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at the Alleghanies but for the fact that this western region was actually occupied by Virginians.

At the beginning of the Revolution Congress had made some effort to establish a navy, but with little success.

Several of the States, Massachusetts, ConnectiState navies

cut, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Caroprivateers

lina, organized State navies, but their operations were largely limited to the bays and rivers and their principal task was in warding off the marauding attacks of Tories. The seafaring experience of New Englanders found employment in privateering which was very popular and profitable. Even in privateering, however, the British had the advantage, for prior to the French alliance the Americans had captured six hundred British merchant vessels, while the British cruisers had captured nine hundred American vessels.

America produced one naval hero, however, whose reputation is world-wide, John Paul Jones. He was a ScotchJohn Paul man by birth who came to Virginia in 1773 and Jones settled at Fredericksburg. Jones was given command of the Ranger in 1777, and in the following spring he captured the British man-of-war Drake and made a descent on the town of Whitehaven on the English coast. In 1779, with the aid of France, he went to sea with five vessels, his flagship being the Bonhomme Richard. During the summer he cruised up and down the British coast, striking terror into the inhabitants and taking many prizes. On September 23, he met at the mouth of the Humber a fleet of merchant vessels convoyed by the men-of-war Serapis and Countess of Scarborough. After an hour's cannonading the Bonhomme Richard ran into the Serapis, and the bowsprit of the British vessel finally ran over the poop of the American ship. Jones quickly lashed the ships together and a desperate fight ensued at close quarters. When called on to surrender he replied that he had just begun to fight. After both ships were nearly destroyed the Serapis surrendered.

Dec. 20,

The Scarborough meanwhile had been captured by the Pallas.

Jones took his prizes to Holland and kept them there for several weeks despite the demand of the British government for their surrender. The Dutch sympathized deeply with the American cause, but under

declares war the pressure of England the government finally on Holland, ordered Jones to leave. He escaped with his

1780 ships to France. In October, 1780, the British captured Henry Laurens, who was on his way to Holland to negotiate a loan and had among his papers the draft of a treaty signed by an American agent and the chief magistrate of Amsterdam without, however, the authorization of the States-General. This caused great indignation in England, and the Dutch government was called upon to disavow the act and punish the magistrate. The Dutch government disavowed the act, but refused to punish the magistrate of Amsterdam. On December 20, England declared war against Holland.

This incident, however, was not the real reason for war. Holland had just joined the agreement which had existed for several months between Russia, Denmark, and

England at Sweden, known as the “Armed Neutrality.” war with the Catherine II had organized this maritime league great naval for the protection of neutral commerce. England denied the doctrine of the league, that free ships make free goods, but she did not care to go to war with Russia. Holland, however, had offended in other ways. Her West Indian possession, the island of St. Eustatius, had been the principal base for the Dutch contraband trade with the American colonies. The moment war was declared England sent orders to Rodney, who had left New York and was cruising in the West Indies, to completely destroy the island. These orders were ruthlessly carried out. England was now at war with France, Spain, and Holland, the three greatest naval powers next to herself, and on the naval situation the independence of America finally hinged. The end was not far off.

powers

TOPICAL REFERENCES 1. French Aid and the French Alliance: Fiske, American Revolution, Vol. II, Chap. VIII; Van Tyne, American Revolution, Chap. XII; J. W. Foster, A Century of American Diplomacy, Chap. I; Charlemagne Tower, The Marquis de La Fayette in the American Revolution, 2 Vols.; E. S. Corwin, The French Alliance.

2. Washington at Valley Forge: Fiske, Vol. II, Chap. IX; Greene, Revolutionary War, pp. 132–138; Carrington, Battles of the American Revolution, pp. 401–411.

3. Monmouth and Newport: Fiske, Vol. II, Chap. X; Channing, Vol. III, pp. 296–299; Greene, pp. 141-154; Carrington, pp. 412–456.

4. Expedition of George Rogers Clark: Fiske, Vol. II, pp. 103– 109; Van Tyne, Chap. XV; Roosevelt, Winning of the West, Vol. II, Chaps. I-III.

5. John Paul Jones: Fiske, Vol. II, pp. 116–129; Channing, Vol. III, pp. 308–310; E. S. Maclay, History of the Navy, Vol. I, Part I.

6. Spain and Holland at War with England: Fiske, Vol. II, pp. 130–162; Van Tyne, Chap. XVII; Channing, Vol. III, Chap. X.

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AFTER the surrender of Burgoyne, the British forces in the north acted almost entirely on the defensive. The attempt to break the rebellion at the center had

Georgia failed, but the ministry thought that they might overrun by at least seize and hold Georgia and the Carolinas, the British,

1778 and, if successful in this attempt, Virginia also. After the defeat of the British fleet before Charleston in June, 1776, the Southern States had been left for a time unmolested. In 1778 there had been a sort of border warfare between Georgia and Florida carried on, on the British side, mainly by Tories. The American forces in the south were under command of General Robert Howe of North Carolina. Howe was not very successful in the defense of Georgia and, after the occupation of Savannah by a force of 3500 British regulars from New York, the State was entirely overrun by the British.

General Benjamin Lincoln of Massachusetts was appointed by Congress to supersede Howe in command of the southern department and arrived at Charleston in

The AmerDecember, 1778. In September, 1779, D'Estaing icans reappeared with a powerful French fleet off the pulsed at

Savannah, coast of Georgia, and he and Lincoln planned the

Oct. 9, 1779 recapture of Savannah. On the 23d their combined forces invested the city, but after three weeks D'Estaing grew impatient, fearing that an autumnal storm might overtake his fleet. On October 9 therefore he undertook to carry the city by assault. Some of the outer works

were carried, but the British held their own and the Americans were totally defeated, losing more than 1000 men, among them the gallant Pulaski. The French fleet was withdrawn and Lincoln retired to Charleston.

When Sir Henry Clinton learned that the French fleet had left he and Cornwallis went south with a force of 8000 men.

After their arrival in Georgia, the British were The fall of Charleston,

able to muster a force of more than 10,000. From May 12,

Georgia the British advanced against Charleston, 1780

arriving in sight of the city February 26, 1780. Lincoln had put into the city all the reënforcements that he could get. Washington had sent south practically the whole Virginia line, its ranks greatly depleted by hard service in New Jersey and around New York. This detachment consisted of the brigades of Generals Woodford and Scott. Washington had also detached from his army most of the North Carolina troops.

Lincoln's entire force at Charleston numbered 7000 men. He should unquestionably have withdrawn his troops before the city was invested, as there was no hope of his being able to hold out against the combined attack of Clinton's army and the British navy. Finally on May 12, 1780, when the British were preparing to begin an assault, Lincoln surrendered in order to avoid unnecessary loss of life. The militia were allowed to go home on parole but the 3000 Continental troops were held as prisoners till regularly exchanged.

The loss of Charleston was a serious blow, but the loss of Lincoln's army at this time was nothing short of a dis

aster. In a short time the whole of South CaroIrregular warfare in

lina was overrun by the British. Under the overSouth

shadowing presence of the British army the Tories Carolina

became very active, raiding the plantations of their neighbors and settling many an old score. The patriots, however, did not give up the contest. Partisan corps commanded by Pickens, Sumter, and Marion resorted

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