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bringing into one view, all that the work contains upon a particular point of inquiry. If one half the references to German authors were omitted, the loss to most readers and students would be very trifling, in comparison with the advantages constantly accruing from a good Index of Subjects. We presume that the publishers were afraid of swelling the size of the volume, and thereby augmenting the expense. But such a change as that, which we have just intimated, might easily be made, without any detriment to any interest which ought to be consulted. We will add, however, that while the work is worth all that it costs, a reduction of the price is very desirable ; and we trust will be found among the recommendations of a second edition.

Professor Fiske deserves much praise for the manner in which he has executed his undertaking. The American edition is certainly a great improvement upon the labors of Eschenberg; and we are confident, that those who examine it most carefully, will be most prompt and unqualified in their expressions of commendation.

We shall not be surprised, however, if the Manual should be unpopular among students, who may be required to use it as a text-book for recitations. The study of history and antiquities has constituted a part of the prescribed course of literary discipline in some of our colleges; but, for certain reasons, has almost invariably proved an entire failure. It ought not so to be. We hope that experiments with the Manual as a book for study will be successful. But of one thing we are sure. Every student in our coileges would do well to have it upon his table for daily consultation. It should also be found in all our academies and classical schools. And whenever it is purchased by a student, he should retain it as one of the books of his permanent library. Through life he may make it a most useful companion of his literary toils and recreations.

3.— The Principles of Education as applied in the Mobile

Institute. By Norman PINNEY.

This pamphlet gives a detailed account of the Institute, under the charge of Mr. Pinney, as principal, and four other gentlemen, as professors. The principles of the system are rational, and the course of studies and instruction, as detailed in the book, seem of a very practical character. If the gentlemen who are engaged in carrying on the Institute, are able to put their views


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fully into practice, they cannot fail of making their establishment one of immense advantage to the part of the country in which they live. Their pupils are received at an early age, and required to remain long enough under their care to go through the greater part of the course. They are under a constant supervision, and subjected to domestic influences, particularly that of female society. They are carried through the elements of a good Eng. lish education, all the particulars of which are given; and the foreign languages, including Latin and Greek, are taught there. In respect to the modern foreign languages, Mr. Pinney lays down a principle of great importance, viz. that they should be taught not merely by native teachers, but by Americans. The writing, pronouncing, and speaking, should be under the exclusive control of the former, and the translating into English, together with the grammatical principles, should be superintended by the latter. This mode recommends itself at once to the reason; and now that we see it actually proposed to be carried into execution, we are surprised, that it has not been attempted, wherever circumstances permit.

Mr. Pinney's general views on Physical Education meet with our hearty concurrence. But there is one opinion on this subject from which we wholly dissent. It is substantially expressed in these sentences; "Gymnastics, which call for extraordinary and unnatural muscular exertion, are worse than useless. They tend to injure the constitution and shorten life.” Nothing, in our view, can be farther from the fact. The object of gymnastics is to develope the muscles and call out all the physical energies “by extraordinary and unnatural muscular exertion," – that is, extraordinary and unnatural, according to the usual habits of sedentary men. The Greeks understood the subject of education, if education be considered the science of unfolding the powers of the whole man, better than any people since their time; and they placed gymnastics upon a level with geometry and music. The results of their system of education manifested themselves in many beautiful forms, not the least important of which was, that the Greeks became a race of extraordinary physical power and beauty. The Germans have given to this subject the most profound consideration. Their



gymnastic exercises, as matured and perfected by Jahn, is one of the noblest achievements of physical inquiry. The treatise of that eminent man has been ably translated and enlarged by Dr. Charles Beck, Professor of Latin in Harvard University, himself one of the few thorough masters of the science in this country. But the narrow limits of a notice forbid our doing more than indicating our dissent from Mr. Pinney's views. On VOL. XLIV. —NO. 94.


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the whole, we have been gratified with the sound doctrine, moderate tone, and polished style of this pamphlet, and last, though not least, with the remarkable beauty of its typography.

9. — Memoir of James Jackson, Jr., M. D. Written by his

Father; and Reminiscences of him, by a Fellow Student.
Boston ; Hilliard, Gray, & Co. 16mo. pp. 228.

We are happy to see this beautiful and touching sketch reprinted in an accessible form. The first edition was circulated only among the personal friends of the lamented young man whom it commemorates. The volume was in a great measure filled with professional matter, which made it rather unsuitable for general circulation, however interesting to medical men. The memoir is written with affecting simplicity, and portrays the virtues of Mr. Jackson with tenderness and truth. All who knew him, (and the circle of his friends was large) concur in a high sense of the surpassing beauty of his character; and all who did not know him will be grateful to his father for allowing this tasteful and feeling tribute to his son's memory to go abroad. The effect of such a delineation of such a character, on our young professional men, cannot fail of being a good one. It is an eloquent testimony to the beauty of virtue in youth and early manhood.

10. — A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament,

including the Biblical Chaldee. Translated from the Latin of William Gesenius, Professor of Theology in the University of Halle-Wittemberg. By EDWARD ROB

. INSON, D. D., late Professor Extraordinary of Sacred Literature in the Theological Seminary, Andover. Boston ; Crocker & Brewster. 8vo. pp. 1092.

