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ILLUSTRATIONS

Woodrow Wilson .

Frontispiece

PAGE Sir Humphrey Gilbert .

19 Pocahontas

22 Captain John Smith

23 Lord Delaware

24 Sir William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia

27 Lady Berkeley, wife of Sir William Berkeley

28 Cecilius Calvert, second Baron Baltimore

29 John Winthrop

36 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon

46 William Penn, at the age of twenty-two

51 La Salle

74 Patrick Henry

96 Patrick Henry addressing the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1765 in support of his Resolutions against the Stamp Act

99 Daniel Boone

107 Lord Dunmore

109 William Pitt, Earl of Chatham

114 Washington as a Virginia Colonel, from portrait by Peale painted in 1772

117 Statue of Minuteman at Concord

118 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence

127 Benjamin Franklin

147 George Rogers Clark

152 Benedict Arnold .

161 Henry Lee, known as “Light Horse Harry” Lee :

163 Daniel Morgan

164 Anthony Wayne

167 Marquis de Lafayette

168 John Jay

204 John Adams.

207 Thomas Jefferson .

212 Robert Fulton

221

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Facsimile of Inscription written by Jefferson for his Tombstone 228
James Madison

230 Oliver H. Perry

242 John Quincy Adams

266 Andrew Jackson.

274 Thomas H. Benton

275 John C. Calhoun .

280 Nicholas Biddle, President of the Bank of the United States 282 General Sam Houston

286 Henry Clay.

289 Daniel Webster

292 General Winfield Scott.

302 Stephen A. Douglas

326 John Brown.

337 Abraham Lincoln .

343 Alexander H. Stephens

347 Jefferson Davis

354 General Beauregard

358 General McClellan

361 General Albert Sidney Johnston

365 Admiral Farragut

367 John Ericsson, inventor of the Monitor

369 General Joseph E. Johnston.

370 General “Stonewall” Jackson

372 General Longstreet

376 General Pickett

387 Robert E. Lee. His last photograph, taken in 1869

412 General Philip H. Sheridan

414 General William T. Sherman

416 Valentine's Recumbent Statue over the Tomb of Lee, in the Chapel

of Washington and Lee University at Lexington, Virginia 420 Thaddeus Stevens

432 Andrew Johnson.

437 Horace Greeley

442 Rutherford B. Hayes

446 James A. Garfield

451 Winfield S. Hancock

452 Chester A. Arthur

454 Grover Cleveland

456 Benjamin Harrison

461 William Jennings Bryan

471

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James G. Blaine
William McKinley
Admiral Dewey
William T. Sampson
Winfield Scott Schley
Theodore Roosevelt
Elihu Root
William H. Taft

PAGE 485 497 501 503 506 521 524 540

PART I

THE COLONIES

CHAPTER I

THE NEW WORLD

As late as the fifteenth century men knew surprisingly little of the planet on which they dwelt. In the maps that have come down to us from the Middle Ages the shores

Limits of of the Mediterranean and of western Europe are geographical clearly outlined, but there all accurate geograph- in the

knowledge ical knowledge ends. The coast line of northern fifteenth Europe is badly contracted, Africa is unknown century below the Tropic of Cancer, and Asia bulges out into an ill-defined land of mystery.

By the middle of the thirteenth century European adventurers had followed the trade routes into eastern Asia and brought back marvelous tales of adventure, of vast cities and empires, and of untold wealth. The most celebrated of these travelers was Marco Polo, a Venetian, who after a sojourn of twenty years at the court of the Great Khan at Peking returned to Italy at the close of the century and wrote an account of his travels which within a few years was widely read throughout Europe.

Cathay, the name given to China by Marco Polo and his contemporaries, became a land of intense interest to Europeans. Polo did not visit Japan, but under the name of Cipango he describes the great island lying a thousand miles east of Cathay. A copy of his travels with marginal notes

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