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did not furnish the detailed data requested. Three other members failed to report their holdings at all. the smallest, 555 acres. The average, for the 31 reporting members owning timber land is 44,123 acres. There are four members

The results, in per cents, are also shown, diagrammatically, in colors, like the plate facing page 148 in the State Report.

TABLE II
L! CLASSIFICATION—COMPARISON OF STATE AND ASSOCIATION

LAND IN ACRES AND PER CENTS
Condition State Forest Preserve in Empire State Forest
of
Adirondacks

Products Association Area Total 1,710,016 acres Total 1,367,812 acres Merchantable.... 11,124,284 acres: 65.75% 835,009 acres: 61.05 % Non-Merchantable 236,867 acres: 13.85 % 304,026 acres: 22.23 % Vacant.

112,724 acres: 6.59 % 138,594 acres: 10.13 % Water..

235,995 acres: 13.80 % 32,183 acres: 2.36 % Unclassified.

146 acres:

.01% 58,000 acres: 4.23 % The unclassified area includes the holdings of one member who The largest single ownership in the Association is 235,402 acres,

controlling over 100,000 acres; five members have between 50,000 and 100,000 acres of timberland, twenty-three members have over 10,000 acres.

As already stated, the location of each member's holdings was entered by separate colors, on the State map of the Adirondacks. It is planned to transfer these rough data during the winter to the new Adirondack map just issued, showing the individual holdings by means of a key, the Association ownership all in a solid color, thus affording easy comparison with the State owned land shown in red. Unless there is some objection on the part of the membership, this map will be placed on the wall of the Association office.

In interpreting the results just presented, it is evident that a very large area is classified as non-timbered—“vacant" in the sense of "without that which has filled or might be expected to fill it." This land is unproductive now and will remain so unless aggressive steps are taken to bring about its reforestation. Some of the land is burned down to the bare rocks and will require the slow processes of time to provide soil adequate for tree growth. But much of it should be productive to-day and the extent of this area lends added emphasis to the discussion below on "Reforestation" and to-day's' address by Director Toumey of the Yale Forest School on the same subject.

If the timber estimates were available for the timbered area, it would be possible by taking the present annual cut to determine whether or not this area has a sufficient growing stock to sustain the present yield. Such calculations must, however, await the securing of further information. At present it seems as if the timbered area were decidedly insufficient; by just how much can not be calculated accurately with the data at hand, but assuredly the discrepancy is enough to warrant earnest attention to the growing of more raw material. This can be done by the practice of forestry on the holdings of the members, some of whom have already made an excellent start in that direction*.

III. INVENTORY OF DEVELOPMENTS
As already stated, and at the suggestion of Treasurer Sykes,
data on industrial developments controlled by members of the
Association were gathered in order to ascertain the following facts:

Consumption in raw material, annually (Table III).
Output of finished product, annually (Table IV).
Number of employes (Table V).
Character of improvements (Table VI).

Miles of logging railroad.
Sawmills: Number, kind and daily capacity.
Pulp and paper mills: Number, kind and daily capacity.

Miscellaneous plants.
Source of power (Table VII).

Water: Horse power developed.
Coal: Tons consumed per year.
Miscellaneous: Electricity, gasoline, fuel-oil, etc.

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TABLE III
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. CONSUMPTION IN RAW MATERIAL

PER ANNUM
137,670,000 feet of logs
906,237 cords of wood

2,700 cords of bark

645,162,720 total reduced to board feet, using U. S. Forest Service converting factor of 1 cord of pulpwood equals 560 board feet, and not counting the cords of bark in the total.

* "American Forestry," Oct., 1917, p. 633, contains the statement of Senator Edwards of Canada that “Canada has only enough timber to supply the United States for eight years. Paper manufacturers have only pulpwood enough for fifty years more.”

.

cents: those familiar with forest products can readily figure this for themselves. Perhaps the Industrial Committee would care to

TABLE IV
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. OUTPUT OF FINISHED PRODUCT

PER ANNUM
103,320,000 feet, board measure, of lumber

567,474 tons of paper
63,098,850 staves
2,204,100 sets heading
17,288,800 lath
16,500,000 shingles
850,000 bushels of charcoal

1,500 tons of acetate of lime
200,000 gallons of wood alcohol

15,000,000 board feet, of manufactured products This table does not include a variety of miscellanous products, these specialties aggregate several million dollars worth, each year.

