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DISTINGUISHED WORLD REPORTERS. Among other specialists and distinguished reporters whose work appeared in THE WORLD during 1807 were:

Rev. Madison C. Peters, who reported a prize fight

Mrs. Mary E. Lease, the distinguished Kansas stateswoman, who reported the general condition of the working people of the east side.

W. Bourke Cockran, on the health of His Holiness, Pope Leo XIII., after a personal audience for THE WORLD.

Miss Frances Willard, the cloakmakers' strike.

Rev. Henry E. Duers, on the execution of Kelly, the White Plains wife-murderer, in the electrical chair at Sing Sing.

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Grannis, the moral effect of idleness upon the girl strikers in the sweatshops. sir Ashmead Bartlett, war correspondent for THE WORLD in the midst of the Turco-Grecian war,

A Duchess reported for THE WORLD the grand balls given by the Duchess of Devonshire and the Duchess of Sutherland.

The Christmas number of THE World comprised 102 pages--a record-breaking paper of a recordbreaking year. Among the features were short stories by Sarah Grand, Anthony Hope, Eva Wilder Brodhead, Marie Corelli,

Henry Sienkewicz, D'Annunzio, and Rudyard Kipling. THE WORLD's review of the world's progress for the year was a memorable achievement, in which every branch of human activity was treated by a recognized expert Among the subjects treated and the thinkers who gave WORLD readers the benefit of their knowledge were:

Railroads, Chauncey M. Depew; "Charity,” Bishop Potter; "Silver, William J. Bryan; • Commerce, "Charles R. Flint; "Sports," James J. Corbett; Catholic Progress,'' Cardinal Gibbons; "Currency, "' Secretary of the Treasury Gage; "Finance, ex: Comptroll er Henry W. Cannon: ** Foreign Relations," F. R. Coudert; “Economics, Edward Atkinson; "Speculation, George Rutledge Gibson; "Engineering," Albert Spies, Editor Cassier's Magazine;

** Business,

Albert Stevens, Editor Bradstreet's; "Labor," Carroll D. Wright; “Republican Politics." Henry Cabot Lodge; Health,' Registrar Dr. Roger 8. Tracy: “Religious Progress,"' Dr. Henry K. Carroll; "Sound Money: W. G. Peckham i "Agriculture,” Assistant Secretary Joseph H. Brigham : "Criminology of the Year, ' Thomas Byrnes.

Reaching across the sea The World enlisted George Moore to treat of Art:''. Andrew Lang, Literature;" Clement Scott, The Drama;'' Pietro Mascagni, "Music;'' T. P. O'Connor, M. P. ** Journalism;"' John Burns, N. P., "Labor;} William T. Stead, "Social Progress;' Grant Allen, ** Education, }, and Sir Charles Dilke, Foreign Affairy'

ESTABLISHED CHARITIES. The Christmas Tree Fund and the Sick Babies' Pund, the two great charities conducted by THE WORLD, passed through the tenth season, respectively,

during the year just closed. The Sick Babies Fund maintained a corps of visiting physicians selected especially for their known success in the treatment of children, and who worked diligently through

the hot months, exploring the crowded tene. ments from cellar to garret, searching out

infantile suffering and ministering to the sufferers, providing food for the hungry, raiment for the unclothed, and other lacking necessaries.

These physicians ransacked 19,016 tenement-houses, visited 177,072 families, and ministered to 23,087 sick children, many of whom were regularly visited from three to thirty times. Relief in the way of food, clothing

coal, payment of rent, and the like was given to 2,300 families and the physicíans distributed 40,000 tickets for the fresh-air excursions on the Floating Playground, the sick children's own health pleasure ship, maintaine by the Sick Bal Fund, and making three voyages a week during June, July, and August.

Last Winter, when the city had the unusual experience of a month of continuous snow and bitter cold weather, causing extreme distress among those poor people whose existence depended upon outdoor work, the Sick Babies', Fund departed from its chosen field as a Summer charity, and essayed to relleve thedistress. The corps of physicians weresummoned to duty and a small surplus left in the fund was levied upon to carry on the work. A depot was opened for the distribution of food, clothing, and fuel to the worthy poor. Long familiarity with the work enabled the physicians to locate the deserv. ing needy and spread the benefits without waste. In response to an appeal from THE WORLD, the generous and charitable readers came forward with donations of vegetables, meat, groceries, and other food stuffs, new and

old clothes, coal and wood, and liberal contributions of money, Nearly 2,000 families were sustained for more than a fortnight, about 5,000 men, women, and children received needed articles of wear from a single garment to a complete

wardrobe and nearly 1,000 sick children were treated. Best of all, the contributions, amounting to more than $1,000. paid all the expenses, so that the Sick Babies' Fund proper was left intact for the legitimate purposes for which it was contributed

