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the rest of the treaty ratified by a bare two-thirds vote June 24, 1795.
During his first term Washington had tried to administer the government without recognizing the existence of political parties. He had called to his aid men of
Close of various shades of political belief. Shortly after Washingthe beginning of his second term Jefferson re- ton's ad-.
ministration signed, and two years later Edmund Randolph withdrew under a cloud. The cabinet was almost entirely reconstituted and the positions filled with Federalists, but it was with great reluctance that Washington gave up his nonpartisan idea.
At the opening of the campaign in 1796 he let it be known that he would not accept a third term, and later issued to the public his famous Farewell Address, in which wa he bequeathed to his countrymen as a political refuses a legacy the policy of avoiding European entangle- third te ments. He retired to Mount Vernon wearied and worn by the incessant attacks of his critics. He had again carried the country through a trying period and had established the new government on a firm and enduring basis. There had been a return of prosperity, the population was growing rapidly and extending westward, and three new States had been added to the Union : Vermont in 1791, Kentucky in 1792, and Tennessee in 1796.
• TOPICAL REFERENCES 1. Organization of the New Government: McMaster, Vol. I,. pp. 525–544; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 70-101 ; Channing, Vol. IV, Chap. II; J. S. Bassett, The Federalist System, Chap. I.
2. The First Ten Amendments to the Constitution: Bassett, pp. 21-23; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 102-104; Henry, Patrick Henry, Vol. II, pp. 409-463; Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution, Vol. III, pp. 713–755.
3. Hamilton's Financial Program: McMaster, Vol. I, pp. 545– 585; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 130-142, 158-162; Channing, Vol. III,
Chap. III; Bassett, Chap. II; H. C. Lodge, Alexander Hamilton, Chaps. V, VI.
4. The Whisky Insurrection: McMaster, Vol. II, pp. 41-43, 189–203; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 275–280; Bassett, Chap. VII.
5. The Oi gin of Political Parties : Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 171178, 202–214; McMaster, Vol. II, pp. 47–58, 85–88; Bassett, Chap. III; H. J. Ford, American Politics, Chap. VII; Schouler, Thomas Jefferson, Chaps. X, XI.
6. Indian Affairs: McMaster, Vol. I, pp. 593–604, Vol. II, pp. 43–47, 67–72; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 152–157; Bassett, Chaps. IV, V; Roosevelt, Winning of the West, Vol. IV, Chaps. I, II.
7. American Neutrality and the Mission of Gênet: McMaster, Vol. II, pp. 89–141 ; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 241–258; Channing, Vol. IV, Chap. V; Bassett, Chap. VI.
8. The Jay Treaty: McMaster, Vol. II, pp. 212–256; Schouler, Vol. I, pp. 289–304, 308–316; Bassett, Chap. VIII.
FEDERALISTS AND REPUBLICANS
WHEN Washington announced in 1796 that he would not accept a third term the Federalists put forward John Adams
John Adams Thomas Pinck- elected ney as candi- president,
1796 dates for the presidency and vice-presidency, while the Republicans agreed on Jefferson and Burr. Hamilton was opposed to Adams and suggested to some of the Federalist electors that they withhold their votes from Adams so as to give Pinckney the presidency. Under the method provided by the Constitution there were
ballots for vice-president, JOHN ADAMS.
but each elector voted for
two names for president, and the one receiving the highest number of votes became president and the one receiving the next highest became vice-president.
Adams's friends learned of Hamilton's scheme, however, and withheld a number of votes from Pinckney, with the result that Adams received 71 votes, Pinckney 59, and Jef
ferson 68. Thus Adams became president and Jefferson, his opponent, vice-president. Adams was a man of high character and a sincere patriot, with a wide experience in public affairs both at home and abroad, but he was cold, tactless, and lacking in many of the essential elements of political leadership.
The Jay treaty had caused deep offense in France and greatly embarrassed Monroe, who had assured the French Strained
government that no such terms would be acrelations cepted. Shortly before the close of Washington's with France
administration Monroe was recalled and C. C. Pinckney appointed to succeed him. The French government, not liking the attitude of the Federalists, refused to receive Pinckney and finally ordered him to leave France. Many of the Federalists now demanded war, but Adams and Hamilton realized that the country was unprepared, while the Republicans insisted that there was no ground for war, and that strained relations were due to the mismanagement of the Federalists.
Adams was determined if possible to reëstablish diplomatic intercourse, and in the autumn of 1797 sent a comThe X, Y, Z mission to France consisting of C. C. Pinckney, affair
John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry. When the commissioners arrived in Paris Talleyrand, who was foreign minister, delayed receiving them and when they grew impatient at their treatment they were informed through secret agents, designated in the dispatches which were sent to the president as X, Y, Z, that money was what was wanted and that if they would pay substantial sums to Talleyrand and his associates, they would be recognized and their business attended to. The spirit of Pinckney's emphatic reply, “No, no, no, not a sixpence,” was caught by some happy phrase-maker in America, who gave currency to it in the form, “Millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute.” This phrase became the watchword of the day,
As soon as the “X, Y, Z” dispatches were received the president announced to Congress that he would never send another minister to France without assurances that he would be “received, respected, and preparations
for war and honored as the representative of a great, free, naval repowerful, and independent nation.” The public
" 1798-1800 cation of the dispatches created intense feeling and the recommendations of the president were promptly enacted into law by Congress.
The Department of the Navy was created, the construction of a large number of ships was ordered, the seizure of French ships was authorized, the treaties of 1778 were repealed, and the organization of an army of 10,000 men was begun. Washington was appointed to the chief command and accepted on condition that Hamilton be appointed second in command. As the United States could not fight France on land, Hamilton wished to coöperate with England in an attack on the colonies of Spain, France's ally. He proposed to annex Florida and New Orleans to the United States and to help to establish the independence of Spanish America.
Adams, however, did not favor this scheme, and hostilities were confined to the sea. In a little over two years United States ships captured over eighty French vessels, most of them merchantmen or privateers, though among them were a few ships of the French navy, such as L’Insurgente, which was captured by Captain Truxtun of the Constellation after a regular engagement lasting over an hour. Notwithstanding these sea fights neither country declared war. Meanwhile Napoleon had come into power, and in 1800 he authorized a treaty which reëstablished diplomatic relations and adjusted some of the differences.
In the midst of the preparations for war with France the Federalists took an unwise advantage of their temporary popularity by attempting to crush out all opposition on the