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which form the line of the Atlantic, and 2d, those which lead from places on the Atlantic to the interior.

The works of the first of these classes are destined to form, with the addition of a few connecting links of steam navigation, a line of communication from Portland in Maine, to Wilmington in North Carolina, a distance of nine hundred miles. Over eight hundred miles of this distance, viz. from Boston to Wilmington, as soon as the works now commenced shall be completed, the ordinary passage will probably be performed in four days, without night travelling.

The works of the second class, some of which are projected on a most magnificent scale, besides a great number of rail-roads leading from towns on the sea-board to places in the interior of the same State, or an adjoining State, embrace not less than six or seven lines of coinmunication, from cities on the Atlantic to the navigable waters of the Western States. M. Poussin, in his work, confines himself to a description of those portions of these grand lines of communication, which are either finished or are actually commenced. To form an idea, however, of the true character of these works, and of the bearing which they are destined to have on the future prosperity of the country, it is necessary to look at them as parts of the grand system of improvement, to which they respectively belong, and to take notice of some of the parts of the system, which are not yet completed, or even in the actual process of execution. We shall, therefore, take a hasty review of the principal projected systems of improvement, taking care to distinguish those which are completed, and in actual operation, from those which are in progress, and these again, from such as are merely projected. This review, we think, will strike with some surprise those who have not carefully watched the progress of these improvements, and will show, that the country is in the way to be supplied, in the course of a very few years, with facilities of communication which will rival those of any

In New England, the line of the Atlantic will begin at Portland or perhaps at Bangor, and, proceeding near the seacoast, through Saco, Portsmouth, Newburyport, and Salem to Boston, will continue its course through Providence to Stonington, and after crossing Long Island Sound, where it is twenty-five miles in width, it is proposed to carry it along nearly the whole length of Long Island, through Jamaica to

other country

Brooklyn, near the city of New York. This will constitute the immediate sea-coast line. But there will be others through a great part and perhaps the whole of the distance, a little farther inland, viz. from Portland through Dover, Exeter, and Haverhill to Boston, thence through Worcester to Norwich or New London, and thence by steam navigation to New York; and also from Boston through Worcester, Springfield, Hartford, and New Haven, by a connected series of rail-roads to New York. Of the series of works which will form this double and triple line of communication, along the coast of the New England States, four are already completed, viz. from Boston to Providence, from Boston to Worcester, from Boston to Andover, including a part of the Lowell rail-road, and from Brooklyn to Jamaica, making an extent of an hundred and twenty miles; and six others are commenced and in active progress, by organized joint stock companies ; viz. from Providence to Stonington, from Boston to Newburyport, from Andover to Haverhill

, from Worcester to Norwich, from Worcester to Springfield, and from Hartford to New Haven, making a farther extent of two hundred and twenty miles. The series will thus far be finished in the course of two or three years, and the other portions of the lines described there is reason to believe

will, in great part at least, be completed at no remote period thereafter.

When these lines of rail-road are completed, the ordinary passage from Portland to Boston will be performed in about six hours, and that from Boston to New York in twelve. The projected roads, between Boston and New York, will present to the traveller a choice among three routes ; one by way of Providence, Stonington, and Long Island, which will give about a hundred and ninety miles of land travel, and twenty-five of steam navigation ; one by way of Worcester, Norwich, and Long Island Sound, which will give a hundred and three miles of land travel, and a hundred and twenty-five of steam navigation ; and the third by way of Worcester, Springfield, and New Haven, with two hundred and twentyfive miles of land and steam, or continued land travel. The difference of time required for the three routes will not be sufficient to give either a decided precedence over the other two, to those who may take an interest in viewing the country passed through. Any one of the routes will reduce the passage


from Boston to New York, to an easy day's journey, the whole of which may be usually performed by daylight. In proceeding southwardly from New York, we find two distinct lines of rail-road uniting that city with Philadelphia. The first of these is the Canden and Amboy rail-road, constructed with a double track, and leading from the port of South Amboy, in a southwesterly direction across the State of New Jersey, a distance of sixty miles, to Camden, on the easterly banks of the Delaware, opposite to the city of Philadelphia. The passage from New York to Amboy is made by steamboat navigation, a distance of twenty-five miles through an inland passage, which separates Staten Island from the shore of New Jersey. The passage from New York to Philadelphia is made in five and a half hours.

The other line is entirely distinct from that just described. It is of about the same length, and leads from the ferry, opposite to the city of New York, through the city of Newark, and the towns of Brunswick and Trenton, directly to the city of Philadelphia. This line consists of three distinct rail-roads united in one line; one extending from the ferry to New Brunswick, the second from New Brunswick to Trenton, and the third from Trenton to Philadelphia. The second of these roads is not yet finished ; the other two are in full operation. This route will have the advantage of passing through the principal towns of New Jersey, while the other passes directly through a very barren and desolate region.