The Christmas-Tree Fund was ample as a Santa Claus to more than 50,000 children from the tenements, who received toys, sweetmeats, and articles of warm clothing at the seven Christmas Tree parties on Christmas morning in seven halls in various sections of the metropolis,

SPORTS AND PASTIMES. In serving the news of sports and pastimes, The World has followed its invariable rule and has retained the best authorities in the various lines of sport as its purveyors of these events.

A. A. Zimmerman was engaged as editor of the bicycle news, Jimmy" Michael contributed signed racing comments, Harry Beecher chronicled football events, and John L. Sullivan reported the great Corbett-Fitzsimmons fight.

The baseball extras issued each afternoon during the Lengue championship season almost simultaneously with the final play in the game at the Polo Grounds, have been the popular wonder

of Newspaper Row. They gave

a full and accurate

account of

the game, together with the results in all other games, racing, yachting, and every other kind of sport. The sale was immense.

The great six-day bicycle race at Madison Square Garden, where the winner rode nearly 2,000 miles, was best reported in the various editions of THE WORLD, and bicycling as a sport and pastime received its best representation through THE WORLD,

The report of the meeting between Mr. August Belmont and the directors of the Turf Congress at Can Francisco and the amicable turf agreement reached between East and West was first published .! 'TITE WORLD.

THE astronomical calculations in this ALMANAC were expressly made for it by J, Morrison, M, A., M. D., Ph.D., of Washington, D. C., and are expressed in local mean time.

Chronological Eras. The year 1898 corresponds to the year 7406-7 of the Byzantine era; to 5658-9 of the Jewish era, the year 5659 beginning at sunset on September 16; to 2651 since the foundation of Rome according to Varro; to 2674 of the Olympiads (the

second year of the 669 Olympiad beginning July 1, 1808); to 2568 of the Japanese era, and to the 31st year of the Meiji;

to 1315-16 of the Mohammedan era or the era of the Hegira, the year 1316 beginning on May 22, 1898. The 123d year of the Independence of the United States of America begins on July 4, 1808.

Date of Beginning of Epochs, Eras, and Periods.
Name.

Began,
Name.

Began. Grecian Mundane Era... .B.C. 5598, Sept 1 Sidonian Era.....

B. c. 110, Oct. 1 Civil Era of Constantinople.. 6508, Sept. 1 Cæsarean Era of Antioch.

48, Sept. 1 Alexandrian Era ....... 5502, Aug. 29 Julian Year...

45, Jan. 1 Ecclesiastical Era of Antioch.... " 5492, Sept. 1 Spanish Era...............

38, Jan. 1 Julian Period...... ** 4718, Jan. 1 Actian Era....

30, Jan. 1 Mundane Era.........

• 4008, Oct.
1 Augustan Era.......

27, Feb. 14 Jewish Mundane Era ** 3761, Oct. 1 Vulgar Christian Era.......

A, D. 1, Jan, 1 Era of Abraham.......

2015, Oct. 1 Destruction of Jerusalem........... 69, Sept. 1 Era of the Olympiads.. 776, July 1 Era of Maccabees.........

" 166, Nov.24 Roman Era (A. U.C.) 753, Apr. 24 Era of Diocletian..

* 284, Sept.17 Era of Nabopasser. 747, Feb. 26 Era of Ascension...

295, Nov. 12 Metopic Cycle 432, July 15 Era of the Armenians.....

" 552, July 7 Grecian or Syro-Macedonian Era 312, Sept. 1 Mohammedan Era.............

622, July 16 Tyrian Era......................... 125, Oct. 19 Persian Era of Yezdegird...

632, June 16

Chronological Cycles.
Dominical Letter.............. B|Lunar Cycle (Golden Number).18 Roman Indiction....
Epact ..............................
Solar Cycle.....

3 Julian Period.............

11 ..6611

The Seasons.

D. H Vernal Equinox, Spring begins

March 20 9 A, M. Summer Solstice, Summer begins

June 21 5 A, M. New York Mean Time. Autumnal Equinox, Autumn begins

September 22 7 P.M.
Winter Solstice, Winter begins

December 21 2 A, M.
Morning Stars.

