them to take in defence of international right, will be left free, under international control either to create a voluntarily recruited force or to organize the nation for defence without professional armies for long terms of military service.
To give effect to the above principles, the Inter-Allied Conference declares that the rules upon which the League of Nations will be founded must be included in the treaty of peace, and will henceforth become the basis of the settlement of differences. In that spirit the Conference expresses its agreement with the propositions put forward by President Wilson in his last message:
(1) That each part of the final settlement must be
based upon the essential justice of that particular case, and upon such adjustments as are most likely to bring a peace that will be permanent.
(2) That peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game now forever discredited of the balance of power; but that
(3) Every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and not as a part of any mere adjustments of compromise of claims amongst rival states.
(4) That all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing new or perpetuating old elements of discord and antagonism that would be likely in time to break the peace of Europe, and, consequently, of the world.