In continuing the Ailantic line from Philadelphia to Baltimore, there will also soon be a choice of several routes. That which has been hitherto chiefly travelled, is the New Castle and Frenchtown rail-road, which extends only across the peninsula from the Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, a distance of sixteen miles, and serves as the connecting link of a chain of steamboat navigation, by which the rest of the passage is made, from Philadelphia to Baltimore. The distance by the course of the steamboat from Philadelphia to New Castle is thirty-five miles, and that from Frenchtown to Baltimore nearly double, making the whole distance from Philadelphia to Baltimore a hundred and twenty miles. The time usually occupied in making the passage is from ten to eleven hours, that part of it made by the rail-road occupying one hour.

Another distinct route, from Philadelphia to Baltimore, yet



unfinished, but a great part of it nearly ready to be put in operation, consists of three rail-roads; the first leading from Philadelphia to Wilmington in Delaware ; the second leading from Wilmington by way of Elkton, to the Susquehannah River ; and the third from Port Deposit, on this river, to Baltimore; the whole distance being one hundred miles. A part of this road, extending from Wilmington to Elkton, a distance of seventeen miles, has been quite recently opened.

The work on the other portions of the road is far advanced, and it is anticipated that it will be opened early in the present summer. When the whole is completed, the passage upon it, between the two cities, will be performed in about six hours.

Still another route has been projected, pursuing the Columbia road from Philadelphia, a distance of forty-five miles, and diverging thence by a new rail-road from Coatsville, by Oxford, to Point Deposit, and proceeding thence to Baltimore by the route above mentioned. This route is less direct than that last described, and the distance thereon will be a hundred and twenty miles.

From Baltimore, the Atlantic line extends to Washington, a distance of thirty-eight miles. This road consists of a double track, and is identical for a distance of eight miles with the Baltimore and Ohio rail-road. It is usually travelled in about two hours and a half. Thus the whole distance from Boston to Washington is travelled, nearly in a direct course, either by rail-road cars or by steam navigation; and before the end of the present year, it is probable that the whole distance from New York to Washington, may be travelled by railroads, and in the space of fourteen hours.

From Washington, the Atlantic line of rail-road extends in a southerly direction, through the State of Virginia. From the city of Washington, the Potomac runs for about forty-five miles, in nearly a direct southerly course, to Potomac Creek. This part of the river is well adapted to steam navigation, and on this part of the line no rail-road has yet been commenced. A charter has been granted for a rail-road from the city of Washington, passing through Alexandria to Fredericksburgh, with the right of making a branch to Warrenton. Books have been opened for subscriptions to the stock, but the company is not yet organized. 'From Fredericksburgh to Richmond, the rail-road is already built and in successful operation. It is sixty-one miles in length, and it is traversed daily by passenger cars, carrying the mail, in something less than four hours. It is proposed to extend this road from Fredericksburgh to Potomac Creek, a distance of seven miles, unless the Fredericksburgh and Washington road is immediately prosecuted, in which case the extension will be rendered unnecessary. In proceeding southwardly from Richmond to Petersburg, the rail-road line is not yet completed. A company is formed for the construction of a road, the distance being about twenty miles, and the work is considerably advanced. The want of this part of the line is the less felt, in consequence of the steamboat navigation between these two places, by the circuitous channel of the James and Appomatox rivers. The completion of the rail-road on this part of the route will materially shorten the line of travel. Between Petersburg and the Roanoke, the rail-road is already completed. This was one of the first, and it is one of the finest railroads in the country. It is fifty-nine miles in length, and it forms a channel for the transport of the produce of the rich valley of the Roanoke to a market at Petersburg. It is regularly traversed by locomotive engines, and the mail is daily transported upon it.

Besides the route just described, passing through Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond, to the Roanoke, and terminating near the northern border of North Carolina, there is another, called the Eastern Shore and Norfolk route. It is proposed to construct a rail-road which shall diverge from the Wilmington and Susquehannah road, near Elkton, and after proceeding in a southerly course, and nearly in a right line, over a very level country near the eastern boundary of Maryland, to Princess Ann, terminate at Tangier Sound, near the southern border of the state. The length of this rail-road will be a hundred and eighteen miles. To continue the line of com

. munication from Tangier Sound, to Norfolk and Portsmouth, it is proposed to establish a line of steamboats, to run daily, a distance of eighty-five miles. At Portsmouth, a rail-road is already constructed, leading thence westwardly to Weldon, on the Roanoke River, near the termination of the Petersburg road, a distance of seventy-five miles. On this road a train of cars runs daily, receiving passengers who leave Halifax by stage coaches in the morning, and conveying them to Portsmouth before dinner, where they embark in the steamboats, which now run to Baltimore and Washington. By means of this

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