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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Actors' Interpretations
245 | Flathe

314
Forrest, Edwin

255
Baumgart
392 Fratricide Punished

I21
Benedix

351

Freiligrath

Betterton

247 French, George Russell

238

Bibliography..

397
Friesen, von ..

315, 338
Blackwood's Magazine

203
Bodenstedt
338 Gans ..

291
Boerne

289 Garrick

245, 247, 248, 269

Booth, Edwin

255 Garrick's Version

244

Boswell
197 Garve..

275
Browne, C. Elliott
241 Gentleman, Francis ..

247
Bucknill
208 Gerth ..

240, 312

Gervinus

Campbell, Thomas .

299

157, 161, 196

Goethe

272

Chasles, Philarète
Chateaubriand

Grimm, Hermann

371

Clergyman

251

Clodius

280

Halford

201

Coleridge

152, 154 Hallam

164

Coleridge, Hartley

197 Hanmer

143

Conolly

211

Hazlitt

Costume

155

261

Hebler

Courdaveaux

Henderson

248

Date and the Text

5

Herder

276

Davies

Hermes

247

289

Devrient, Eduard and Otto

Hoffmann

299

Doering

Horn, Franz..

281

320

Dowden

Hudson

187

170, 177, 226

Drake

196

Hughs, The accurate Mr John 35

Duration of Action..

Hugo, François-Victor

243

390

Hugo, Victor

384

Eckardt

301 | Hunter

165

Editions Collated, List of .. 394 Hystorie of Hamblet

91

Elze ..

335, 378

English Comedians in Germany 114 Insanity, Real or Feigned ..

195
Irving, Henry

258

Farren

199

Fechter
253 Jameson, Mrs

160

Ferriar

195 / Johnson, Dr ..

145

. .

[blocks in formation]

265

190

354

342
221
218
375

Quarterly Review
Quarto of 1603 (earliest entry]
Quarto of 1603 [Reprint]..
Quarto of 1604
Quarto of 1605
Quarto of 1611

White
167, 201 Wiseman, Cardinal ..

251

12 Woelffel

37

Young

13
33 Ziegler
34 | Zimmermann

278
341

APPENDIX

THE DATE, AND THE TEXT

The year in which Shakespeare first wrote Hamlet has given rise to much discussion.

From fourteen to sixteen years before the date of the first edition that has come down to us of this tragedy, allusions to a Play apparently bearing the same title, and containing the same plot, are to be found in contemporary literature.

The question that still divides the Shakespearian world is, stated broadly, whether or not this older drama be one of Shakespeare's earliest works.

The earliest allusion to it was pointed out by Dr FARMER, in his Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare (ed. ii, p. 85). The allusion is contained in an Epistle • To the Gentlemen Students of both Universities,' written by Nash, and prefixed to Greene's Menaphon, or Arcadin, printed in 1589. Nash, referring to the makers of plays of that day, says: Ile turne backe to my first text, of studies of delight, and talke a little in friendship with a few of our triviall translators. It is a common practice now a daies amongst a sort of shifting companions, that runne through every arte and thrive by none to leave the trade of Noverint whereto they were borne, and busie themselves with the indevours of art, that could scarcelie latinize their neckeverse if they should have neede; yet English Seneca read by candle-light yeeldes manie good sentences, as Blould is a begger, and so foorth: and if you intreate him faire in a frostie morning, he will affoord you whole Hamlets, I should say Hand. fulls of tragical speaches.* But O grief! Tempus edax rerum ;-what is it that will last always ? The sea exhaled by drops will in continuance be drie; and Seneca, let bloud line by line, and page by page, at length must needs die to our stage.'

