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9. MISCELLANEOUS.-Time suffices only to mention two points. Certain members have expressed the desire that the Association should embark on Workmen's Compensation Insurance in view of the prevailing high rates. The majority are not in favor of this. One influential member feels that this is a matter to be adjusted by manufacturers and hardly in line with the activities of the Association.

The matter of accessions to membership has been raised. It seems to me that this depends in a large measure on the proven usefulness of the Association-e. g., in fire protection. As far as possible I shall recruit those whose interests are allied with ours to join with us, and especially the $5.00 grade of membership should appeal to many who are neither producers nor owners but who have a vital interest in our work.

V. CONCLUSION. It remains to say a word or two as to the plan of work for the remainder of the year. Until the legislature convenes in January, my time will be taken up with editing the Proceedings of this meeting and getting all the data, collected so far, in shape for filing. Then comes the establishment of the Albany office. While the legislature is in session I shall, of course, remain in Albany. When it adjourns in the spring, I plan a campaign of establishing permanent sample plots for accurately determining what takes place in the way of growth and reproduction under the widely different conditions encountered. In this I bespeak the co-operation of the various owners and especially of foresters employed by members of the Association.

In concluding this report, I want to explain that its length is due to my desire to present, as completely as possible, the various data gathered in the past four months. We now have the foundation on which to build up the work of the Association. The interest and co-operation of every member is essential if this task is to succeed and if the Association is to fulfill its high purpose "to protect, perpetuate and increase the forest growth of the State through the establishment of a rational and constructive system of forestry; the conservation and development of water power and to co-operate with others interested in like objects."

I thank you. (Applause.)

THE PRESIDENT: I think we are all agreed that the record of the work accomplished by our Forester has been excellent and that we at last have an intelligent and firm foundation for carrying on

the work of our Association. I hope that you will all enlist in support of his work and give to him every opportunity to get information and to become acquainted with the operations and business of the different members of the Association. It is only in that way that work of this character can be successful, and unless we are going to do that we might as well stop now.

We are very fortunate in having with us to-day an eminent authority upon the subject of reforestation. He needs no introduction at my hands. You all understand this subject is one of vital importance. It is the complement of the study of forest taxation, which we have undertaken, and I am sure we will listen with great interest and receive much instruction from the next paper that is to be read. I now have the pleasure of itnroducing to you Professor James W. Toumey, Director of the Yale School of Forestry, who will read a paper on “The Economic Aspects of Reforestation in Northeastern United States." (Applause.)

PROFESSOR JAMES W. TOUMEY: Mr. Chairman and Members of the Association: In my handling of this very important subject I am going to approach it from a broad standpoint, because it is the breadth of vision which we give it that is going to determine, later on, how well we are going to succeed. (Reading)

ECONOMIC ASPECTS of REFOREST-
ATION IN NORTHEASTERN

UNITED STATES

JAMES W. TOUMEY
DIRECTOR YALE SCHOOL OF FORESTRY

From the nature of things we have no definite knowledge of the future. We learn only from what has gone before. The economic desirability of reforestation at this time is necessarily based upon the experience of the past. Forestry is not new in all countries. In some of the older states of Europe it has been practiced for four centuries. Until recently no intelligent direction was given to reforestation in the United States. The development of the second growth has, to a very large extent, been left to chance. 'I presume China is the best example of one of the older nations of the earth that has left development of the second growth to chance. Two thousand years ago China was well wooded, but two thousand years of chance reproduction has left her without forests and as a consequence seriously handicapped in her economic development, because industry is paralyzed without wood.

Every industrial enterprise requires wood in one form or another. Wood is used in some process of the manufacture or transportation of every manufactured article. Some people have told us that China, with her cheap labor, is going to gain control of the world industries and industrially compete with America and Europe. In my judgment, this is impossible until she re-establishes her forests. Her industries will remain undeveloped, due to the lack of wood. China is now realizing her economic mistake of past ages and today the agitation for public and private afforestation is gaining an impetus in that far away part of the world which I do not believe will be checked until much of her unused, nonagricultural land is, after long centuries, once again clothed with timber.