Evening Stars. MERCURY.-Jan. 6 to March 16; Mayl to June MERCURY. -January 1 to January 6; March 16 30; Sept. 5 to Oct. 19; Dec. 21 to end of year. to May 1; June 30 to September 5; October 19 VENUS. -Jan. 1 to Feb. 15; Dec. 1 to end of year. to December 21. MARS. - January 1 to end of year.

VENUS. - February 15 to December 1
JUPITER.-Jan.1 to Mar. 25; Oct.13 to end of year JUPITER. --March 25 to October 13.
SATURN. -January 1 to May 30; December 6 SATURN. - May 30 to December 6.
to end of year.

NOTE --An inferior planet is a morning star from Inferior to Superior Conjunction, and an evening star from Superior to Interior Conjunction... A superior planet is a morning star from Conjunction to Opposition and an evening star from

Opposition to Conjunction.

10 v.

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Church Memoranda for 1898.
January.
April.
July.

October
1 Saturday.
1 Friday,
1 Friday.

1 Saturday. 2 11. Sunday aft, Xmas. 3 Palm Sunday. 3 iv. Sunday aft. Trinity 9 xviii.

2 xvii. Sund. af. Trinity 6 Epiphany

8 Good Friday. 91. Sun, alt. Epiphany. 10 Easter Sunday.

16 xix.

17 vi. 1611

23 xx. 17 Low Sunday.

24 vii. ... 24 ii. Sunday aft, Easter. 31 viii.

30 xxi. 30 iv.

November.
February

May.

August

1 Tuesday. 1 Tuesday 1 lll. Sunday aft. Easter.

6 xxii. Sund, af. Trinity 6 Septuagesima Sunday 8 iv.

1 Monday.

13 xxiii. 13 Sexagesima

15 Rogation Sunday. 6 Transfiguration. 20 xxiv. 20 Quinquagesima 19 Ascension Day.

7 ix. Sunday af. Trinity. 27 Advent Sunday. 22 Shrove Tuesday, 22 và Sunday aft Easter. 14 x,

30 St. Andrew. 2 Ash Wednesday. 29 Whit Sunday,

21 xi.

December.

28 xii.
27 i Sunday in Lent.
June.

1 Thursday.
March,
1 Wednesday.

September. 4 il, Sunday in Advent. 1 Tuesday, 5 Trinity Sunday.

11 iii. 611. Sunday in Lent. 9 Corpus Christi.

1 Thursday.

18 iy. 13 lii. 121: Sunday aft. Trinity. ( 4 xili. Sunday af. Trinity 21 St. Thomas. 11 xiv.

25 Xmas, Sunday. 17 Thurs. (MI-Careme.) 19 11.

18 xv. 24 St. John Baptist 2015. Sanday in Lent.

27 St. John Evangelist. 1:26 iii. Sunday aft. Trinity. 25 xvi.

31 Saturday.

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Ember and Rogation Days. EMBER and Rogation Days are certain periods of the year devoted to prayer and fasting. Ember Days (twelve annually) are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, after the feast of Pentacost (Whit Bunday), After the festival of the Holy Cross (September 14), and after the festival of St. Lucia (December 13). Ember Weeks are the weeks in which the Ember Days appear. Rogation Days are the three days immediately preceding Holy Thursday or Ascension Day,

Church Fasts. THE Roman Catholic Days of fasting are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the Wednesdays and Thursdays of the four weeks in Advent, and certain vigils or evenings prior to the greater feasts. In the American Episcopal Church the days of fasting or abstinence to be observed, according to the Book of Common Prayer, are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the

three Rogation Days, and all the Fridays of the year except Christmas Day. In the Greek Church the four principal fasts are those in Lent, the week succeeding Whitsuntide, ihe fortnight before the Assumption, and forty days before Christmas

Divisions of Time. THE interval between two consecutive transits of a fixed star over any meridian or the interval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution on its axis is called a sidereal Day, and is invari. able, while the interval between two consecutive transits of the Sun over any meridian is called an Apparent Solar Day, and its length varies from day to day by reason of the variable motion of the earth in its orbit, and the inclination of this orbit to the equator, on which time is measured.