Twenty-Five years ago, the wretched Lexicon of John Parkhurst was in almost universal use in this country, with the few who gave any attention to the Hebrew language. Here and there only might be found, as a rarity, a copy of Buxtorf's Manual of 1634, and before long Eichhorn's improved edition of Simonis found its way into a few libraries. In 1810-12, Gesenius, of Halle, the great Hebrew scholar of the day, published in two volumes his Hebräisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch des Alten Testaments, and in 1815, his abridgment of the same book for the use of the schools. The latter work was translated by Professor Gibbs, now of New Haven, and published at Andover in 1824. Recommended by its cheapness, as well as by its convenient arrangement, and wide superiority to previous books of the same kind, it has been, ever since, the standard work in the hands of our students, and has rendered the most important service to the cause of Hebrew learning among us. Nor will it be superseded by the present work, since for all purposes of the mere learner of the language it is sufficient, and its low price and small size (though comprehending the whole of the vocabulary,) will continue to give it an advantage.

Notwithstanding the greatly-improved edition of Simonis by Winer, of Erlangen, in 1828, the subsequent labors of Gesenius have secured to him undisputed precedence in the department of Hebrew lexicography. In 1823 and 1828, he published improved editions of his German Manual, and in 1829, the first Fasciculus of his Thesaurus Philologicus Criticus Linguæ Hebraicæ et Chaldææ Veteris Testamenti. This great work, which yet remains unfinished, is announced for publication, entire, within the present year. Meanwhile, Gesenius undertook, in 1827, what at first he intended only for a version into Latin of the edition of 1823. He could not, however, and did not fail, to introduce into it improvements, the fruit of his own later studies, and of those of cotemporary philologists; and, thus enriched, the work appeared in 1833, at Leipzic, under the title of Lexicon Manuale Hebraicum et Talmudicum in V. T. Libros. This is the work of which that of Professor Robinson, now before us, is a translation.

The volume, of course, contains the results of all the most recent investigations in Hebrew lexicography ; and especially of the studies of that school, which, founded by Schultens in the last century, has thrown so much light upon the subject, by collations from the cognate dialects. This merit attaches also, though in an inferior degree, to the works of Eichhorn and Winer. But the distinguishing merit of Gesenius is to be found in the great sagacity and judgment which he has shown in the arrangement of his definitions, so as to present them in what may be called the historical order; the primitive meaning being placed first, and then the secondary meanings in their proper succession, so as to show how each, in its turn, grew out of the preceding.

As to the superiority of Gesenius's arrangement of the vocabulary to that adopted by earlier lexicographers, we are not altogether so confident. The former method, that of assigning every word to its place in the alphabet, doubtless facilitates the use of the Lexicon for beginners. On the other hand, to a person who has made some proficiency, it is much more satisfactory to see all derivative words arranged under their


roots respectively. We are not sure that, for Hebrew, either of these arrangements alone, is so good as that of Scapula's Greek Lexicon, which gives each word under its root, and, for the novice's convenience, adds an alphabetical index, referring from each word to the place where it is treated in the body of the work.

But we have not undertaken at this time a criticism of Gesenius. In the translator's well-known learning, diligence, good judgment, and love of accuracy, the public has every pledge that could be desired, for the faithful execution of his task. The printers have also well done their part, which is a thing of the first importance in a work of this kind. The paper and type are of good quality, and the arrangement of the page altogether convenient. It is impossible to print Hebrew with perfect accuracy, even if the person most interested can directly superintend the press, which it appears was not the case in the present instance. Accordingly, in turning over the pages, — sor as yet, we have made no use of the translation in study, a few typographical errors strike our eye; as p.

; יִשָּׂשכָר for יְשָׁשׂמָר ,449 .p ;חַסְרָה for חַסְרָח ;חֲמֶר for , חֶסֶד ,360 and in many places points have fallen ; מְנַה for מְנַשְׁת ,592 .p

out, from within or beneath the letters.

We venture to suggest to the learned translator, that, by an easy expedient, he might make the collations with the cognate dialects, in some degree useful to persons not skilled in those tongues. We wish that to another edition, he would prefix tables of the Syriac, Arabic, and Æthiopic alphabets. (Coptic is less quoted, and generally, we conceive, to much less purpose.) This would enable the mere Hebrew student to form a judgment of the degree of resemblance between the Hebrew root and that in the related language, from which illustration is sought; and a little practice would soon enable him to detect the resemblance, even where in the different languages cognate letters are interchanged. It would be of course unnecessary for this purpose, to give any account of the respective vowel systems, the vowels in this family of languages not being the part of words, in which their affinities are to be traced.

We shall certainly be glad to see Gesenius's large work. But in the mean time, the possessor of this volume may be satisfied that he is adequately furnished for any course of Hebrew study into which he is likely to be led. It is the more welcome, because it is in no degree in advance of the need. Some judgment may be formed of the extent to which Hebrew studies are now pursued among us, from the statement of Professor Robinson, that, within four years, there appear to have been imported “not much less than 1500 copies of Jahn's Hebrew Bible, and not far from half that number of the Lexicon of Gesenius."

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