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ENGLAND'S PLIGHT Britain is the only great nation that has been able to continue her industrial development without a domestic supply of wood. For generations she has depended upon getting the major part of her wood from overseas and has neglected her own forests. As the foremost maritime nation, it has been possible for her until

the recent past to get from other nations ample wood to supply her needs. Two and a half centuries ago Evelyn, in his "Sylva" of the British Isles, spoke in no uncertain manner of British economic necessity for speedy reforestation. Great Britain did not heed the words of her sage and her forests greatly dimished in area and deteriorated in quality until in recent years fully three-fourths of her wood has been brought from beyond the seas. Since the beginning of the world war the importation of wood into Great Biitain has greatly decreased and today has ceased almost completely. This has been due to the difficulties in obtaining foreign supplies, the submarine menace and the need for all available bottoms for other shipping. Great Britain is now turning to the forest capital in her home forests.

For the past three years there has been a wood cutting in Britain such as that country never before witnessed and when the war is over, the entire country will probably be swept as clear of forests as China is today. England is now realizing her great economic mistake in not heeding Evelyn's warning a warning which has been repeated at frequent intervals, but which all this time has gone unheeded. Stebbing states that over twenty-five million acres of Great Britain are non-agricultural and yet without acceptable forest growth, although much of this area is capable of producing good timber. If Evelyn's warning had been heeded the closing paragraph in the introduction to Stebbing's book of last year on the present position of English forestry would be vastly different. He says:

"This planting question must no longer be delayed. Our waste lands must not be left unproductive. Is the nation going to see that this work is carried out? Are we going to secure that area of home woods that present day necessities demand, which a full utilization of our national resources and the campaign for thrift in all departments of life equally demand, and which our posterity is likely to so sorely need?"

IMMEDIATE REFORESTATION NEEDED So far as Great Britain is concerned Stebbing is convinced, and many other English foresters as well, that a great national reforestation scheme must be undertaken and carried out by the Government, either alone or in co-operation with private owners. Although it is impossible to forecast the future, in the author's opinion, the demand for timber in Creat Britain most likely will be far greater and the price higher than at present. The author believes that the only safe course to follow is to immediately undertake the afforesta

tion of such available idle lands as are capable of growing good crops of timber. He believes that Great Britain must radically change her forest policy and begin planting trees, even during the war.

The strength of Germany in the present war has to a large measure been due to her vast reserves of forest capital. If France had not had a forest capital adequate to supply the numerous needs of her vast armies the powers of central Europe would be in Paris today. The world has discovered in this war that forests are necessary for national defense as well as necessary for industrial development and progress.

ORGANIZED EFFORT ESSENTIAL No country has ever yet, in her progress from barbarism and primitive needs to culture and industrial development, been able to maintain her forests in a productive condition without organized effort and the execution of extensive plans for reforestation. It is inevitably the case that exploitation of forests, without protection, and the trusting entirely to nature for reforestation, finally result in denudation, inally results in a country wholly without forests, as illustrated by China.

On the other hand, it is just as true that protection and the execution of adequate reforestation plans enables a country to obtain the maximum products from her forests and at the same time maintain them without diminution in forest capital. .

I believe that we are all in accord in that the industrial supremacy of the United States has been built to a large extent upon our vast available supplies of inexpensive wood. I think that we are all in accord in believing if this country is to maintain her industrial prestige she must continue to produce vast quantities of relatively inexpensive wood.

WHAT CONFRONTS THE UNITED STATES Although the United States is cutting more wood than ever before, she is now, as in the past, depending almost entirely upon the vast reserve supply in her virgin forests. When this is gone the supply must come from second growth. Although the immediate future supply of wood in this country is secure without giving special attention to reforestation, it is inevitable that it will be deficient both in quality and amount, if we do not, as a nation and as individuals, give more attention now to reforestation and improvement of the second growth. One hundred years hence we do not want to say as England is now saying: "Our idle lands must no

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