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which is not believed, have abused their trust, and forfeited all claim to consideration. A just regard for the rights and interests of The United States required that they should be suppressed, and Orders have been accordingly issued to that effect. The imperious considerations which produced this measure will be explained to the Parties whom it may, in any degree, concern.

To obtain correct information on every subject in which The United States are interested; to inspire just sentiments in all Persons in authority, on either side, of our friendly disposition, so far as it may comport with an impartial Neutrality; and to secure proper respect to our commerce in every Port, and from every Flag, it has been thought proper to send a Ship of War, with 3 distinguished Citizens, along the Southern Coast, with instructiou to touch at such Ports as they may find most expedient for these purposes. With the existing Authorities, with those in the possession of, and exercising the sovereigoty, must the communication be held; from them alone can redress for past injuries, comunitted by Persons acting under thein, be obtained; by them alone can the commission of the like, in future, be prevented.

Our relations with the other Powers of Europe have experienced do essential change since the last Session. In our intercourse with each, due attention continues to be paid to the protection of our commerce, and to every other object in which The United States are interested. A strong hope is entertained, that by adhering to the maxims of a just, a candid, and friendly policy, we may long preserve amicable relations with all the Powers of Europe, on conditions advantageous and honorable to our Country.

With the Barbary States and the Indian Tribes our pacific relations have been preserved.

In calling your attention to the internal concerns of our Country, the view which they exhibit is peculiarly gratifying. The payments which have been made into the Treasury show the very productive state of the Public Revenue. After satisfying the appropriations made by Law for the support of the Civil Government, and of the Military and Naval Establishments, embracing suitable provision for fortifications and for the gradual increase of the Navy, paying the interest of the Public Debt, and extinguishing more than 18,000,000 of the principal, within the present year, it is estimated that a Balance of more than 6,000,000 of dollars will remain in the Treasury on the 1st day of January, applicable to the current service of the ensuing year.

The payments into the Treasury during the year 1818, on account of imposts and tonnage, resulting principally froin Duties which have accrued in the present year, may be fairly estimated at 20,000,000 dollars; interual revenues, at 2,500,000 ; public lands, at 1,500,000; baok dividends and incidental receipts, at 500,000; making in the whole, 24,500,000 dollars.

The annual permanent Expenditure for the support of the Civil Government, and of the Ariny and Navy, as now established by Law,

amounts to 11,800,000 dollars; and for the sinking fund, to 10,000,000; making in the whole, 21,800,000 dollars; leaving an annual excess of Revenue beyond the Expenditure of 2,700,000 dollars, exclusive of the Balance estimated to be in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1818.

In the present state of the Treasury, the whole of the Louisiana Debt may be redeemed in the year 1819; after which, if the Public Debt continues as it now is, above par, there will be annually about 5,000,000 of the sinking fund unexpended, until the year 1825, when the Loan of 1812 and the Stock created by funding Treasury Notes, will be redeemable.

It is also estimated that the Mississippi Stock will be discharged during the year 1819, from the proceeds of the Public Lands assigned to that object, after which the receipts from those Lands will annually add to the public revenue the sum of 1,500,000 dollars, making the permanent annual Revenue amount to 26,000,000 of dollars, and leaving an annual excess of Revenue, after the year 1819, beyond the permanent authorized Expenditure, of more than 4,000,000 of dollars.

By the last Returns from the Department of War, the Militia Force of the several States may be estimated at 800,000 Men, Infantry, Artillery and Cavalry. Great part of this force is armed, and measures are taken to arm the whole. An improvement in the organization and discipline of the Militia, is one of the great objects which claims the unremitted attention of Congress.

The regular Force announts nearly to the number required by Law, and is statioued along the Atlantic and inland Frontiers.

of the Naval Force it has been necessary to maintain strong Squadrons in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Mexico.

