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Acres.

ance of organized means of control and *Land in farms.

22,030,367 prevention of fires? A commercial Lands in farms in 1900. 22,648,109 Improved land in farms...

basis for forest planting must rest pri

14,844,039 Improved land in farms in 1900 15,599,986 marily on the safety of the investment. Woodland in farms..

4,436,145 This applies equally well to an investOther unimproved land in farms 2,750,183 ment in woodland and its improvement.

By deducting the farm area from the Measures of prevention rest not total land surface there is found to re

alone, however, with the State, but main 8,468,193 acres. Of course a por

must be supplemented by the efforts of tion of this is occupied by cities, towns

individuals and of corporations who and villages. It is presumable that a

undertake planting. Local protection large proportion is forest land. We by fire lines and by other means has cannot exactly determine what part is proven adequate to protect planted cut over, burned over and not restock forest adjoining railroads and which ing. However, if we assume it to be a was open to danger from other causes quarter of the area mentioned that of fires. Educational work and organwould be approximately 2,000,000

ized fire prevention can remove to a acres. To this may be added at least a large degree this objection or stumbling part of the class known as

other un

block to the planting of forests. Adeimproved land in farms ” in the table quate fire protection is sure to come if already mentioned, possibly 2,000,000

extensive planting is done. Planting acres. This gives a total of 4,000,000

creates and increases interest in fire preacres. Undoubtedly there are addi vention. tional areas that are now farmed which The danger of losses due to insects, are not well suited to agriculture, and fungi and other injurious agencies does there is woodland which can best be re not necessarily render an investment in newed by planting after cutting or by planting unsafe. Careful judgment in underplanting On the other hand, the selection of species and mixtures, there are areas now wooded which are as well as subsequent economic meassuitable for agricultural purposes and ures for preventing losses or reducing will be cleared.

the damage, are reasonable safeguards I have given these conservative

in this respect. figures to show that the people of the So far as taxation is concerned, there State have a definite problem before is steady progress in legislation to do them which attains decided importance away with injustice arising from rein the maintenance of New York's peated taxation of the forest crop. timber production. Much unused land Another important principle is well represents retrogression and not prog- stated in a reportt presented at the ress.

Fifth National Conservation Congress The first principle in the maintenance as follows: of a timber supply is efficient protection

“ The second principle is to establish a from fire. This we have on our State

timber supply on

a permanent basis. Preserves, but not organized service in accomplish this purpose, work must naturally the rest of the State. Last summer on begin with a classification of the land, deone day during the drought period I

termining as closely as possible what lands

are agricultural in character and what lands could from a hill near Ithaca, see a

are non-agricultural and should therefore dozen forest fires burning. Can planta be devoted to the growing of timber. This tions in woodland regions outside of the classification should be carried out by the Preserves be safe from loss by fire?

State irrespective of the ownership of the

land classified. Theoretically, this work Shall the Association recommend plant

should precede attempts at reforestation, afing on a great scale without the assur forestation, application of silvicultural

To

*Agriculture: New York, 13th Census of the U. S., 1910, Bulletin of the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce and Labor. † Report of Sub-Committee on State Forest Policy, Fifth National Conservation Congress

hington

TO 2

methods of cutting, attempts to equalize the forest planting is receiving increasing tax on timber and timberlands, or State

stimulus annually. ownership of lands used for forestry purposes. However, in practice it has been

Although reforestation for timber found expedient to develop, forestry work production is not quite so attractive to along such of these lines as the public under the private owner, many small plantastands and is ready to accept. Nevertheless,

tions are being set annually. Planting non-agricultural lands must be determined, and the classification agreed to by the people,

by individuals is often a matter of perbefore one can consider forestry as estab sonal interest in such work for the purlished on a permanent footing in the State."

pose of improving property so that no Further than this a State cannot part of the land is idle, and with no enter on a broad intelligent policy of re idea on the owner's part that he himforestation without sufficiently detailed self will harvest the timber. He simply knowledge of conditions.

sees his property improved and enThis does not apply to reforestation hanced in value, more easily sold or left on denuded lands now owned by the in better condition for his children. State but rather to the so-called "idle As an investment, timber planting by lands” outside State areas.

private owners must be considered in Successful commercial planting de connection with the steady appreciation pends upon a good future market, lands in value of forest products and in the of low value on which to plant, a choice price of land. There are many localiof species suited to the needs of the ties in the Eastern United States where market and to the conditions, local and waste lands are remarkably cheap. regional, relative freedom from sources These are nonagricultural, but with the of damage, a low initial cost of planting, increase of values for other types of and a return on the money invested land in the locality the price of these equal to at least a fair rate of interest. lands is rising. Good roads and transMany examples of successful planta- portation by automobile have put extions exist which meet these conditions. tensive areas within reach of larger and

