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of Cotton Mather. If the problem is ever solved by man, it must be by the combined aid of the whole circle of human wisdom, - history, philology, geology, natural history, &c.; as there is hardly any science, or branch of knowledge, which may not, in virtue of the " commune vinculum,' contribute its share to the task. And it is necessary not only that every possible fact be collected that can throw the least light, direct or indirect, upon the question ; but also, in the language of Cuvier in reference to another subject, “carefully and decidedly to find the place of every thing before building upon it.” The theories of Robertson, Voltaire, and Lord Kaims, with many others, are given by Mr. Drake; but to attempt to examine their different merits would require more space than our limits will allow us to devote to this part of the volume.

A portion of the first Book is devoted to illustrating the manners, customs, disposition, habits, and traditions of the Indians. This is attempted principally by anecdotes drawn from every variety of source; but the aim seems to have been rather to amuse the reader, than to present a connected and instructive disquisition on the subjects aunounced at the head of the chapter. There is, however, much to entertain, if not to inform. We do not complain of want of interest, but only that we had looked for something more methodical and complete. One or two of these anecdotes we will give the reader.

Characters Contrasted. —'An Indian of the Kennebeck tribe, remarkable for his good conduct, received a grant of land from the State, and fixed himself in a new township where a number of families were settled. Though not ill treated, yet the common prejudice against Indians prevented any sympathy with him. This was shown at the death of his only child, when none of the people came near him. Shortly afterwards he went to some of the inhabitants, and said to them: “When white man's child die, Indian man he sorry, — he help bury him. When my child die, no one speak to me.

I make his grave alone. I can no live here.” He gave up his farm, dug up the body of his child, and carried it with him two hundred miles through the forests, to join the Canada Indians.'” Book I. chap. iii. p. 22.

Harmless Deception. - In a time of Indian troubles, an Indian visited the house of Governor Jenks, of Rhode Island, when the governor took occasion to request him, if any strange



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Indian should come to his wigwam, to let him know it, which the Indian promised to do; but, to secure his fidelity, the governor told him that when he should give him such information, he would give him a mug of flip. Some time after the Indian came again. Well, Mr. Gubenor, strange Indian come my house last night!' 'Ah,' says the governor, and what did he say?' He no speak,' replied the Indian. What, no speak

' at all ?' added the governor. “No, he no speak at all. That certainly looks suspicious,' said his excellency, and inquired if he were still there; and being told that he was, ordered the promised mug of flip. When this was disposed of, and the İndian was about to depart, he mildly said, “Mr. Gubenor, my squaw have child last night;' and thus the governor's alarm was suddenly changed into disappointment, and the strange Indian into a new-born pappoose.”. Ibid., p. 28.

The remaining portion of the first Book is devoted to American Antiquities. Mr. Drake has collected most of what may be considered valuable from the various writers who have attempted to treat of them; "confining himself,” as he says, " to facts as he finds them, without wasting time in commentaries.” Facts, data sufficient and correct, seem to have been too little an object of inquiry, with many who have written upon these relics of the olden time. Imagination has ranged wider than the eye, and penetrated deeper than the spade and shovel. We think with the author, that “it is time enough to argue a subject of this nature, when all the facts are collected ; "and, that “ to write volumes about Shem, Ham, and Japhet, in connexion with a few isolated facts, is a most ludicrous, and worse than useless business." A writer visits the remains of one of these fortifications, to examine and describe them. No sooner has he set foot within the half-demolished enclosure, and gazed round on the venerable oaks, that stand like aged sentinels on the time-levelled ramparts, or climbed the neighbouring mound, where repose the dead of an unknown age, the warriors who once battled on the plain around him, than fancy peoples anew the scene before bim with another race of beings. He beholds in imagination the marshalled hosts of the long-revolted children of Abraham, or sees the stately march of the invincible Roman, as his cohorts file through the narrow opening in the now half-levelled wall. The perplexing problem is solved; the mystery is all revealed; and, after collecting a few fragments of earthenware, and a piece or two of copper, he returns, satisfied with his investigations, to communicate their result to the world.

Our remarks have, of course, no application to those who have entered this field in the true spirit of philosophical investigation, using their eyes and their spades together, instead of allowing their imaginations to run riot amongst sites of cities, mounds, fortifications, swords, and medals. A few individuals have examined parts of these monuments, such as mounds, fortifications, wells, &c. with much faithfulness, and have accurately and minutely described them. Mr. Jefferson excavated one of these mounds or barrows, which was situated in bis neighbourhood, near the site of an Indian town. It was of a spheroidal form of about forty feet in diameter at the base, and had been of about iwelve feet altitude, though then reduced by the plough to seven and a half, having been under cultivation ten or twelve years. Before this, it bad been covered with trees of twelve inches diameter, and there was around its base an excavation of five feet depth and width, from which the earth had been taken to form the hillock. In this mound Mr. Jefferson found great quantities of human bones, which, from their position, appeared to have been thrown or piled there promiscuously together ; bones of the head and feet being in contact; some vertical, some oblique, some horizontal, and directed to every point of the compass." These bones, when exposed to the air, crumbled to dust. Some of the skulls, jaw-bones, and teeth, were taken out in a nearly perfect state, but fell to pieces on being examined. This assemblage of bones Mr. Jefferson judged to have been made up from persons of all ages, and collected at different periods