From several of the Indian Tribes, inhabiting the Country bordering on Lake Erie, purchases have been made of lands, on conditions very favorable to The United States, and, as it is presumed, not less so to the Tribes themselves. By these purchases, the Indian title, with moderate reservations, has been extinguished, to the whole of the Land within the limits of the State of Ohio, and to a great part of that in the Michigan Territory, and of the State of Indiana. From the Cherokee Tribe a tract has been purchased in the State of Georgia, and an arrangement made, by which, in exchange for Lands beyond thie Mississippi, a great part, if not the whole of the land belonging to that Tribe, eastward of that river, in the States of North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, and in the Alabama Territory, will soon be acquired. By these acquisitions, and others that may reasonably be expected soon to follow, we shall be enabled to extend our Setilements from the inhabited parts of the State of Ohio, along Lake Erie into the Michigan Territory, and to connect our Settlements by degrees through the State of Indiana and the Illinois Territory, to that of Missouri. A similar and equally advantageous effect will soon be produced to the South, through the whole extent of the States and Territory which border on the waters emptying into the Mississippi

and the Mobile. In this progress, which the rights of nature demand, and nothing can prevent, marking a growth rapid and gigantic, it is our duty to make new efforts for the preservation, improvement, and civilization of the native Inhabitants. The hunter state can exist only in the vast, uncultivated desert. It yields to the more dense and compact form, and greater force, of civilized population, and of right it ought to yield, for the Earth was given to mankind to support the Teatest number of which it is capable, and no Tribe or People have a right to withhold from the wants of others more than is necessary for their own support and comfort. It is gratifying to know, that the reservations of land made by the Treaties with the Tribes on Lake Erie, were inade with a view to individual ownership among them, and to the cultivation of the soil by all, and that an annual stipend has been pleulged to supply their other wants. It will merit the considera. tion of Congress, whether other provision, not stipulated by the Treaty, ought to be made for these Tribes, and for the advancement of the liberal and humane policy of The United States towards all the Tribes within our limits, and more particularly for their improvement in the arts of civilized life.

Among the advantages incident to these purchases, and to those which have preceded, the security which may thereby be afforded to our inland Frontiers is peculiarly important. With a strong barrier, consisting of our own People thus planted on the Lakes, the Mississippi and the Mobile, with the protection to be derived from the regular Force, Indian liostilities, if they do not altogether cease, will henceforth lose their terror. Fortifications iu those quarters, to any extent, will not be necessary, and the expence attending them may be saved. A People accustomed to the use of fire arms only, as the Indian Tribes are, will shun even moderate works, which are defended by cannon. Great Fortifications will, therefore, be requisite only, in future, along the Coast, and at some points in the interior, connected with it. On these will the safety of our Towns, and the commerce of our great Rivers, from the Bay of Fundy to the Mississippi, depend. On these therefore, should the utmost attention, skill, and labour, be bestowed.

A considerable and rapid augmentation in the value of all the Public Lands, proceeding from these and other obvious causes, may henceforward be expected. The difficulties attending early emigrations, will be dissipated even in the most remote parts. Several new States have been admitted into our Union, to the west and south, and Territorial Governments, happily organized, established over every other portion in which there is vacaut land for sale. Ju terminating Indian hostilities, as must soon be done, in a formidable shape at least, the emigration, which has heretofore been great, will probably increase, and the demand for land, and the augmentation in its value, be in like proportion. The great increase of our population throughout the Union will alone produce an important effect, and in no quarter will it be so sensibly felt as in those in contemplation. The Public Lands

are a Public Stock, which ought to be disposed of to the best advantage for the Nation. The Nation should, therefore, derive the profit proceeding from the continual rise in their value. Every encouragement should be given to Emigrants, consistent with a fair competition between them, but that competition should operate in the first sale to the advantage of the Nation rather than of Individuals. Great Capitalists will derive all the benefit incident to their superior wealth, under any mode of sale which may be adopted. But if, looking forward to the rise in the value of the Public Lands, they should bave the opportu. nity of amassing, at a low price, vast bodies in their hands, the profit will accrue to them, and not to the Public. They would also bave the power, in that degree, to control the emigration and settlement in such a manner as their opinion of their respective interests might dictate. I submit this suliject to the consideration of Congress, that such further provision may be made in the sale of the Public Lands, with a view to the public interest, should any be deemed expedient, as in their judgment may be best adapted to the object.

