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that the heat is, in a considerable degree, in proportion to the height of the situation, or to the warmth imbibed by the surrounding atmosphere from the objects in contact.

303. As the rays of light are turned out of their course, or refracted half a degree when they enter the atmosphere, the sun's rays, when they reach the earth, represent him a degree higher than he is; and, as he is a degree in diameter, he appears just above the horizon, when, in reality, his upper edge is just touch

ing it.

So it is at his setting; and with his appearance and disappearance in the polar regions; and also, with the moon, and all the heavenly bodies.

304. The denominations of various parts of the earth are derived from the phenomena produced by the sun in the earth's descent and ascent in its orbit. All these are given beneath, and they should not be forgotten. North Pole, 90 degrees from the Equator.

Frozen Zone
--Arctic Circle, sixty-six and a half degrees.

Temperate Zone.

Earth's Axis.

-Tropic of Cancer, twenty-three and a half deg.

Torrid Zone.
--EQUATOR or MIDDLE.

Torrid Zone.
- Tropic of Capricorn, 23 and a half degrees.

Temperate Zone.
-Ant-artic Circle, sixty-six and a half degrees.

Frozen Zone. South Pole, 90 degrees from the Equator. 305. The space between the tropics, twice 231 degrees wide, is called the Torrid Zone, from its extreme heat; the spaces within 231 degrees of each pole are called the Frozen Zones, from the length and frigid

nature of their winters; and the two spaces between the hot and cold zones, are called the Temperate Zones.

306. Such are the divisions of the earth, arising from the phenomena and effects of the sun, the source of light, heat, and life. They give rise to all the varieties of climates, productions, colour, and habits of man ; and are, therefore, the key to a further and more correct knowledge of his habitation, the Globe the Earth.

GEOGRAPHY. 307. The natural divisions of the earth into lands and waters have already been noticed. The other great divisions, founded on local views only, are called EUROPE, Asia, AFRICA, and AMERICA, commonly called the four quarters of the globe ; each quarter is divided into kingdoms; and each kingdom into provinces, principalities, or counties.

308. This last division gives national denominations to men; but the climates or zones fix their colour or character. These divide man into at least six varieties, produced by habit, and the effects of heat and cold during a series of ages.

I. The dwarfish inhabitants of the polar regions;
II. The flat-nosed, olive-coloured tawny race;
III. The blacks of Asia, with European features ;
IV. The woolly-haired negroes of Africa,

V. The copper-coloured native Americans, with black hair and flat noses ;

VI. The white European nations. 309. Man is at the head of the animated creation

; and unites all the advantages of strength, beauty, and structure, which are but partially possessed by other animals. His CREATOR has also endowed him with the faculty of reasoning, and with the power and will to adapt all the single contrivances of other animals, to his own wants and luxuries.

310. Man supports his body erect; and his face turned towards the heavens, displays the dignity of his nature. His soul is painted in his visage ; and his majestic and resolute step announces the nobleness of his rank. His arms and hands were not given him for support, but to second the intentions of his will, and to adapt to his purposes all the gifts of nature.

311. What animals effect by natural instinct, man effects by invention and by combined power. Birds build their nests, bees frame their cells, and beavers construct their habitations, with unvarying uniformity; but the works of man possess every possible variety ; and afford evidence of his possessing a mind and soul distinct from the body.

Obs.-Man, however, disgraces bis intellectual character by engaging in frequent wars of aggression, malice, and ambi. tion. Nor are such wars confined to the savage tribes of his species ; but are often wantonly and lightly engaged is, by nations that boast the bighest civilization.

312. Men are to be found, however, in every stage of improvement. In England, in France, Italy, Holland, Germany, and some other European countries; in the United States of America; in India, China, and some other Asiatic nations, they appear to approach towards the summit of their powers: but in Africa, the uncivilized parts of America, and in Siberia, the inhabitants are still in a state below that in which the Romans found the Britons two thousand years ago.

313. Man, in point of natural intellect, is nearly equal in all countries; notwithstanding the differences of colour and gradations of civilization. Those differences are the effects of climate, habit, and education; and there is little doubt, but the whole human race sprung from one stock, as recorded in the Scriptures.

314. Considering man, as we find him, scattered over the earth, the Laplanders, the Esquimaux, the Samoides, the Greenlanders, the Nova Zemblans, and

the Kamschatkadales, appear to be of one family, inhabiting the northern frigid zone.

Vast regions, dreary, bleak, and bare !
There, on an icy mountain's height,
Seen only by the moon's pale light,
Stern Winter rears his giant form,
His robe a mist, his voice a storm;
His frown the shivering nations fly,
And, hid for half the year, in smoky caverns lie.Scott.

ICE MOUNTAINS, &c. OF THE FRIGID ZONE.

[graphic]

315. No inhabited land has yet been discovered in the southern frigid zone; but the climate and habits of living, the effect of climate, render all the inhabitants of the northern frigid zone of a deep brown colour approaching to blackness. Their statures are shrunk by cold to a diminutive size ; and their countenances are as hideous, as their manners are savage.

316. Their usual height is four feet, and the tallest are not above five feet; their voices are thin and squeaking; their heads large; their cheek-bones high; their eye-lids drawn aside; their mouths large ; and their lips thick, and turned outward.

Obs.-- Yet, they account themselves the handsomest and most civilized people in the world; and the Greenlanders, when they compliment a stranger, say, He is almost as well bred as a Greenlander.

The following is Dryden's description of the Polar regions :

The sup from far peeps with a sickly face,
Too weak, the clouds and mighty fogs to chase ;
Swift rivers are with sudden ice constrained;
And studded wheels are on their back sustained
The brazen caldrons with the frost are flaw'd ;
The garment'stiff with ice at hearths is thaw'd.
With axes first they cloave the wine ; and thence
By weight, the solid potions they dispense.
From locks uncomb'd, and from the frozen beard,
Long icicles depend, and crackling sounds are heard.
Meantime perpetual sleet and driving snow,,
Obscure the skies, and hang on herds below.
The starving cattle perish in their stalls,
Huge oxen stand inclos'd in wintry walls
Of snow conceal'd; whole herds are buried there ;-
Of mighty stags, and scarce their horns appear.
The dextrous huntsman wounds not these afar
With shafts or darts, or makes a distant war
With dogs, or pitches toils to stop their Alight;
But close engages in unequal fight;
And while they strive in vain, to make their way
Through hills of snow, and pitifully bray;
Assaults with dint of sword, or pointed spears,
And homeward on his back the burthen bears.
The men to subterranean caves retire,
Secure from cold, and crowd the cheerful firc:
With trunks of elas and oaks the hearth they load,
No: tempt th' inclemency of heav'n abroad.
Their jovial nights in frolic and in play

They pass, to drive the tedious hours away. 317. Their food consists of dried fish, and the flesh of bears, rein-deer and other wild animals. Their drink is water, or train-oil as a luxury, when they can

get it.

Obs.--Two inhabitants of Nova Zembla were brought to Copenhagen a fow years ago : and they pined for want, till they met with some train-oil, which they drank with the same relish as we would drink chocolate or wine : and they danced in ecstacy, when they found they were to be sent back to their own country.

318. The next variety of the human species are the Tartars, the Chinese, and the Japanese, who inhabit all that vast space of Asia from the great Ocean to

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