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McClellan's corps joined Pope before the battle, but FitzJohn Porter, who commanded one of them, was charged with failure to coöperate. After a long trial he was cashiered, but it appeared later that great injustice had been done him and years afterward he was restored to his place in the army by special act of Congress.

On September 3 McClellan, whose army had been brought up the Potomac to Alexandria, was placed in command of

the defenses of Washington, and a few days Results of the

later Pope was relieved of his command and campaign

McClellan again placed in charge of the army. Lee's campaign had been a brilliant success. He had driven the enemy from the Rappahannock to the defenses at Washington. He had captured thirty guns, 20,000 rifles, and 7000 prisoners, and inflicted on the Federals the loss of 13,500 in killed and wounded. His own loss was 10,000.


1. First Manassas, or Bull Run: Wood and Edmonds, Civil War in the United States, Chap. V; Rhodes, History of the United States, Vol. III, pp. 443–457 ; W. H. Russell, My Diary North and South, pp. 434–478; J. K. Hosmer, Appeal to Arms, Chap. IV; G. F. R. Henderson, Stonewall Jackson, Vol. I, Chap. VI; J. C. Ropes, Story of the Civil War, Chap. IX.

2. Federal Successes in the West: Wood and Edmonds, Chap. XIII; Rhodes, Vol. III, pp. 581-600, 617-628; Hosmer, Chap. VI; Ropes, Vol. II, Chap. I; U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs, Chaps. XXI-XXIV.

3. The Fall of New Orleans: Rhodes, Vol. III, pp. 629-630; Hosmer, Chap. VIII; E. S. Maclay, History of the Navy, Vol. II, Chaps. IX, X; Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of Confederate Government, Vol. II, Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX.

4. The Fight between the Merrimac and Monitor : Rhodes, Vol. III, pp. 608–614; Maclay, Vol. II, Chaps. V, VI; Allan, Army of Northern Virginia, pp. 10–11, 27-28; Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of Confederate Government, Vol. II, Chap. XXVII; Battles and Leaders, Vol. I, pp. 692–744; J. T. Scharf, Confederate States Navy, Chaps. VII-X.

5. The Peninsular Campaign: Wood and Edmonds, Chap. VII; Rhodes, Vol. IV, pp. 1-10; Hosmer, Chap. IX; Ropes, Vol. II, pp. 99–116; E. P. Alexander, Military Memoirs of a Confederate, Chaps. IV, V; A. L. Long, Memoirs of Robert E. Lee, Chap. IX; W. Allan, Army of Northern Virginia, pp. 1-64.

6. Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862: Wood and Edmonds, Chap. IX; Rhodes, Vol. IV, pp. 11-23; Hosmer, Chap. X; Henderson, Stonewall Jackson, Vol. I, Chaps. VIII-XII; W. Allan, Jackson's Valley Campaign.

7. The Seven Days' Fighting around Richmond: Wood and Edmonds, Chap. VIII; Rhodes, Vol. IV, pp. 24–54; Hosmer, Chap. XI; Ropes, Vol. II, pp. 132–212; Henderson, Stonewall Jackson, Vol. II, Chaps. XIII, XIV; Alexander, Chaps. VIII-X; Long, Chap. X; Allan, Army of Northern Virginia, pp. 70–150.

8. Second Manassas: Wood and Edmonds, Chap. X; Rhodes, Vol. IV, pp. 97–138; Hosmer, Chap. XII; Ropes, Vol. II, 310; Henderson, Stonewall Jackson, Vol. II, Chaps. XVI, XVII; Alexander, Chap. XI; Long, Chap. XI; Allan, Army of Northern Virginia, pp. 197–321.

pp. 218–



AFTER the overwhelming defeat of Pope at Second Manassas, General Lee decided to invade Maryland, and The

having gained the consent of President Davis, his Antietam troops crossed the Potomac September 4 and 5

paign and occupied Frederick City. On September 15 Jackson captured Harper's Ferry, with the entire garrison of 12,500 men, and reunited with Lee before McClellan was ready to attack. Lee's full strength was now barely 50,000. McClellan advanced toward Frederick City with 85,000 men, and Lee decided to make his stand behind the Antietam River. At Frederick McClellan came into possession of a dispatch lost by one of Lee's staff officers, which revealed the Confederate plan of campaign, but he failed to make full use of the opportunity which it presented.

On September 17 occurred the battle of Antietam, called by the Confederates the battle of Sharpsburg. McClellan's attempts to crush the Confederate left failed. The center was the next point of attack, but A. P. Hill's division reënforced the line at this point, and the Federals were again repulsed. McClellan's losses in this battle were over 12,000, while General Lee's were 9500. Tactically, the Confederates had slightly the advantage, and on the day following the battle the forces stood facing each other, but McClellan declined to renew the contest, and Lee was not strong enough to attack him. As a decisive victory was necessary to enable General Lee to maintain himself north of the Potomac, he withdrew during the night, and the following day his

entire command recrossed into Virginia. The fruits of the campaign lay with McClellan.

President Lincoln took advantage of Lee's repulse to issue his preliminary proclamation of emancipation. He had been considering this measure for some months, but, notwithstanding the pressure brought to bear Preliminary

proclamaon him by the abolitionists, there were weighty tion of reasons for not sooner taking the step. In the emancipafirst place he had insisted at the outset that the war was being waged solely for the restoration of the Union and that he had no constitutional right or intention of interfering with the domestic institutions of any State. Then, too, the announcement of such a policy at an earlier date would have caused serious disaffection in the border States, particularly in Kentucky. The border States were now secured, so that this reason no longer held.

Furthermore, feeling at the North had undergone a marked change and abolition sentiment had made great headway. The South, on the other hand, was in great dread of a slave uprising, though events proved that there was no ground for such fears. President Lincoln hoped, therefore, not only to unite the North by turning the war into a crusade against slavery, but also to make the negroes the secret friends of the North and to compel many Southerners to leave the army and return to the plantations to protect their women and children. Of greatest weight, however, was the probable effect of the proclamation on public opinion abroad, particularly in England, where the cabinet was then seriously considering a proposition to recognize the independence of the Confederacy.

The proclamation was strictly a war measure. A month before it was issued President Lincoln wrote to Horace Greeley: “If I could save the Union without A war freeing any slave I would do it; and if I could measure save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could

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save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would do that also.” This last was the course he followed, for the proclamation declared that on the first day of January, 1863, “all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” The holding of slaves in the border States that remained in the Union was still legal, as the war power under which the president acted did not extend to these States.

After Antietam General Lee slowly crossed the Potomac without any effort on McClellan's part to hinder him. It

was more than a month before the president and McClellan again cabinet could persuade McClellan to follow the superseded

Confederate army into Virginia. Lee remained for awhile in the Valley. He then sent Longstreet's corps across the Blue Ridge to Culpeper Court House, while he kept Jackson in the Valley to menace McClellan's communications, and to threaten another invasion of Maryland. McClellan was preparing an advance on Longstreet before the latter could be reënforced, when on November 7 he was relieved of command and Burnside appointed to take his place. McClellan's egotism and want of respect for the president were almost intolerable. Furthermore, he was opposed to emancipation and was already spoken of as a possible Democratic candidate for the presidency. With all his shortcomings, he was the best commander the Army of the Potomac ever had. Burnside who succeeded him was probably the most incompetent general officer then serving in that army.

The new commander resolved to abandon McClellan's plan, move his army down the Rappahannock to FredericksThe battle of burg, cross the river at that point, and push Fredericks- steadily forward to Richmond. Lee succeeded burg

again in uniting the two wings of his army, and took up an exceedingly strong position at Fredericksburg,

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