A Mean Solar Day is the average or mean of all the apparent solar days in a year. Mean Solar Time is that shown by a well-regulated clock or watch, while Apparent Solar Time is that shown by a well-constructed sun-dial; the difference between the two at any time is the Equation of Time, and may amount to 16 minutes and 21 seconds. The Astronomical Day begins at zoon and the Civil Day at the preceding midnight. The Sidereal and Mean Solar Days are both invariable, but one

day of the latter is equal to 1 day, 3 minutes, and 56.555 seconds of the former.

The interval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution round the Sun is called a Sidereal Year, and consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 9.6 seco:ds, which is invariable.

The Tropical Year is the interval between two consecutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal Equinox. If this were a fixed point, the Sidereal and Tropical Years would be identical; but in conse quence of the disturbing influence of the moon and planets on the spheroidal figure of the earth, the Equinox has a slow, retrograde mean

motion of 50, 26annually, so that the Sun returns to the Equinox sooner every year than he otherwise would by 20 minutes 23. 6 seconds; the

Tropical Year, therefore, consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. The Tropical Year is not of uniform length; it is now slowly decreasing at the rate of .595 second per century, but this variation will not always continue.

Julius Cæsar, in B.C. 45, was the first to reform the calendar by ordering that every year whose date number is exactly divisible by 4 contain 366 days, and all other years 365 days. The intercalary day was introduced by counting the sixth day before the Kalends of March twice; hence the name bissextile, from bis, twice, and sex, six. He also changed the beginning of the year from 1st of March to the 1st of January, and also changed the name of the fifth month (Quintilis) to July, after himself. The average length of the Julian year is therefore 3654 days, which, however, is too long by li minutes and 14 seconds, and this would accumulate in 400 years to about three days. The Julian Calendar continued in use until A. D. 1582, when the date of the beginning of the seasons occurred 10 days later than in B. C. 45, when this mode of reckoning time was introduced.

The Gregorian Year was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. with the view of keeping the Equinox to the same day of the month. It consists of 365 days, but every year exactly divisible by 4 and the centurial years which are exactly divisible by 400 contain 366 days; and if in addition to this arbitrary arrangement the centurial years exactly divisible by 4,000 contain 366 days,

the error in the Gregorian system will amount to only one

day in about 20 centuries. If, however, 31 leap years were intercalated in 128 years, instead of 32 as at present, the calendar would be practically exact and the error would not amount to more than a day in 100,000 years. The length of the mean Gregorian Year may therefore be set down at 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds. The Gregor. lan Calendar was introduced into England and her colonies in 1752, at which time the Equinox had retrograded 11 days since the Council of Nice in A. D. 325, when the festival of Easter was established and the Equinox occurred on March 21; hence September 3, 1752, was called September 14, and at the same time the commencement of the legal year

was changed from March 25 to January 1, so that the year 1751 lost the months of January and February and the first 24 days of March. The difference between the Julian and Gregorian Calendars is now 12 days. Russia and the Greek Church still employ the Julian Calendar for civil and ecclesiastical purposes.

Standard Time. PRIMARILY, for the convenience of the railroads, a standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1883, by which trains are run and local time regulated. According to this system, the United States, extending from 650 to 1250 west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 150 of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour, commencing with the 75th meridian. The first (eastern) section includes all territory between the Atlantic coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. C., the latter

being its most
southern point. The second

(central) section includes all the territory between the last-named line and an irregular line from Bismarck, N. D. , to the mouth of the Rio Grande. The third (mountain) section includes all territory between the lastnamed line and nearly the western borders of Idaho, Utah, and Arizona. The fourth (Pacific) sec. tion covers the rest of the country to the Pacific

coast. Standard time is uniform inside each of these sections, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly one hour. Thus at 12 noon in New York City (eastern time), the time at Chicago (central time) is 11 o'clock A, M.; at Denver (mountain time), 10 o'clock A. M. , and at San Francisco (Pacific time), 9 o'clock A.M. Standard time is 16 minutes slower at Boston than true local time: 4 minutes slower at New York,

8 minutes faster at Washington, 19 minutes faster at Charleston, 28 minutes slower at Detroit, 18 minutes faster at Kansas City, 10 minutes slower at Chicago, 1 minute faster at St. Louis, 28 minutes laster at Salt Lake City, and 10 minutes fasterat San Francisco.

Table of Days Between Two Dates.

A TABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEEN ANY TWO DAYS WITHIN TWO YEARS.

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81382Aprli.

