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TOPICAL REFERENCES 1. French Settlements in Canada: Channing, History of the United States, Vol. I, pp. 100-110; R. G. Thwaites, France in America, Chaps. I-III; Parkman, Pioneers of France, pp. 169233, 296–324; Parkman, The Jesuits in North America.

2. The French in Louisiana: Channing, Vol. II, pp. 527-537; Thwaites, Chaps. IV, V; Fiske, New France and New England, Chap. IV.

3. The Earlier French and Indian Wars: Channing, Vol. II, pp. 537-554; Greene, Provincial America, Chaps. VIII-X; Thwaites, Chaps. VI, VII; Fiske, Chap. VII.

4. The Contest for the Ohio Valley: Channing, Vol. II, pp. 554–562; Fiske, Chap. VIII; Thwaites, Chaps. IX-XI.

5. The Conquest of Canada: Channing, Vol. II, Chap. XIX; Fiske, Chaps. IX, X; Thwaites, Chaps. XIII-XVII; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

PART II

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

CHAPTER V

CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

THE American Revolution in the broader sense covers a period of twenty years, from 1763 to 1783. Twelve years

of skillful debate, involving a broad discussion of Results of the French constitutional questions and political theories, and Indian

preceded the eight years of warfare. The French War

and Indian War revealed certain defects in the British colonial system which naturally suggested reform, and at the same time the conquest of Canada by removing the most serious danger that threatened the colonies from the outside broke one of the strongest ties that bound them to the mother country, and made their independence a political possibility. Furthermore the war had given the Americans military experience and the opportunity to test their fighting capacity beside the best British soldiers.

The arrogance of the British officers and soldiers and the open contempt in which they held the colonial troops that had coöperated with them in the war had helped to bring the latter closer together and to make them aware of the differences between themselves and the English. Some idea of the lack of cordial feeling between the British regulars and the colonial volunteers may be formed from the expressions of the two noblest men engaged in the war. After

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Braddock's defeat Washington wrote to Governor Dinwiddie: “The dastardly behavior of the English soldiers exposed all those who were inclined to do their duty to almost certain death." Wolfe, on the other hand, when he heard of the defeat of Abercromby at Ticonderoga wrote to Lord George Sackville: “The Americans are in general the dirtiest most contemptible cowardly dogs that you can conceive. There is no dependence upon 'em in action. They fall down dead in their own dirt and desert by battalions, officers and all. Such rascals as those are rather an encumbrance than any real strength to an army."

In view of these facts the close of the French and Indian War was an unfortunate time for undertaking a reform of the colonial system and attempting to tighten

Character the reins of imperial control. Furthermore the and policy of government of England was not at this time in George III the hands of wise statesmen capable of successfully carrying through such a policy. In 1760 George III came to the throne. He had been poorly educated, was ignorant and narrow minded, and was bent on following the advice which his mother had repeatedly given him in his youth : “George, be a king." His one fixed purpose was to exalt the power of the crown at the expense of Parliament. When he came to the throne the government had been for half a century in the hands of a Whig oligarchy. In order to overthrow the Whig leaders George III built up a party known as the King's Friends. This party brought on the American Revolution and controlled the British government during the war. The ablest statesmen of the age, Chatham, Burke, and Fox, belonged to the opposition, and their efforts to bring about reconciliation with America were treated with scorn.

The Seven Years' War had left England supreme not only in America, but in India and on the high seas as well. Mainly through the genius of Pitt this magnificent empire

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