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See Dec. of
election of the governor, lieutenant-governor, senators, and representatives, to be had in virtue of this article, shall be had conformably thereunto, in the month of November following the day on which the same shall be in force, and
go into operation, pursuant to the foregoing provision. Inconsistent
All the provisions of the existing constitution, inconsistent with the provisions herein contained, are hereby
wholly annulled. Religious
ART. XI. Instead of the third article of the bill of established.
rights, the following modification and amendment thereof is substituted :
“ As the public worship of God and instructions in piety, religion, and morality, promote the happiness and prosperity of a people, and the security of a republican government; therefore, the several religious societies of this commonwealth, whether corporate or unincorporate, at any meeting legally warned and holden for that purpose, shall ever have the right to elect their pastors or religious teachers, to contract with them for their support, to raise money for erecting and repairing houses for public worship, for the maintenance of religious instruction, and for the payment of necessary expenses; and all persons belonging to any religious society shall be taken and held to be members, until they shall file with the clerk of such society a written notice, declaring the dissolution of their membership, and thenceforth shall not be liable for any
grant or contract which may be thereafter made, or entered 122 Mass. 40, 41. into by such society; and all religious sects and denomi
nations, demeaning themselves peaceably, and as good citizens of the commonwealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law; and no subordination of any one sect or denomination to another shall ever be established
by law.” Census of rata. ART. XII. [In order to provide for a representation ble polls to be taken in 1837, of the citizens of this commonwealth, founded upon the and decennially thereafter. principles of equality, a census of the ratable polls, in each This article was superseded by
city, town, and district of the commonwealth, on the first amendments, day of May, shall be taken and returned into the secreArt. XIII., which was also tary's office, in such manner as the legislature shall prosuperseded by amendments, vide, within the month of May, in the year of our Lord Art. XXI. Representa.
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, and in every tives, how
tenth year thereafter, in the month of May, in manner apportioned.
aforesaid ; and each town or city having three hundred ratable polls at the last preceding decennial census of polls, may elect one representative, and for every four hundred
and fifty ratable polls in addition to the first three hundred, one representative more.
Any town having less than three hundred ratable polls Towns having shall be represented thus : The whole number of ratable ratable polls, polls, at the last preceding decennial census of polls, shall how representbe multiplied by ten, and the product divided by three hundred; and such town may elect one representative as many years within ten years, as three hundred is contained in the product aforesaid.
Any city or town having ratable polls enough to elect Fractions, how one or more representatives, with any number of polls beyond the necessary number, may be represented, as to that surplus number, by multiplying such surplus number by ten and dividing the product by four hundred and fifty ; and such city or town may elect one additional representative as many years, within the ten years, as four hundred and fifty is contained in the product aforesaid.
Any two or more of the several towns and districts Towns may may, by consent of a majority of the legal voters present sentative dis? at a legal meeting, in each of said towns and districts, respectively, called for that purpose, and held previous to the first day of July, in the year in which the decennial census of polls shall be taken, form themselves into a representative district to continue until the next decennial census of polls, for the election of a representative, or representatives ; and such district shall have all the rights, in regard to representation, which would belong to a town containing the same number of ratable polls.
The governor and council shall ascertain and determine, The governor within the months of July and August, in the year of our determine the Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, accord-number of reping to the foregoing principles, the number of representa- which each tives, which each city, town, and representative district is entitled to elect, and the number of years, within the period of ten years then next ensuing, that each city, town, and representative district may elect an additional representative; and where any town has not a sufficient number of polls to elect a representative each year, then, how many years within the ten years, such town may elect a representative; and the same shall be done once in ten New apportion. years, thereafter, by the governor and council, and the meet to be made number of ratable polls in each decennial census of polls, shall determine the number of representatives, which each city, town and represen.ative district may elect as aforesaid; and when the number of representatives to be elected
town is entitled.
Inconsistent provisions annulled.
itants to be taken
of representa tion.
122 Mass. 593.
Senatorial dis. tricts declared
seded by amend.
ts, Art. XXII.
by each city, town, or representative district is ascertained and determined as aforesaid, the governor shall cause the same to be published forth with for the information of the people, and that number shall remain fixed and unalterable for the period of ten years.
All the provisions of the existing constitution inconsistent with the provisions herein contained, are hereby
wholly annulled.] Census of inhab.
ART. XIII. A census of the inhabitants of each city in 1840, and de- and town, on the first day of May, shall be taken, and after, for basis returned into the secretary's office, on or before the last
day of June, of the year one thousand eight hundred and Provisions as to forty, and of every tenth year thereafter; which census seded by amend. shall determine the apportionment of senators and repreXXI. and XXII. sentatives for the term of ten years.
The several senatorial districts now existing shall be Provision as to permanent. The senate shall consist of forty members ; senators super. and in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty,
and every tenth year thereafter, the governor and council shall assign the number of senators to be chosen in each district, according to the number of inhabitants in the
But, in all cases, at least one senator shall be
assigned to each district. House of repre.
The members of the house of representatives shall be apportioned.
apportioned in the following manner : Every town or city representatives containing twelve hundred inhabitants may elect one rep
resentative; and two thousand four hundred inhabitants shall be the mean increasing number, which shall entitle it to an additional representative.
Every town containing less than twelve hundred inhabitants shall be entitled to elect a representative as many times within ten years as the number one hundred and sixty is contained in the number of the inhabitants of said town. Such towns may also elect one representative for the year
in which the valuation of estates within the commonwealth shall be settled.
