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153. The heads of the church represent that establishment in the House of Peers; and consist of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and of twentyfour English, and four Irish bishops.
Other dignitaries of the church are deans, or assistants to the bishops.
Arch Deacons are subordinate bishops.
Rectors or Vicars of parishes, according as they receive the great, or small tythes.
And Curates, who receive a salary for doing the clerical duty.
154. The twelve judges sit occasionally in the House of Lords, but they do not vote.
In the law, there are also Recorders, or judges of corporations ; Serjeants at law ; Barristers or Counsel ; Solicitors and Attornies.
The attorney and solicitor general are barristers, who plead in all the legal business of the crown.
155. Sheriffs are officers, who are the executive deputies of the king in their county ; they serve all writs and process ; keep the prisons; name and summon juries ; execute sentences of the law.
Coroners are officers appointed to inquire into the causes of sudden deaths.
Justices of the peace hear complaints ; commit offenders for trial, to the sheriff's public prison; and redress many grievances.
Headboroughs are constables of hundreds : and petty constables execute the warrants of justices.
United States Government. 156. The government of the United States of America is republican, and consists of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial departments. The executive is vested in the President, and in case of his death, or removal, in the Vice President, both of which officers
are chosen once in every four years, by electors appointed by the several States.
157. The cabinet council, or advisers of the president, &c. are the Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of War, Secretary of the Navy and Attorney General. These officers are appointed by the Senate, upon the nomination of the president.
— The salary of the president is 25,000 dollars per annum ; that of the vice president, 5000.
158. The Legislative power of the United States is in a Congress, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. Two members are sent to the Senate from each State in the union, and are chosen for six years. The Representatives are in proportion to the population of a State, and are chosen for two years. The vice president is President of the Senate, ex officio.
159. All laws must be passed by both the Senate and House of Representatives, and receive the signature of the president.
160. The Judiciary is vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The trial of all offences against the laws of the United States, is to be had in these courts, and must be by JURY, in the State where the crime was committed
The judicial power extends to all cases in law and equity arising under the constitution of the United States, the laws of the same, and treaties made under its authority ; to cases which affect ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to controversies in which the government is a party, to disputes between States, citizens of different States, and also of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different States, &c. &c.
161. The government of the several States is separate from that of the United States, but can establish no laws contrary to the laws and constitution of the
latter. Each State has an Executive, Legislative and Judicial department, formed upon the model of the general government, though with some variation of particulars. The Executive of the States, is vested in a Governor, chosen in most instances for one year. In some of the States, a Lieutenant Governor, and a Council are associated with the Executive.
Upon the whole, the form of government which prevails in respect to the union at large, and to the several States individually, is admirably adapted to the promotion of public and private happiness, and there is no country in the world where the rights of men are so well understood and secured as in the United States of America.
Here are no privileged orders of nobility; no titles other than those which merit has obtained, and which are as free to the poor as the rich. No restraints are imposed upon the religious belief of any class of the community, but all are allowed to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience; and such is the general diffusion of the means of information throughout the land, that the highest office in the gift of the people is within the reach of those who originate from the humblest station in life.
IX. Of the Art of War. 162. When a people have acquired the arts of cultivating the soil, of mining, of building houses and edifices, of manufacturing articles of clothing and furniture, and have established a government which adds to their happiness and prosperity, they become objects of envy to their less provident neighbours; and would be invaded, plundered, and despoiled, if they neglected to cultivate the art of war.
Obs.--War is, however, only justifiable when defensive ; and is the most enormous of crimes when offensive and unnecessary. No glory attends victory in an unjust war; and without justice and necessity on their side, the greatest gon
erals are but leaders of banditti, committing murders and robbery.
They seek diversion in the tented field,
"extort their truncheons from the puny grasp Of heroes, whose infirm and baby minds Are gratified with mischief, and who spoil Because men suffer it, their toy, the world.-CowPER. 163. For securing its independence, the whole male population of a nation ought to be trained to the use of arms; magazines of provisions should be secured ; and such dispositions made, as should prevent the country from being conquered by the loss of a single battle.
164. It is usual, however, in modern states, to hire, and pay for this service, a certain portion of the male population, called Soldiers. In England and its colonies there are, in time of war, about 300,000 fighting men; whose time and lives are devoted to their country, and they are called the Standing Army.
165. There were in the late wars 30,000 cavalry, or horse-soldiers ; 150,000 infantry, or foot-soldiers; and 5,000 engineers and artillery-men. whose duty was to direct fortifications, and to manage cannon in the field.
There were, besides, 80,000 militia and fencibles, who served for a limited period, and did not go abroad; 20,000 marines, soldiers who served on board of ship; and 10,000 local volunteers, horse and foot.
166. Such was the British army: yet France and other nations have even larger armies. The glory of Britain lies chiefly in its Navy; which way justly be considered the bulwark of the country.
167. An army is divided into Regiments, consisting of 700 cavalry, or 1,000 infantry; and each regiment is again subdivided into ten companies. Some regiments consist of two or three battalions; but each battalion generally consists of as many men as whole regiments
of one battalion.
Three regiments form a brigade; several brigades, according to the size of the army, form a division; and three divisions, the central division, and the right and left wings, usually form an army in actual service.
168. An army is commonly commanded by a general, called the Commander in Chief; the divisions or wings, by lieutenants general, or majors general; the brigades, by brigadiers general; and so far they are staff officers.
Regiments are commanded by colonels or lieutenants colonel, who, with majors, are field officers.
The companies of a regiment are commanded by captains and lieutenants ; each company is provided with an ensign, to carry its distinguishing colours : and also with four serjeants, and four corporals.
169. The British navy consists of 700 or 800 vessels; of which, 200 carry from 64 to 120 guns, and from 500 to 900 men, and are called ships of the line; 200 more carry from 28 to 50 guns, called frigates : and 350 carrying less than 28 guns, are called sloops, brigs, cutters, fire ships, bomb vessels, &c.
The navy of the United States. 170. The navy of the United States is yet in its infancy, but is rapidly increasing in number, and advancing in the scale of respectability and importance. In naval architecture the Americans surpass every other nation, and their ships of war are regarded as models by the nations of Europe. The American navy, at present, consists of 7 ships of the line, 6 frigates of the first, and 4 of the second class; 2 corvettes of 24 guns, 4 sloops of war of 18 guns, besides 10 smaller vessels. But the goverpment have made provision for its annual increase, and the time will probably arrive when it will be second to that of no nation upon earth.