, of time. The mound was composed of alternate strata of bones, stones, and earth. The Indians, as the same author states, have a custom of collecting together, at certain periods, the bones of their deceased friends, and depositing them together in this manner. “But,” he observes," on whatever occasion they may have been made, they are of considerable notoriety among the Indians ; for a party passing, about thirty years ago, through the part of the country where this barrow is, went through the woods directly to it, without any instructions or inquiry, and, having stayed about it some time, with expressions which were construed to be those of sorrow, they returned to the high road, which they had left, about a half a dozen miles, to pay this visit, and pursued their journey."

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In these tumuli are usually found, with the bones, such instruments only as appear to have been connected with the superstitious rites of the entombed, or to have been used for ornaments, as weapons of the chase, or of war. Of the latter none more formidable have been discovered, which can be supposed to have been deposited before the arrival of Europeans in America, than tomahawks, spears, and arrowheads.

The number of these mounds and fortifications, scattered over the south and west, has been variously estimated by different writers. Mr. Brackenridge supposes there may be three thousand ; and Mr. Drake thinks it would not exceed the bounds of probability to estimate them at double that number. “The plough, excavations, and levellings for towns,

. roads, and various other works, have entirely destroyed hundreds of them, which had never been described, and whose sites cannot now be ascertained." Great numbers are believed to have been destroyed by the changing of the courses of rivers.

“ There are various opinions about the uses for which these ancient remains were constructed. While some of them are too much like modern fortifications to admit of a doubt of their having been used for defences, others, nearly similar in design, from their situation, entirely exclude the adoption of such an opinion. Hence we find four kinds of remains formed of earth; two kinds of mounds or barrows, and two which have been viewed as fortifications. The barrows or burial piles are distinguished by such as contain articles which were inhumed with the dead, and those which do not contain them. From what cause they differ in this respect, it is difficult to determine. Some have supposed the former to contain bones only of warriors, but in such mounds the bones of infants are found, and hence that hypothesis is overthrown; and indeed an hypothesis can scarcely be raised upon any one matter concerning them, without almost a positive assurance that it has been created to be destroyed.

“ As a specimen of the contents of the mounds generally, the following may be taken ; being such as Dr. Drake found in those he examined. — 1. Cylindrical stones, such as jasper, rockcrystal, and granite ; with a groove near one end. 2. A circular piece of cannel coal, with a large opening in the centre, as though made for the reception of an axis ; and a deep groove in the circumference, suitable for a band. 3. A small article of the same shape, but composed of polished argillaceous earth.

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4. A bone, ornamented with several curved lines, supposed by some to be hieroglyphics. 5. A sculptural representation of the head and beak of some rapacious bird. 6. Lumps of lead gre. 7. Isinglass, (mica membranacea.) This article is very common in mounds, and seems to have been held in high estimation among the people that constructed them; but we know not that modern Indians have any particular attachment to it. A superior article, though much like it, was also in great esteem among the ancient Mexicans. 8. Small pieces of sheet-copper, with perforations. 9. Larger oblong pieces of the same metal, with longitudinal grooves and ridges. 10. Beads, or sections of small hollow cylinders, apparently of bone or shell. 11. Teeth of carnivorous animals. 12. Large marine shells, belonging, perhaps, to the genus buccinum; cut in such a manner as to serve for domestic utensils. These, and also the teeth of animals, are generally found almost entirely decomposed, or in a state resembling chalk. 3. Earthenware. This seems to have been made of the same material as that employed by the Indians of Louisiana, within our recollection, viz. pounded muscle and other river shells, and earth. Some perfect articles have been found, but they are rare. Pieces, or fragments, are very common. Upon most of them, confused lines are traced, which doubtless had some meaning; but no specimen has yet been found, having glazing upon it like modern pottery. Some entire vases, of most uncouth appearance, have been found. Mr. Atwater of Ohio, who has pretty fully described the western antiquities, gives an account of a vessel, which seems to have been used as a jug. It was found in an ancient work on Cany Fork, on Cumberland River, about four feet below the surface. The body of the vessel is made by three heads, all joined together at their backs. From these places of contact a neck is formed, which rises about three inches above the heads. The orifice of this neck is near two inches in diameter, and the three necks of the heads form the legs of the vessel on which it stands when upright. The heads are all of a size, being about four inches from the top to the chin. The faces, at the eyes, are about three inches broad, which increase in breadth all the way to the chin." Book I. chap. iv. p. 41.

The works, called fortifications, are next considered particularly, and the largest and most remarkable of them described.

They are very numerous, and are of many different figures, though generally regular. Some are square, others oblong, trapezoidal, circular, &c. They differ equally in area ; some containing only a few rods, and others twenty, VOL. XLIV. - NO. 95.


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