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against the American left. As the British moved forward, Morgan with his riflemen attacked their right flank, while a

strong force assailed them in front. The whole Second

line was broken and the British undertook to battle of Freeman's form on another line farther back. Arnold was Farm, Oct.

quick to seize the opportunity and fell upon them 7, 1777

before they could form their line. As the British gave way Gates sent forward the rest of his troops, his whole army now numbering 20,000, and the British were overwhelmed.

Burgoyne retreated up the river to Saratoga, and on October 17 surrendered his entire force. By the terms of

the “Convention" of Saratoga, as the surrender

was called, it was agreed that the British should at Saratoga, march out of camp with the honors of war, stack Oct. 17,

their arms, march to Boston under a guard and 1777

there take ship for England under promise not to serve again during the American war. The terms of the convention were not favorably received by Congress and aroused much discussion. While the agreement was not expressly repudiated, its fulfillment met with so much objection and delay that the British troops were never permitted to return to England. They were kept in camps at various points as prisoners of war until the close of the Revolution, when most of them made America their permanent home.

Surrender

TOPICAL REFERENCES 1. Hessian Troops in the Revolution: Channing, History of the United States, Vol. III, pp. 211-215; Van Tyne, American Revolution, pp. 97-101; Fiske, American Revolution, Vol. I, pp. 161, 162; E. J. Lowell, The Hessians in the Revolution.

2. The Fight for New York: Fiske, Vol. I, pp. 198–227; Van Tyne, Chap. VII; Channing, Vol. III, Chap. VIII; F. V. Greene, Revolutionary War, pp. 28–60.

3. The Battles of Trenton and Princeton: Fiske, Vol. I, pp. 228–238; Greene, pp. 62-72; W. S. Stryker, Battles of Trenton and Princeton.

4. The British Attempt to seize the line of the Hudson: Fiske, Vol. I, Chap. VI; Greene, pp. 75-82, 96-108; Channing, Vol. III, pp. 256–266; H. B. Carrington, Battles of the American Revolution, pp. 303–334.

5. Brandywine and Germantown: Fiske, Vol. I, pp. 312–324 ; Greene, pp. 80–95; Carrington, pp. 362–391.

6. Saratoga: Fiske, Vol. I, Chap. VII; Greene, pp. 109–131 ; Carrington, pp. 335–354; Channing, Vol. III, pp. 266-273; W. L. Stone, Campaign of Burgoyne.

CHAPTER VIII

THE FRENCH ALLIANCE

In the fall of 1775 the Continental Congress had appointed a “Secret Committee on Foreign Correspondence,"

nings and six months later Silas Deane, a member of of American Congress from Connecticut, was sent to France

plomacy as the first American diplomatic agent. Although he went under the name of Jones and the disguise of a West Indian merchant, British spies discovered his identity almost as soon as he arrived at Paris, and the British minister demanded his expulsion from France. Deane was soon granted a private interview by Louis XVI's foreign minister, the Comte de Vergennes, but most of his negotiations with the French government were carried on through Beaumarchais, an interesting adventurer who had great influence at court and who is known in literature as the author of Le Barbier de Séville and Le Mariage de Figaro. In October, 1776, Deane procured through Beaumarchais clothing for 20,000 men, 30,000 muskets, and large quantities of powder, shot, and cannon. Shipments to America were made by Beaumarchais through the agency of a new mercantile house with the fictitious name of “Hortalez et Cie.”

In March, 1777, the Marquis de Lafayette sailed for America to aid the patriot cause. The French government

was interested in the Revolution mainly through and other hostility to England, but Lafayette and many foreign other Frenchmen who volunteered their seryofficers

ices at this time were moved by their admiration of the political ideals of the Americans, who seemed to be bringing to pass and putting into practice the philo

Lafayette

sophical conceptions of Rousseau, Voltaire, and other French writers of the eighteenth century.

The number of Frenchmen who volunteered their seryices to the American cause was a serious embarrassment to the Continental Congress and to Washington, since it was impossible to give many of them commissions. The young Marquis de Lafayette, however, was a man of such prominent connections that, in view of our dependence on French aid, it was considered wise to give him a high commission, and he was appointed major general. For several months he was without a command and attached himself to Washington's headquarters. He took part in the battle of Brandywine, where he was wounded, and when Stephen was dismissed from the service Lafayette was given his division. Among other distinguished foreigners who

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. were granted commissions were Baron de Kalb, a German who had assumed the title of baron in order to secure a commission in the French army, Kosciuszko and Pulaski, both Poles, and Baron von Steuben, one of Frederick the Great’s veterans.

In September, 1776, Franklin and Jefferson were appointed commissioners to coöperate with Deane

Benjamin in securing the open recognition of France. Franklin at Jefferson declined this mission and Arthur Lee, the French

Court who was then in London, was appointed in his place. Franklin's arrival in Paris marks an epoch in the

[graphic]

history of the Revolution. His name was already familiar to all classes of the people as a philosopher and an apostle of liberty. As the agent of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts in London during the years preceding the Revolution, he had acquired an invaluable experience in the methods of European diplomacy. The ability with which he served his country until the conclusion of the treaty of peace justly entitles him to rank, even to the present day, as America's greatest diplomat. His venerable appearance, simple dress, wit, and ease of manner created enthusiasm wherever he went Numbers of busts and portraits of him were made and his features were reproduced on watches, rings, and snuffboxes. The French people, already sympathetically inclined, were completely won over to the American cause, and Vergennes was in favor of giving direct aid, but the king delayed mainly for the purpose of getting Spain to join the alliance with America.

When the news of Burgoyne's surrender reached France, there was great rejoicing, and Vergennes soon informed

the American commissioners that the treaties Treaty of alliance with which had already been under discussion would France, Feb. be signed. On February 6, 1778, two treaties 6, 1778

were signed by Vergennes and the American commissioners. One was a general commercial treaty. The other was a treaty of alliance, the first and only treaty of alliance ever signed by the United States. France agreed to send troops to America to aid the cause of independence, the possessions of France in the West Indies were guaranteed, and it was agreed that neither party would make peace with England without the consent of the other. The news of the French alliance, coming after the defeat

of Burgoyne, precipitated a crisis in the Britishi Crisis in the British ministry. On February 17, before learning of Cabinet

the alliance, Lord North had risen in the House of Commons and, to the amazement of everybody, proposed

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