It is not expedient to determine the total values in dollars and this

. There is an economic importance in wages paid for labor employed to which attention should be called. The Conservation Commission Report of 1913, page 67, says "that statistics indicate that for every thousand feet of lumber manufactured, $16.00 is paid for labor." Taking the 103,320 M. feet of lumber, one gets a labor value of not less than $1,653,120 per year and the other products show up fully as well. It would seem that the aggregate is convincing refutation of the statement that "the lumbering industry amounts to probably not more than twenty per cent of the business of the Adirondacks."

This phase of the situation ties up closely with the number of employes, next presented.

TABLE V
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. NUMBER OF EMPLOYES

PER AVERAGE YEAR
2,921 in the woods (not counting contract work in logging)
10,202 at the mill

401 in the office (where separated from mill)

267 in miscellaneous occupations 13,791 Total According to the Conservation Commission, "Caring for tour. ists gave employment for 26,400 people (in 1903) to whom $1,180,000 in wages were paid.” If the Association desires, I shall

do

be glad to ascertain the total pay roll of each member: it did not seem advisable to undertake this without express authorization by the Association or its Board of Directors. The comparison with the recreation interests could not fail to be illuminating.

The next table shows the number and kinds of industrial plants controlled by the members.

TABLE VI
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. CHARACTER OF IMPROVEMENTS

17234 miles of logging railroad track
25

sawmills, total daily capacity—769 M. feet b. m. 39 pulpmills, total daily capacity-2,005 tons of pulp

24 paper mills, total daily capacity-1,916 tons of paper In addition there are many miscellaneous plants which do not fit into the above classification.

TABLE VII
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. SOURCE OF POWER
815,985 H. P. developed from water power

680,861 tons of coal consumed per annum. In addition a considerable amount of electric current is purchased by members; a small amount of gasoline and of fuel oil is also required.

It would be presumptious on my part to undertake an interpretation of these results. They speak for themselves and show the magnitude of the industrial developments dependent on forest products. Only three members are delinquent in furnishing the information desired, so that the above statistics are representative.

IV. SALIENT POINTS OF FOREST POLICY As already stated, advantage was taken of the personal visits to ascertain the views of members on the following outstanding points of forest policy in this State:

1. Fire protection
2. Forest taxation
3. Reforestation
4. Opening of State Preserve to conservative lumbering
5. Appraisal of resources
6. Publicity
7. Legislation

8. Employment of foresters Time does not suffice to present even: a digest of these views. I shall merely indicate the trend of members' opinions on these

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a scheme proposed by Mr. Walter C. Witherbee in the April, 1915, Bulletin of the New York State Forestry Association, to create a 150 an hour allowed by the State for fire fighters.

VE tal topics, show what results have been secured along these lines

d make brief recommendations for further progress.

1. FIRE PROTECTION.—It may be taken as axiomatic that the tinberland is the operator's most valuable asset. Fire protection is

the common ground on which all interests meet. Best results can only. be secured by co-operation with State authorities and with of her owners. More stress should be laid on fire prevention, i. e. eliminating the causes of fires. Universal interest was shown in the possibilities of mutual timber land fire insurance.

Those members who have failed to sign the co-operation agreement of January 25, 1916, had the matter brought to their atten

However, as one member pointed out, “it should be kept up to date, yearly, or else information and map are of little value.”

There was no disposition on the part of members to endorse fund for meeting the difference between the current wage and the The matter of timberlands fire insurance has been most ably

by its originator, Mr. W. R. Brown, and his associate, S. L. de Carteret. This is the kind of activity in which the Ascociation can be of real service to its members.

In the broader sense of forest protection there is need of a careful pathological study of the serious fungous diseases infecting spruce and hardwoods. The study would be along the lines of Dr. Meinecke's bulletin “Forest Pathology in Forest Regulation": and would clear up many obscure points about these rot producing fungi and their role in forest management. Such a study would furnish a basis for closer utilization and an accurate cull per cent. The Association could well afford the salary of such a student investigator, provided the right mon can be found. "Sanitation of the forest must be the first and fundamental step in forest regulation.” This is all the more important for private timberlands since no steps are being taken to rid the State forests of fungous in

presented

Mr.

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fection.**

* U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 275.

** "The sales area (on National Forests), after a more or less thorough sanitation, is nothing but an enclosure in the vast surrounding virgin forest left to shift by itself and exposed to all the controllable and uncontrollable factors of cumulative risk.” E. P. Meinecke: "Basic Problem's of. Forest Pathology," Journal of For. estry, vol. XV, No. 2, p. 223.

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