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accumulating in her banks. Massachusetts bank deposits rose from $1,709,000 in 1811 to $7,326,000 in 1814. But the disaffection did not stop here. New England kept up a lively trade with the enemy from which large profits were derived. Large quantities of flour, grain, and other produce were shipped to Halifax to supply the British fleet, while the British army in Canada was kept supplied with beef. In August, 1814, General Prevost wrote to his government: “Two thirds of the army in Canada are at this moment eating beef provided by American contractors. Large droves are daily crossing the lines into Lower Canada." The embargo which Congress at the instance of the president had placed on exports was not successful in stopping this illicit trade and simply increased the discontent in New England.
With the Federal Capitol in ruins and the country in deepest gloom, the radical leaders of the opposition summoned
a convention of the New England States to meet The Hartford Con- at Hartford to consider the grievances of their vention,
section and to adopt some means of redress. December 15, 1814 About twenty-five delegates attended the conJanuary 5, vention, which met December 15, 1814. Those 1815
from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island were appointed by the State legislatures, while those from New Hampshire and Vermont were chosen by local gatherings. As the proceedings were secret and the journal published later manifestly incomplete, what really went on in the convention has never been fully revealed. It is supposed, however, that secession and the formation of a confederacy of the eastern States, possibly in connection with Canada, was the ultimate object.
In the contemporary New England press resistance of Federal authority was openly discussed, several writers asserting that the Constitution was nothing more than a treaty between independent sovereigns, and one declaring
that “State sovereignty excludes the possibility of State rebellion: a sovereign State may infract its treaties, but can never rebel ; nor can any citizen of such State, while acting under and in pursuance of its authority, be guilty of treason against the United States.” Before adjourning to meet at the call of the president the convention proposed as an ultimatum the following amendments to the Constitution: that the compromise of the Constitution counting three fifths of the slaves in apportioning representatives should be repealed; that a two thirds vote of both houses should be required to admit a new State, to declare war, or to interdict commercial intercourse with any foreign nation; that no naturalized person should be permitted to hold any civil office; that the office of president should be limited to one term and that it should not be filled from the same State two terms in succession. Before these amendments could be submitted to Congress news arrived of the treaty of Ghent and of Jackson's victory at New Orleans.
The Revolution had wrought little change in the commercial relations of America and England. The United States continued to buy most of its manufactured Results of articles from the mother country. The period the war of restricted commerce from 1808 to 1815 saw the rapid development of manufactures, so that the country became in large measure a self-sustaining economic unit. This was the most important result of the War of 1812. It marked the end of commercial dependence on Great Britain just as the Revolution marked the end of political dependence.
The conclusion of peace also dealt the death blow to New England Federalism. The Federalist leaders never recovered from their connection with the Hartford Convention and the party soon ceased to exist as a factor in national politics. The disasters of the war taught the Republicans the need of a stronger army and navy and of a more efficient administration of the Federal government.
The failure of either Great Britain or the United States to gain any material advantage along the Canadian frontier led to a very sensible arrangement in 1817, by which each side agreed to limit its armament on the Great Lakes. Thus for a hundred years the practical neutralization of the Lakes has saved the two governments the enormous cost of maintaining fleets on these inland waters.
TOPICAL REFERENCES 1. American Reverses on the Canadian Frontier, 1812: Babcock, · American Nationality, Chap. VI; Adams, History of the United States, Vol. VI, Chaps. XIV-XVI; McMaster, Vol. III, pp. 556–560, Vol. IV, pp. 1–18; Mahan, War of 1812, Vol. I, pp. 337–350.
2. Single-Ship Actions: Babcock, pp. 106-112; Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 545–546; Adams, Vol. VI, Chap. XVII; Mahan, Vol. I, pp. 412–422, Vol. II, pp. 1–9; E. S. Maclay, History of the Navy, Vol. I, pp. 344–435; Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, Vol. I, Chaps. III, V.