When we consider the vast extent of Territory within the United States, the great amount and value of its productions, the connection of its parts, and other circumstances, on which their prosperity and happiness depend, we cannot fail to entertain a high sense of the advantage to be derived from the facility which may be afforded in the intercourse between them, by means of good roads and canals. Never did a Country of such vast extent offer equal inducements to improvements of this kind, nor ever were consequences of such magnitude involved in them. As this subject was acted on by Congress at the last Session, and there may be a disposition to revive it at the present, I have brought it into view, for the purpose of communicating my sentiments on a very important circumstance connected with it, with that freedom and candor which a regard for the public interest, and a proper respect for Congress, require. A difference of opinion has existed, from the first formation of our Constitution to the present time, among our most enlightened and virtuous Citizens, respecting the right of Congress to establish such a system of improvement. Taking into view the trust with which I am now honored, it would be improper, after what has passed, that this discussion should be revived, with an uncertainty of my opinion respecting the right Disregarding early impressions, I have bestowed on the subject all the deliberation which its great importance, and a just sense of my duty, required—and the result is, a settled conviction in my mind, that Congress do not possess the right. It is not contained in any of the specified powers granted to Congress; por can I consider it incidental to, or a necessary mean, viewed on the inost liberal scale, for carrying into effect any of the powers which are specifically granted. In communicating this result, I cannot resist the obligatiou which I feel to suggest to Congress the propriety of recominending to the States the adoption of an amendinent to the

Constitution, which shall give to Congress the right in question. In cases of doubtful construction, especially of such vital interest, it comports with the nature and origin of our Institutions, and will contribute much to preserve them, to apply to our Constituents for an explicit grant of the power. We may confidently rely, that if it appears to their satisfaction, that the power is necessary, it will always be granted. In this case I am happy to observe, that experience has afforded the most ample proof of its utility, and that the benign spirit of conciliation and harmony, which now manifests itself throughout our Union, promises to such a recommendation the most prompt and favorable result. I think proper to suggest also, in case this measure is adopted, that it be recommended to the States to include, in the amendment sought, a right in Congress to institute, likewise, Semidaries of Learning, for the all-important purpose of diffusing knowledge among our Fellow-Citizens throughout The United States.

Our Manufactories will require the continued attention of Congress. The capital employed in them is considerable, aud the knowledge acquired in the machinery and fabric of all the most useful manufactures, is of great value. Their preservation, which depends on due encouragement, is connected with the high interests of the Nation.

Although the progress of the public buildings has been as favorable as circumstances have permitted, it is to be regretted that the Capitol is not yet in a state to receive you. There is good cause to presume, that the 2 wings, the only parts as ye" commenced, will be prepared for that purpose at the next Session. The time seems now to have arrived, when this subject may be deemed worthy the attention of Congress, on a scale adequate to National purposes. The completion of the middle building will be necessary to the convenient accommodation of Congress, of the Committees, and various Offices belonging to it. It is evident that the other public buildings are altogether insufficient for the accommodation of the several Executive Departments, some of whom are much crowded, and even subjected to the necessity of obtaining it in private buildings, at some distance from the head of the Department, and with inconvenience to the management of the public business. Most Nations have taken an interest and a pride in the improvement and ornament of their metropolis, and bone were more conspicuous in that respect than the Ancient Republics. The policy which dictated the establishment of a permanent residence for the National Government, and the spirit in which it was commenced and has been prosecuted, show that such improvement was thought worthy the attention of this Nation. Its central position, between the northern and southern extremes of our Union, and its approach to the west, at the head of a great navigable River, which interlocks with the western waters, prove the wisdom of the Councils which established it. Nothing appears to be more reasonable and [1817-18.)


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