If forest planting is to be conducted smaller cities for country residence. on a large scale in New York State, This line of development will continue. who shall do it? State ownership of Planting on such lands will add disforests is increasingly favored because tinctively to future sale values. it assures management of forest lands In view of what has been done, and to furnish continuous crops of timber. in the light of opportunity, there is an New York has a large area in the Pre excellent field for planting by railroad serves representing approximately 12 companies, public and private water per cent. of the total forest and wood companies and many corporations. The land area of the State. Extensive State should render these as much asplanting of denuded areas in the Pre sistance as possible through co-operaserves each year should be generously ation in planting. Such planting, howprovided for by legislative appropria ever, cannot compass a large percentage tion.

of the land which should be reforested. Outside of the Preserves, because of Granting that an adequate knowledge the excellent policy of the State in fur has been obtained concerning area, nishing trees at cost, considerable pri location and character of waste and devate planting is being done. It is nuded land, and that the factors aldoubtful if planting by private owners ready discussed have been considered, will be sufficiently great to meet the answer can be attempted to the needs of our present situation. Such question, "Who shall plant and manage planting will indeed be a factor in the these forests?" The answer may be solution of the problem. Short time in that the State should obtain additional vestments in planting for fence post holdings in counties where the reforproduction are very attractive to the estation area is very large and continufarmer. Improvement of nonagricul ous in extent. It is also possible that tural land on the farm by means of acquirement of forest land and waste

an

land should be the function of local lien on the first crop of timber. (2) governments, counties, cities and towns. Let the State purchase at cost lands

Practically the latter plan has very owned or acquired for reforestation many advantages, especially because it purposes by counties, cities, towns or means local pride and endeavor in villages; the State to reforest such lands maintaining local forest resources. and manage them. Within ten years, Such a movement for local acquirement however, the local government origiof land, if properly developed, could, nally giving deed of such lands to the under State control and with adequate State may redeem them by paying the reforestation solve the problem of the State the original cost at 3 per cent. inmaintenance of timber supply in New terest plus reforestation charges. York.

In conclusion: Any program of genNew York legislation has already eral reforestation must be based on inpaved the way for such a development vestigation and land classification. Rein forestry by the law permitting forestation of State lands now denuded counties, town and villages to acquire is of first importance; assistance of prilands for forestry purposes. It is vate plantings (corporate and individdoubtful if this measure alone will ual) by the State is next and the forsuffice to attain the objects desired. mation of a plan for the establishment Further than this two plans are sug and management of community forgested as follows: (1) A loan by the ests and its execution is next. State with interest at 3 per cent. for a A solution of the problem involves 50-year period to the local government effort by all classes of owners and re(county, city, town or village) for use forestation must be put on an extensive under State regulation in acquiring land plan soon. and planting it; loan to be secured by a

Metal and concrete ties have been proven to be unsatisfactory and in Germany they are going back to wooden ties in spite of the gradually increasing cost.

New York uses more white pine than any other wood. The other trees used in order of importance are spruce, white oak, southern pine, hard maple, hemlock, chestnut, etc) Large quantities of red wood and Douglass fir from the Pacific Coast as well as yellow pine from the South are imported into this state when our own native woods are better for general purposes and could be just as well grown here.

The Conservation Commission has issued under date of January 1, 1914, a revised List of Lands in the Forest Preserve." The former list published in 1909 places the area of the Forest Preserve at 1,634,261 acres. The present publication states this area to be 1,825,883 acres, of which 201,827 acres are lands under water. The previous list included lands under water but no effort was made to classify them separately. This publication gives a list of the 6,850 parcels owned by the State. The edition is limited and is not available for general distribution nor is it of interest to the general public.

The season of 1913 was one of extreme drought in the forest sections of this state. Sir hundred eighty-eight forest fires were reported in the forest sections of the Adirondack and Catskill Mountain regions. This territory was protected through a force consisting of 5 district rangers, 69 local rangers and 49 lookouts on mountain stations. Each ranger was assigned a territory approximating 100,000 acres. Although the drought made the fire danger great but 7/10 of i per cent of the area under protection was burned. The entire cost of protection, including the expense of extinguishing fires, was less than 14 mills per acre which is, on the average approximately 2 mills per dollar of valuation. The effectiveness of the present system has been fully demonstrated. It can be made more effective by the increased number of Mountain Stations and rangers.

THE WOODS OF WESTERMAIN

Enter these enchanted woods,

You who dare.
Nothing harms beneath the leaves
More than waves a swimmer cleaves.
Toss your heart up with the lark,
Foot at peace with mouse and worm,

Fair you fare.
Only at a dread of dark
Quaver, and they quit their form:
Thousand eyeballs under hoods

Have you by the hair.
Enter these enchanted woods,
You who dare.

George Meredith.

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Mountain look-out stations and well organized patrol in the Adirondacks and Catskills reduced the fire damage in 1913 to $75,000 against $1,000,000 each in the other dry years like 1903 and 1908. Should not a State-wide fire law be passed ?

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