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NOTE-The Constitution of Pennsylvania says that "cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors of any town or borough having a population of at least 10,000 inhabitants, shall vote at any general election in favor of the same."

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OFFICERS OF DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC

INSTRUCTION.

Superintendent, Andrew S. Draper, Albany,....$5,000 Deputy, Charles R. Skinner, Albany...

Board of Institute Instructors,

4,000

Samuel H. Albro, Fredonia... 2,500
Charles H. Barnes, Sauquoit.. 2,500
Henry R. Sanford, Syracuse.. 2,500
Isaac H. Stout, Geneva.... 2,500
A. S. Downing, Palmyra..... 2,500

Inspector of Teachers' Classes, Chas. E. Hawkins,
Albany

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS.

Chancellor, Geo. Wm. Curtis, W. New Brighton
Vice Chancellor, Anson J. Upton, Glens Falls..
Secretary, and State Librarian, Melvil Dewey,

Albany..

2,500

Salaries.

$5,000

Ass't Secretary, Albert B. Watkins, Albany.... 3,000 Inspector of Academies, Francis J. Cheney,

Albany.

(xvi)

2,500,

CIVIL GOVERNMENT.

DEFINITIONS AND HISTORY OF OUR

GOVERNMENT.

What is Government?

Government is the power which makes, construes, and executes the laws.

What is Civil Government?

Civil Government is that whose powers are vested in officers chosen by the people or appointed by authority. What is the Science of civil government?

The science of civil government investigates the principles of a constitutional government, and illustrates its methods of operation.

What were the thirteen United States prior to the year 1776?
They were colonies subject to Great Britain.

FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.

When did the Congress known as the First Continental Congress meet?

The First Continental Congrees assembled in "Carpenter's Hall," Philadelphia, and commenced work Sept. 5, 1774; it consisted of fifty-three delegates, and adjourned Oct. 26, after having provided for another

Congress to meet the following May. Georgia was not represented in this Congress.

NOTE.-It was in the First Congress that Patrick Henry used these memorable words:

"British oppression has effaced the boundaries of the several Colonies : the distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no more. I AM NOT A VIRGINIAN BUT AN AMERICAN."

SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.

When did the Second Continental Congress meet?

The Second Continental Congress consisted of fiftysix delegates, and it met at "Independence Hall," Philadelphia, May 10, 1775, and existed as a Congress until March 4, 1789. The members of this Congress adopted and signed the Declaration of Independence, in which for the first time the colonies received the name of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

What did Virginia ask Congress to do?

Virginia, May 15, 1776, instructed her delegates in Congress to propose a Declaration of the Independence of the colonies.

What did Congress then do?

Congress solemnly approached that great subject and resolved to appoint, and DID, on the 11th of June, 1776, appoint the following persons-Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benj. Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston, to draft a Declaration of Independence.

Who wrote the Declaration?

Thomas Jefferson wrote it at the request of his associates. Two or three alterations, verbal only, were suggested by Franklin and Adams.

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