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These and certain other truths, which could be learned only from experience, had they been known before the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road, would have enabled the enterprising projectors of that road to make a great saving in some of their items of expenditure.

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road is completed with a double track from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry, with a branch to Fredericktown, at a cost of $3,474,600. There is, besides, a branch diverging from it at a point eight miles distant from Baltimore, to Washington, built at the additional cost of $1,588,899. This branch last year produced a net income of five per cent., exclusive of a fisih part of the whole receipts from passengers, reserved as a bonus to the State. From Harper's Ferry a rail-road has been built, by an independent company, extending to Winchester in Virginia. This road is connected with the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road, by a continuous track, by means of a viaduct across the Potomac River, which has just been opened for the passage of locomotives and cars.

Surveys have been made for the extension of the Winchester Rail-road as far as Staunton, which when completed will form a rail-road route from Baltimore, of two bundred and fifteen miles in length. Surveys have been industriously prosecuted, within the last two years, for the extension of the Baltimore and Ohio rail-road, along the valley of the Potomac, in conjunction with the canal, and to the summit of the Alleghany Mountains, with a view of continuing them thence to both Pittsburgh and Wheeling. The engineers report with confidence, that the mountains between Cumberland and the Western waters can be passed, without the use of stationary power, by locomotive engines and their trains. The company has obtained, by virtue of acts of the legislature of Maryland and of the city council of Baltimore, subscriptions to their stock, to the amount of three millions of dollars on account of the State, and an equal sum on account of the city. With these liberal additions to their capital stock, and with such aid as may be anticipated from the citizens of Pittsburgh and Wheeling, there is reason to believe that ample means will be provided for the completion of the enterprise. No definite location of the route has been made, and consequently neither its length has been ascertained, nor its cost accurately estimated. The completion of the road is a very important end to be attained, not only to the individual stockholders, but

to the city of Baltimore and the State ; for they are deeply interested in the income of the road, and in the effects it is expected to produce on the business of the city and State. The work, as it is at present situated, is but an insignificant fragment of the whole, and it must remain, until finished, comparatively unproductive. Unlike the first western line heretofore described, it passes through no dense population which can give it an adequate support, independently of that on which it will ultimately rest, the traffic and population of the western country.

Another Trans-Alleghanic rail-road is projected in Virginia. It has two terminations on the Atlantic, one at Richmond, and the other at Norfolk. From these, two lines proceed, one towards the sources of the James River, by way of Farmville and Lynchburgh, and the other by the valley of the Roanoke. The last-named branch is to consist of the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail-road, already described, the Greensville and Roanoke Rail-road, extending to Danville, a distance of one hundred and seventy-two miles, and the Danville and Junction Rail-road to Evansham, one hundred and thirty-seven miles in length. At some point between Danville and Evansham the two lines will probably unite, and will proceed to near the source of the Holston River, and, pursuing the channel of this stream to near the southwestern corner of the State, will pass into Tennessee, and terminate on the navigable waters of Tennessee River.

From Lynchburgh, across the Blue Ridge, the Alleghany Ridge, and the ridge between New River and the Holston, two surveys have been made, by direction of the Lynchburgh and Tennessee Rail-road Company, and the cost is estimated at $14,000 a mile. A survey of the other route has been made, and the cost of the two roads, from the termination of the Portsmouth and Roanoke road, to Evansham, is estimated at $5,254,000. Both routes are pronounced by the engineers practicable for locomotive engines. The legislature of Virginia has granted to the James River and Roanoke Company the right to construct a rail-road from Richmond to Lynchburgh ; and that company has voted to construct it, as soon as the Lynchburgh and Tennessee Rail-road shall have been commenced, and has instructed the directors, in that event, to open books of subscription for the necessary stock. It is anticipated that the Lynchburgh and Tennessee Rail-road will unite, near its southwestern termination with the Charleston and Cincinnati Railroad, and thus enable the State of Virginia to share in the benefits of that great work. It is proposed also that it shall unite with the line of steam navigation on the Tennessee River, which, with the exception of the interruption by the Muscle Shoals, extends to the Mississippi. To supply the chasm in the line of communication, occasioned by the interruption of navigation at these shoals, a rail-road was constructed and put in operation two years ago by a company formed under a charter from the legislature of Alabama. This was the first rail-road, with the exception of one near New Orleans, in the Western States. It extends from Tuscumbia, a port situated below the Muscle Shoals, to Courtland, and thence to Decatur, at a part of the river above the Shoals, the length of road being forty-three miles. A project has been discussed in Tennessee, and countenanced by a convention of delegates held at Nashville, for establishing a central rail-road, leading through the State from the Virginia line, to the Mississippi River ; but no definitive measures have been taken for carrying it into effect.