91) 121 152 182 213 244 274 305 335 366 397 425 456 486 517 547 578 609 639 670 700

122 163 183 214 245 275 306 336 367 398 426 457 487 518 548 579 610 640 671 701

123 154 184 215 246 276 307 337 3 368 399 427 458 488 519 649 680 611 641 672 702 94 124 165 185 216 247 277 308 338 4 369 400 428 459 489 620 550 581 612 642 673 703

96 185 186 186 217 248 278 809 339 6 870 401 429 460 490 521 661 582 613 643 674, 704 651 96 198 157 187 218 249 279 310 340 6 371 402 430 461 491 622 562 583 614 644 675 705

97 197 158 188 219 250 280 311 341 7 872 403 431 462 492 623 553 684 616 646 676 706

98 128 159 189 220 251 281 312 349 8 373 404, +32 463 493 524 554 686 616 646 677 707 4068 99 129 160 190 221 252 282 313 343 9 874 405 433 464 494 625 555 686 617 647 678 708 10 41 69 100 130 161 191) 22 253 283 314 344 10 375 406 434 465 495 626 556 687 618 648 679 709 11 11 42 70 101 131 162 192 223 264 284 315 345 11 376 407 435 466 496 5271 567 588 619 649 680 710 12 22 43 71 102 132 163 193 224 255 285 316 346 12 377 408 436 467 497) 528 568 589 620 650 681 711 13 13 44 79 103 133 164 194 225 256 286 317 347 13 378 409 437 468 498 629 569 690 621 651 682 712 14 14 45 73 104 13A 165 196 226 257 287 318 34814 879 410 438 469 499 530 560 591 622 662 683 713 15 15 46 74 105 135 166 196 227 268 288 319 349 16 380; 411 439 470 500 531 561 692 623 653 684 714 16 16 47 75 106 136 167 197 228 259 289 320 350 16 381 412 440 471 601 632 562 593 624 654 685 715 17 17 4876 107 137 168 198 229 260 290 321 351 17 382 413 441 472 502 533 563 594 626 665) 686 716 18 18 49 77 108 138 169 199 230 261 291 822 352|18 883 414 442 473 503 534 564 596 626 666 687 717 19 19 50 78 109 139 170 200 231 262 292 323 363 19 384 416 443 474 504 635 665 696 627 667 688 718

51 79 110 140 171 201 232 263 293 324 35420 385 416 444 478 505 536 566 697 628 658 689 719

SO 111 141 172 202 203 264 294 325 355 21 386 417 445 476 506 637 667 698 629 669 690 720 53 81 112 149 173 203 234 265 295 326 366|22 387 418 446 477 507 538 568 699 630 660 691 721

82 113 143 174 204 25 266 296 327 35723 388 419 447 478 508 639 669 600 631 661 692 722 56 83 114 144 175 205 236 267 297 328 358 24 389 420 448 479 609 640 570 601 632 662 693 723 56 84 115 145 176 206 237 268 298 329 859 25 390 421 449 480 510 641 671 602 633 663 694 794 57 85 116 146 177 207 238 269 299 830 8601 26 391 422 450 481 511 542 672 603 634 664 696 725 68 86 117| 147 178 208 239 270 800 331 36127) 392 423 451 482 512 643 673 604 635 666 696 726 59 87 118 148 179 209 240 271 301 332 362 28 393 494 452 483 513 544 574 605 636 666, 697 727

88 119 149 180 20 241 272 302 333 36329 394 463 484 514 545 575 606 637 667 698 728 89 120 150 181 211 242 273 303 334 364/30 395 454 485 516 646 576 607 638 668 699 729

90 151 ... 212) 243)... 304).... 365|131) 896 455)... J 616) 5771 608) 669. The above table applies to ordinary years only. For leap year, one day must be added to each number of days after February 28.

EXAMPLE -To find the number of days between June 3, 1897, and February 16, 1898: The figures opposite the third day in the first June column are 164; those opposite the sixteenth day in the Second February column are 412. Subtract the irst from

the second product-t. 6., 154 from 412, and the result is 258, the number of days between the two dates.

1888892&SNOBS -19 i N1 Day Mo.

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Címe Difference

BETWEEN THE CITY OF NEW YORK AND THE PRINCIPAL FOREIGN CITIES.
LATER THAN NEW YORK-

EARLIER THAN NEW
H, M.
H, M.