Any two or more of the several towns may, by consent of a majority of the legal voters present at a legal meeting, in each of said towns, respectively, called for that purpose, and held before the first day of August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, form themselves into a representative district, to continue for the term of ten years; and such district shall have all the rights, in regard to representation, which would belong to a town containing the same number of inhabitants.
Provisions as to
amendments, Art. XXI.
Small towns, how repre
Towns may unite into repre. Bentative districts.
CONSTITUTION OF THE
122 Mass. 595.
y each city, town, or representative district is ascertained ind determined as aforesaid, the governor shall cause the same to be published forth with for the information of the people, and that number shall remain fixed and unalterable for the period of ten years.
All the provisions of the existing constitution incon-
ART. XIII. (A census of the inhabitants of each city
The several senatorial districts now existing shall be
The members of the house of representatives shall be
containing twelve hundred inhabitants may elect one rep-
The number of inhabitants wh.ch shall entitle a town Basis of repre. to elect one representative, and the mean increasing num- ratio of increase. ber which shall entitle a town or city to elect more than one, and also the number by which the population of towns not entitled to a representative every year is to be divided, shall be increased, respectively, by one-tenth of the numbers above mentioned, whenever the population of the commonwealth shall have increased to seven hundred and seventy thousand, and for every additional increase of seventy thousand inhabitants, the same addition of onetenth shall be made, respectively, to the said numbers above mentioned.
In the year of each decennial census, the governor and The governor council shall, before the first day of September, apportion apportion the the number of representatives which each city, town, and resentatives of representative district is entitled to elect, and ascertain cach town once how many years, within ten years, any town may elect a years. representative, which is not entitled to elect one every year; and the governor shall cause the same to be published forth with.
Nine councillors shall be annually chosen from among Councillors to the people at large, on the first Wednesday of January, the people at or as soon thereafter as may be, by the joint ballot of the
Provisions as to senators and representatives, assembled in one room, who councillors shall, as soon as may be, in like manner, fill up any vacan- amendments, cies that may happen in the council, by death, resignation, or otherwise. No person shall be elected a councillor, who Qualifications of has not been an inhabitant of this commonwealth for the term of five years immediately preceding his election ; and not more than one councillor shall be chosen from any one senatorial district in the commonwealth.]
No possession of a freehold, or of any other estate, shall Freehold as a be required as a qualification for holding a seat in either a rent in general branch of the general court, or in the executive council. not required.
ART. XIV. In all elections of civil officers by the peo- Elections by the ple of this commonwealth, whose election is provided for people to be by
plurality of by the constitution, the person having the highest number votes. of votes shall be deemed and declared to be elected.
Art. XV. The meeting for the choice of governor, Time of annual lieutenant-yovernor, senators, and representatives, shall electromassor be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in lature. November, annually ; but in case of a failure to elect representatives on that day, a second meeting shall be bolden, for that purpose, on the fourth Monday of the same month of November.
court or council
Every town containing less than twelve hundred inhabitants shall be entitled to elect a representative as many times within ten years as the number one hundred and sixty is contained in the number of the inhabitants of said town. Such towns may also elect one representative for the year in which the valuation of estates within the commonwealth shall be settled.
Any two or more of the several towns may, by consent of a majority of the legal voters present at a legal meetins, in each of said towns, respectively, called for that purpose, and held before the first day of August
, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, form themselves into a representative district, to continue for the term of ten years; and such district shall have all the rights, in regard to representation, which would belong to a town containing the
name number of inhabitants.
Eight council. lors to be chosen by the people. 122 Mass. 595, 598.
Art. XVI. Eight councillors shall be annually chosen by the inhabitants of this commonwealth, qualified to vote for governor. The election of councillors shall be determined by the same rule that is required in the election of governor. The legislature, at its first session after this amendment shall have been adopted, and at its first session after the next state census shall have been taken,
and at its first session after each decennial state census Legislature to thereafterwards, shall divide the commonwealth into eight district state.
districts of contiguous territory, each containing a number of inhabitants as nearly equal as practicable, without dividing any town or ward of a city, and each entitled to elect one councillor : provided, however, that if, at any time, the constitution shall provide for the division of the commonwealth into forty senatorial districts, then the legislature shall so arrange the councillor districts, that each district shall consist of five contiguous senatorial districts, as
they shall be, from time to time, established by the legislaEligibility
ture. No person shall be eligible to the office of councillor who has not been an inhabitant of the commonwealth
for the term of five years immediately preceding his elecDay and manner tion. The day and manner of the election, the return of
the votes, and the declaration of the said elections, shall
be the same as are required in the election of governor. Vacancies, how
[Whenever there shall be a failure to elect the full number of councillors, the vacancies shall be filled in the same manner as is required for filling vacancies in the senate ; and vacancies occasioned by death, removal from the state,
or otherwise, shall be filled in like manner, as soon as may Organization of be, after such vacancies shall have happened.] And that
there may be no delay in the organization of the government on the first Wednesday of January, the governor, with at least five councillors for the time being, shall, as soon as may be, examine the returned copies of the records for the election of governor, lieutenant-governor, and councillors; and ten days before the said first Wednesday in January he shall issue his summons to such persons as appear to be chosen, to attend on that day to be qualified accordingly; and the secretary shall lay the returns before the senate and house of representatives on the said first Wednesday in January, to be by them examined ; and in case of the election of either of said officers, the choice shall be by them declared and published; but in case there shall be no election of either of said officers, the legislature shall proceed to fill such vacancies in the