In a similar spirit of local patriotism, and with an ardent desire for improving the condition of their State, the people of North Carolina have projected a line of rail-roads, to be connected with the roads from Edenton and Beaufort, from Wilmington, and from Halifax and Raleigh, at Fayetteville, and to proceed thence in a porthwesterly direction, by the Yadkin River, to unite with the Charleston and Cincinnati Rail-road, near the northwestern angle of the State. All these roads are projected by private companies incorporated by the State. By a late act of the legislature, the chief part of the surplus of United States revenue which falls to that State is appropriated to a fund for internal improvements, and the commissioners of the fund are instructed to subscribe to the stock of these companies, to the amount of two fifths of their respective capitals, provided the other three fifths shall be subscribed by responsible persons ; no payment to be made on the part of the State, until a quarter part of the stock subscribed by individuals shall have been paid in. In all the lower parts of the State the face of the country is remarkably adapted to the favorable location of the respective routes, and for the cheap grading of the roads. In the northwest the route has not been fully surveyed.

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We come next to the grand Charleston and Cincinnati Rail-road. This is one of the boldest projects of modern times, and it has been engaged in by the people of Charleston and of South Carolina, with an ardor which shows a determination to carry it into effect. It is magnificent in its extent, and, independently of its magnitude, it will be attended with difficulties in the execution, which will require the exertion of great skill and energy, and a very great expenditure of money. We are far, however, from supposing the enterprise in its nature impracticable, or that it is likely to fail from any cause, unless it be from the failure of the necessary means. Even these can hardly fail, if the other States interested in its success imitate the example of South Carolina, and contribute their fair proportion to the expenses of the undertaking. A company has been formied, and incorporated by joint acts of the legislatures of the four States through which the route passes, viz. North and South Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, with all the powers necessary for accomplishing the work. The capital is $12,000,000, and by a supplementary charter, the company is authorized to raise an additional capital, to be employed in banking, not to exceed at any time the amount actually raised for the road. The route is definitively established so far as to adopt the valley of the French Broad River, in North Carolina and Tennessee, as a part of it. This valley presents a most remarkable pass through the mountain, for a great extent. The head waters of this stream rise in an extensive plain on the Blue Ridge, from which there is a descent for sixty miles, in the direction best suited for the rail-road, not exceeding an average of thirteen feet in a mile, and not exceeding forty-five feet in any mile, and with no curvatures, but such as locomotives and their trains may pass without difficulty. Other parts of the route are no further definitively settled than that it shall pass through Columbia in South Carolina, Knoxville in Tennessee, and Lexington in Kentucky. Surveys have been made, which enable Governor Hayne, the president of the company, to state, " that the proposed route is entirely practicable, and may certainly be constructed across the mountains, with an ascent at the maximum of not more than sixty feet in any one mile, and without a single inclined plane, or stationary engine.” The distance will be from six to seven hundred miles. It will probably pursue the route, from Charleston to

Columbia, selected by the South Carolina Canal and Rail-road Company, on which they have already constructed a rail-road half the distance, with a single track. A negotiation has been opened between the two companies for settling the terms, by which a junction shall be formed between the two roads. The amount of capital stock already subscribed is $4,333,000, of which $3,525,000 are subscribed in South Carolina. On this stock $216,660 have been already paid in. Measures are taken for an immediate prosecution of the surveys, and for the advancement of the work as expeditiously as possible.

The State of Georgia has undertaken a series of rail-road improvements, traversing the whole length of that great State, from the eastern parts to the Chatahouchee River, and the Tennessee line, hardly less extensive than those of South Carolina. The policy of this state seems to have been, to grant to private corporations the right of constructing railroads in the eastern, more settled, and less expensive parts of the State, with such encouragements as are necessary to enable them to proceed with these works, and to undertake, on account of the State, such works in the newly-settled and more difficult parts of its territory, as are necessary for extending the lines of communication, until they shall meet others beyond the limits of the State. The legislature accordingly, at its last session, passed an act directing that “ a rail-road communication as a State work and with the funds of the State, shall be made from some point on the Tennessee line near the Tennessee River, commencing at or near Rossville, in the most direct and practicable route, to some point on the southeastern branch of the Chatahouchee River, which shall be most eligible for an extension of branch rail-roads, thence to Athens, Madison, Milledgeville, Forsyth, and Columbus, and to any points which may be designated by the engineer or engineers surveying the same, as most proper and practicable, and on which the legislature may hereafter determine. The act further provides that no more than $350,000 annually shall be appropriated to the prosecution of this work, unless a future legislature shall otherwise direct. It also provides that the governor shall sorthwith appoint an engineer, with such assistants as shall be necessary to accomplish speedily and effectually the proper surveys and estimates, and appropriates sixty thousand dollars for the payment of salaries and expenses. The governor, in pursuance of the authority given him, has already appointed a

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