3. The British Blockade of American Ports: Babcock, pp. 117120; Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 528–544; Adams, Vol. VII, Chap. XI; Mahan, Vol. I, pp. 399_411, Vol. II, Chap. XIII.
4. Privateers and Prizes: Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 526-529; Adams, Vol. VII, Chap. XIII; Mahan, Vol. II, Chap. XIV; Maclay, History of American Privateers, Part II.
5. Lake and Frontier Fighting, 1813–1814: Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 487–506; Mahan, Vol. II, Chaps. X-XII, XV; Maclay, History of the Navy, Vol. I, pp. 469–520, 603–621.
6. The British Attack on Washington and Baltimore : Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 506-511; Adams, Vol. VIII, Chaps. IV-VI; Mahan, Vol. II, Chap. XVI.
7. The Battle of New Orleans: Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 513-520 ; Adams, Vol. VIII, Chaps. XII-XIV; Mahan, Vol. II, Chap. XVII; James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, Vol. II; J. S. Bassett, Life of Andrew Jackson, Vol. I, Chaps. X-XII.
8. The Treaty of Ghent: Babcock, Chap. X; Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 547–557; Adams, Vol. IX, Chaps. I, II; Mahan, Vol. II, Chap. XVIII.
9. Disaffection in New England: Babcock, Chap. IX; Channing, Vol. IV, pp. 557–564; Schouler, Vol. II, pp. 417–430; Adams, Vol. VIII, Chap. XI.
INDUSTRIAL GROWTH AND WESTWARD EXPANSION
The fifteen years following the War of 1812 were a period of transition in industry, in trade, in politics, and in almost every condition affecting the life of the people. A period of These years witnessed the rapid expansion of transition the West and its rise to a position of great importance in national politics, the extension of the plantation system over a wider area, the development of manufactures, the alignment of the sections on the tariff issue, the demand for internal improvements, the strengthening of the Federal power through the great judicial decisions of John Marshall, the reshaping of political parties, and the successful assertion in the Monroe Doctrine of a national foreign policy which is still the cardinal principle of American diplomacy.
The charter of the bank which Hamilton had established in 1791 had expired in 1811 and Congress had refused to recharter it. The country then had to depend
The second for a currency on the notes of State banks issued bank of the under varying laws and of unequal and uncer- United
States tain value. During the war the Federal government had experienced such great inconvenience from the lack of a national bank that at its close the Republican leaders decided, notwithstanding the fight which their party had made against Hamilton's bank, to create a new one on the same model. Calhoun was chairman of the committee which reported the bill, though it did not embody fully his own views. The new bank was to have a capital of $35,000,000 and was authorized to establish branches in the several States. The government subscribed one fifth of the stock and was to name five of the twenty-five directors.
At the beginning of the War of 1812 the duties on imports had been doubled for the purpose of raising a revenue, with The tariff of the provision that they should be reduced to the 1816 former rate within a year after the close of the war. American manufacturers, who had greatly prospered during the interruption of the trade with Europe and who had founded new industries, were now alarmed lest they should be swamped by the accumulated products of the English and continental factories, and appealed to Congress to continue the war rates. Dallas proposed a bill which was distinctly protective and it passed with the support of President Madison, Calhoun, and other Southern leaders, who wanted to see the United States a self-sustaining nation, commercially independent of the Old World.
"John Randolph and other factional Republicans opposed the measure, so that the South was divided. New England was also divided, the manufacturing interests favoring the bill and the commercial and shipping interests opposing it. The Middle States and the West were almost solidly for it. The Southern representatives who voted for this tariff from patriotic motives were not willing to see the protective principle carried any further and after 1816 we find them voting consistently against high tariffs.
As early as 1806 Congress had made an appropriation for the construction of the Cumberland Road, a national Internal im- highway extending from the Potomac across the provements mountains to Wheeling on the Ohio. With the growth of the West the demand for the appropriation of large sums for the construction of roads and canals became more insistent. This policy of internal improvements was generally supported by the representatives from the Middle States and from the West and at first by Calhoun and other Southern statesmen on the ground that it was necessary