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est and affection of the people for these woods. I cannot conclude better than by quoting from a very interesting book just written by Mr. T. Morris Longstreth on the Adirondacks. He writes:

"The spirit of the Adirondack Park is stated in the law that says that the land 'shall be forever reserved and maintained for the use of the people.' Every such statement, when backed up by enforcement is a victory for democracy, and every victory for democracy is an advancement of the truest civilization. It is strange that we should have to go to the woods for the fulfilment of civilization. But it is very satisfactory and comforting.

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* * * Years from now when the Hudson is lined with cities and when three hurdred million people live where now there are the fifty million, this magnificent playground will teach the staunch virtues that can be learned only in the wilderness. And the public-spirited members of the Association for the Preservation of the Adirondacks will have realized that they, in like manner with the Puritans and the heroes of '63, can be called the ‘Makers of America.'

“The days are coming wherein we shall again become aware of the forest. In the dim long ago the forest was a dark hinterland from which evil spirits came to prey and into which, glutted, they withdrew. Witches lived in the wood. Even today the dark aisles of the evening firs are shivery at nightfall because of these unchallengeable terrors of the past. Yesterday when out of the Adirondack ravines the cougar cried and the howl of the wolf sounded across the snow, the frontier children shuddered. Yet they lived to hear the legends of the wood.

"But with the passing of yesterday the terrors abated. The frontier children grew up, reasoned themselves out of the witches, and shot the wolves. The forest ceased to be a thing of fear, of veneration, and became a matter of dollars and board-feet, a bank account in the rough. It was wantonly cut and criminally devoured by fire. This storehouse of legend, this temple of the race, was in danger of extinction.

"Now all that is safely passed. We have let the buffalo go; we have barely saved the beaver, but we will save the forest. We will save it, not only for fuel, not only against flood, but because it is the most beautiful thing on the earth.” (Applause.)

THE TOASTMASTER: I am sure we all have enjoyed this delightful paper. We may not subscribe to all the sentiments Mr. Agar has expressed; but, however that may be, they are an asset to every woodland owner, in one aspect of it, and we therefore respect opinions of that tharacter, I personally share some

of the views expressed by Mr. Agar. I refer to those where he states his reasons for the policy of the purchase of lands for the forest preserve. I think the reasons he enumerates are public reasons, of course,-not private,--but he has stated the public reasons in a clearly and easily understood manner, and, on behalf of this Association, I thank Mr. Agar for the preparation of this paper; and you, Dr. Hall, for coming here to read it to us.

This afternoon the press of time compelled us to postpone the reading of a paper by Professor Chandler on the "Progress Report on Hardwood Utilization Study." Professor Chandler has been making a study of that subject in Northern New York, and hardwood utilization is a matter of practical interest to all of us who own woodlands in the Adirondacks,-intensely practical at this particular time, and I am sure we will all listen with interest to

I now take pleasure in introducing Professor Chandler. (Applause.)

his paper.

PROGRESS REPORT ON HARD-
WOOD UTILIZATION STUDY

PROF. B. A. CHANDLER

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

PROFESSOR B. A. CHANDLER: Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen: I come here tonight not simply as a forester who has been studying a problem that perhaps many of you have studied, but also as a son of a lumberman and one who has been connected with and is much interested in the lumberman's point of view; in fact one who is entirely in sympathy with the economic laws and ideas that lumbermen have. My own people are still in the lumber business. I am still financially interested in it, to some extent, and, in fact, I am “a maniac from Maine”—(Laughter)—whose folks are lumbermen.

I think any of us who were here this morning and this afternoon have no doubts whatever about the hardwood problem being one of the most vital and most difficult and most interesting problems that the lumberman and forester of the Adirondacks has to do with. We have all seen that the hardwood slash, resulting from logging under present market conditions, presents a very difficult situation. When the spruce was cut for the markets that existed ten, twenty, thirty, forty or fifty years ago, only a part of the stand was taken out, and the slash left was comparatively insignificant as far as future production and fire protection was concerned, because the hardwood and remaining spruce left a stand that would reproduce itself to something, was not a serious fire menace and was dense enough to satisfy all the recreation purposes that have been enumerated in the paper which has just been read.

Today the markets are good enough so that a large percentage of the trees can be cut in connection with a hardwood operation leaving about fifty per cent of the area covered with slash—covered with the tops and brush. But the utilization is not as complete as we would like to have it. Much of the slash consists of tops which are considered unmerchantable. If these tops could be utilized it would obviously effect a saving of material, possibly reduce the cost to consumers, and would greatly lessen the fire menace, and leave a better and cleaner area for both natural and artificial reproduction.

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Furthermore, we would get more material over which to distribute our overhead expense, and we would be able to handle our timberlands so that a given area would furnish material for our mills for a longer period of years. Any real economic saving ought to come back to the consumer in the form of cheaper mate. rial after the stumpage owner and the manufacturer have made their profits.

Now finding a market is not enough for we must make sure that it is a permanent and a profitable market.

PROFITABLE MARKET ESSENTIAL I am very much in sympathy and agree absolutely with the saying of old Doctor Schenck to the effect that it is a shame to leave material in the woods to rot, but it is a bigger shame to waste money in bringing that material out. Consequently, in considering any use that we find for this material, we must first find a profitable market. We are not going to manufacture simply for the sake of manufacturing.

Now then that brings us down to a concrete statement of the problem which I am studying; which is to determine whether or not we can find a profitable market for the material which is now being left in stumps and tops, and whether or not we can reorganize our cutting in such a way as to save some of that material, with our present markets.

Individual operators have realized this, but from the nature of their business have not been able to devote to the problem the study which it demands. It is clearly a case for careful investigation by someone who can approach the matter from an objective standpoint. The locality selected for beginning such a study was one in which the logging and milling operations are close together.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The problem divides itself into three parts or sub-problems, each of which is a distinct problem in itself:

1. To determine the amount and the character of the

material that is being left in the woods under present corditions, and to show the percentages of this mate. rial left in high stumns, in whole logs left, in tops, and

wasted in careless division of loos. 2. To determine the exact cost of harvesting and manu.

facturing this small size and low grede material, in order to get at the exact merchantable value or the

exact value for manufacturing purposes. 3. To determine the present and probable future market

for such products as this material can be manufactured into.

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