H. M.

YORK. Antwerp 5 13.5 Dublin. 4 30.5 Paris.. 5 5.2

H, M, 5 49.5 Edinburgh 4 43.2 Rio de Janeiro.. 2 3. 2 Havana.

0 33.5 Bremen. 5 31.0 Geneva 5 20.5 Rome

5 45.8 Hong Kong...... 11 27.4 Brussels.

5 13. 4 Hamburg 5 35.8 St. Petersburg. 6 67.1 Melbourne.. 9 24, 2 Buenos Ayres...1 2.4 Liverpool 4 43.6 Valparaiso. 0 9.3 Mexico, City of. 1 40.5 Calcutta.. ..... 11 49.2 London

4 55.9 Vienna.
6 1.2 Panama..........

0 22.2 Constantinople. 6 51.9 Madrid

4 41.1 Halifax

0 41.5 Yokohama....... 9 45.5

Berlin ....

Bell Time on Shipboard. Time, A. N. Time, A. M. Time, A. M. 11 Time, P. M. Time, P. M. Time, P. M. 1 Bell

... 12.30 1 Bell.... 4.30 1 Bell .... 8. 301 Bell .... 12. 301 Bell 4.301 Bell.. 8.30 2 Bells. 1. 002 Bells... 5.00 2 Bells... 9.00 2 Bells ... 1.00 2 Bells 5.00 2 Bells... 9.00 3 1, 30/3 5. 30/3 9.303 1 303 5.30 3

9.30
2. 004
6.004
10. 0014

2.004
6.004

10.00
2, 305
6. 305
10.305
2.301 Bell 6.305

10.30 8 3. 006 7.006 11. 006 3.00 2 Bells 7.006

11.00
3. 307
7.30 7
11. 307

3,303
7. 307

11.30
4.008
8.00 8
Noonl8
4.00/4

80018 Midnight On shipboard, for purpose of discipline and to divide the watch fairly, the crew is mustered in two divisions ; the Starboard (right side, looking toward the head) and the Port (left). The day commences at noon, and is thus divided Afternoon Watch, noon to 4 P.M.; First Dog Watch, 4 P. M. to OP.M. ; Second Dog Watch, 6 P. M. to 8 P. M.; First Watch, 8 P. m. to Midnight; Middle

Watch, 12 A. X. to 4 A. X. : Morning Watch, 4 A. M. to 8 1. M. : Forenoon Watch, 8 A. M. to noon. This makes Seven WATCHES, which

enables the crew

to keep them alternately, as the Watch which comes on duty at noon one day has the afternoon next day, and the men who have only four hours' rest one night have eight hours the next. This is the reason for having Dog Watches, which are made by dividing the hours between 4 P. M. and 8 P. M. into two Watches. Time is kept by means of "Beis, " although sometimes there is but one Bell on the ship. - Whitaker.

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Astronomical Phenomena for the ¥ear 1898.

ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS.
The Sun.
Mars.

Conjunction.
The Moon.
Jupiter.

Quadrature.
Mercury.
Saturn.

Opposition.
Venus.
Uranus.

Ascending Node.
The Earth.
Neptune.

Descending Node. Two heavenly bodies are in conjunction'' () when they have the same Right Ascension, or are on the same meridian, i. e., when one is due north or south of the other; if the bodies are near each other as seen from the earth, they will rise and set at the same time; they are in ** opposition" (8) when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or when one rises just as the other is setting. "Quadrature" is half way between conjunction and opposition. By

greatest elongation' is meant the greatest apparent angular distance from the sun; the planet is then generally most favorably situated for observation. Mercury can only be seen with the naked eye at this time. When a planet is in its “ascending'' (Q) or “descending'' (0) node it is crossing the plane of the earth's orbit. The term “Perihelion means nearest, and “Aphelion', farthest, from the sun. An occultation" of a planet or star is an eclipse of it by some other body, usually the moon.

1.-ECLIPSES. There will be six Eclipses in the year 1898; three of the sun and three of the moon, as follows:

1. A partial Eclipse of the Moon January 7, visible in the eastern portions of North and South America, and in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Moon Enters

Middle of Moon Leaves PLACES.

Shadow.

Eclipse.

Shadow. D. H. M.

H. M.

H. M. Boston.

Jan. 7 7 3.5 PM 7 51.0 P. M. 8 39.0 P.M. New York.

7 6 51.5 P.M. 7 39.0 P. M. 8 27.0 P. M. Philadelphia.