MALONE (Variorum, 1821, vol. ii, p. 372), aster quoting this passage, continues: Not having seen the first edition of this tract till a few years ago, I formerly doubted whether the foregoing passage referred to the tragedy of Hamlet ; but the word Hamlets being printed in the original copy in a different character from the rest, I have no longer any doubt upon the subject. It is manisest from this passage that some play on the story of Hamlet had been exhibited before the year 1589; but I am inclined to think that it was not Shakespeare's drama, but an elder performance, on which, with the aid of the old prose Hystorie of Hamblet, his tragedy was formed. The great number of pieces which we know he formed on the performances of preceding writers, renders it highly probable that some others also of his dramas were

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* Thus far in this extract I have followed Staunton; the rest is as Malone quotes it. Ed.

constructed on plays that are now lost. Perhaps the original Hamlet was written by Thomas Kyd; who was the author of one play (and probably of more) to which no name is affixed. The only tragedy to which Kyd's name is affixed (Cornelia) is a prosessed translation from the French of Garnier, who, as well as his translator, imitated Seneca. In Kyd's Spanish Tragedy, as in Shakespeare's Hamlet, there is, if I may say so, a play represented within a play; if the old play of Ilamlet should ever be recovered, a similar interlude, I make no doubt, would be found there; and somewhat of the same contrivance may be traced in the old Taming of a Shrew, a comedy which perhaps had the same author as the other ancient pieces now enumerated. Nash seems to point at some dramatic writer of that time who had originally been a scrivener or attorney, and instead of transcribing deeds and pleadings, had chosen to imitate Seneca's plays, of which a translation had been published many years before. Shakespeare, however freely he may have borrowed from Plutarch or Holinshed, does not appear to be at all indebted to Seneca; and therefore I do not believe that he was the person in Nash's contemplation.' Malone was inclined to believe at first that the person alluded to as having. lest the trade of Nozerint (that is, of attorney, from the Latin formula with which deeds began : Noverint l'niversi, and of which our know all men is a translation) could not have been Shakespeare ; but afterwards, on a review of the numerous legal terms and phrases used by Shakespeare, he changed his opinion, and suspected that Shakespeare was early initiated in at least the forms of law; and was employed, while at Stratford, in the office of some country attorney who was at the same time a petty conveyancer, and perhaps also the Seneschal of some manor-court.'

In reference to the date of this Epistle of Nash's, Dyce in his edition of Greene's Works (vol. i, p. ciii), after citing the title of Menaphon. Camillas alarum to slumbering Euphues, in his melancholie Celi at Silexeira, &c., &c., 1589, 4to, adds: • First printed 1587,' but gives no authority in the way of title or imprint. This date of 1587 has been followed, on Dyce's authority, by Collier and one or two others, but Knight thinks it is a mistake, and Dyce himself seems to have had a misgiving on the subject, for in his second edition of Shakespeare he gives the date of Greene's Nenaphon as 1589 with •[qy if first printed in 1587?]' after it. The surer date, therefore, is 1589. This date is of importance; it makes Shakespeare twenty-five years old, instead of twenty-three, when Nash thus alluded to him,--no small gain for those who maintain that this older Hamlet was written by him.

C. A. BROWN (Shakespeare's Autobiographical Poems, p. 254) maintains emphatically that Shakespeare's tragedy was referred to in the phrase "whole Hamlets of tragical speaches,' and that Shakespeare himself was alluded to as having left the trade of Noverint; and further, that his reason for assigning 1589 as the date of the composition of Hamlet is founded solely on this passage from Nash. It is to be understood as regarding its original state before the alterations and enlargements had taken place.'. *If there exists a description of that elder play, I do not hesitate in saying it is Shakespeare's and no other's, provided the Ghost appears in it. According to the old black-letter Quarto, whence the tragedy is derived, the killing of the Prince's father was public; consequently, no Ghost was employed to reveal it to the son. Now the change from an open slaying, with some show of cause, to a secret murder, involving the necessity of the Ghost's appearance to seek revenge, is so important, so wonderful an invention for the dramatic effect of the story, that I cannot imagine it belonged to any but Shakespeare. Should I be mistaken in this opinion, still I appeal to Nash's authority, published in 1589, that Shakespeare's

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