7 6 47.0 P. M. 7 34. 4 P.M. 8 22,4 P.M. Washington.

7 6 39.3 P.M. 7 26.8 P. M.

8 14.8 P. M. Charleston

7 6 27.8 P. M. 7 15.3 P. M. 8

3.3 P.M. Cincinnati..

7 6
9. 8 P.M.

6 57.3 P. M. 7 45.3 P. M. Chicago

7 5 57.1 P. M. 6 44.6 P.M. 7 32.6 P. M. New Orleans...

75 47.3 P.M. 6 34.8 PM 7 22.8 P.M. Denver.

7 4 47.7 P.M. 5 35.2 P. M. 6 23. 2 P. M.

5 Ogden

7.0 PM

6 55.0 P.M. Local Mean Time. Magnitude of the Eclipse 0.157 of the Moon's diameter, on the southern limb. The point of first contact with the shadow is 1690 from the northern point of the Moon's limb toward the east, and the last contact 1420 toward the west.

2. A total Eclipse of the Sun January 21, invisible in America. The path of the central Eclipse begins near a point in Lat. 110.2 N. anr Long: 90.8 E., which is in Western Africa; it then moves eastward, bearing a little to the south through the centre of that continent unti, it enters the Arabian Gulf, where its course changes to northeast, crossing India, directly ve. the city of Allahabad, Western China, and terminates in Easteri Siberia. It will be visible as a partial sclipse over nearly the whole of Asia and Africa and the eastern part of Europe, including Italy, Greece, Turkey, Austria, Russia, and portions of France, Germany, and Sweden.

3. A partial Eclipse of the Moon July 3, invisible in America, visible in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

4. An Annular Eclipse of the Sun July 18, visible in the South Pacific Ocean, the northern part of New Zealand, Patagonia, and the southern portions of Chile and the Argentine Republic.

5. A partial Eclipse of the Sun December 12-13, visible only in the Antarctic Ocean. Magnitude of the Eclipse 0. 023 of the Sun's diameter.

This Eclipse is remarkable as the last of a cycle of Eclipses which began near the North Pole about 1260 years ago. At its last return, December 1, 1880, its magnitude was 0.042 of the Sun's diameter.

6. A total Eclipse of the Moon December 27, visible generally throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Total
Middle
Total

Moon
Moon Enters
PLACES.

of
Eclipse

Eclipse
Shadow.

Leaves
Begins. Eclipse.

Ends. Shadow.
D.
M.
H, M.
H. M.
H M.

H. M. Portland, Me....... Dec. 27 5 6.5 P. M. 6 16.5 P.M. 7 1.1 P. M. 7 45. 7 P.M. 8 55.4 P.M. Boston

27 6

3. 5 P. M. 6 13. 5 P.M. 668.1 P. M. 7 42.7 P. M. 8 52.1 P. M. New York.

27 4 51.5 P. M. 6 1. 5 P. M. 6 46.1 P. M. 7 30.7 P. M. 8 40.4 P. M. Philadelphia.

27 4 46.9 P. M. 5 56.9 P. M. 6 41.5 P. M.7 26.1 P. M.8 35.8 P. M. Washington..

27 4 39.3 P. M. 5 49.3 P. M. 6 32.9 P. M. 7 18.5 P. M. 8 28.2 P. M. Charleston

27 4 27.8 P. M. 5 37.8 P. M. 6 22. 4 P. M. 7 7.0 P. M. 8 16.7 P. M. Cincinnati.

5 19.8 P. M. 6 4.4 P. M. 6 49.0 P. M. 7 58.7 P.M. Chicago 5 7.1 P. M. 5 51.7 PM, 6 36.3 P.M. 7 46.

P. M. New Orleans.

4 57.3 P.M. 5 41.9 P. M. 6 26.5 P. M. 7 36.2 P. M. St. Louis..

4 56.7 P. M. 5 41.3 P. M. 6 25.9 P. M. 7 35.6 P. X. Denver

4 42.3 P. M. 5 26.9 P. M. 6 36.6 P. M. Ogden ....

4 58. 7 P. 2. 6 84 P. M. San Francisco...

5 26.7 P. M. Local Mean Time. Magnitude of Eclipse 1.384 of the Moon's diameter. The point of first contact with the sbadow is 1120 from the northern point of Moon's limb toward the east, and the point of last contact is 950 toward the west.

H.

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