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YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $5.00.
How TEACHERS SHOULD CO-OPERATE WITH
HOW MAY WE Make the GUIDING OF PUPILS' READ-
GROWTH OF THE TRAVELLING Libraries System.
REFERENCE WORK AMONG SCHOOL CHildren.
LIBRARY EXAminations in SCHOOLS. - C: K. Bolton.
Price to Europe, or other countries in the Union, 20s. per annum ; single numbers, as.
MONTHLY NUMBERS, 50 cts.
NEW YORK PUBLICATION OFFICE (Temporary), 54 Duane Street. LONDON: SOLD BY KEGAN PAUL, Trench, Trübner & Co., PATERNoster House, CHARING CROSS ROAD.
Time saved over the card system, say three-fourths.
Patience saved over the card system, beyond computation.
WRITE FOR CATALOGUE.
HE above cut is a reduced photograph of the upper end of two card holders hinged together. These holders are 41⁄2 x 16 inches, full size. In the Bibliography column the work was first typewritten on thin paper, five to eight copies at once. One of these copies was pasted on cardboard, and by the use of a RUDOLPH CARD CUTTER, cut apart, each book separately; yet the cards are easily separated for the insertion of new books, each in its proper place.
In the Biography column the printed matter is simply a leaf from an ordinary catalogue, pasted on cardboard and then treated in the same way.
The card holders are hinged alike at both ends, producing an ENDLESS INDEX CHAIN which is revolved by a crank under the glass lid of the case, showing five pages at once. The size of Indexer Case is 34 inches long by 24 inches wide, 42 inches high. About the only practical difference in use between the RUDOLPH INDEXER and an Unabridged Dictionary is that you turn the Dictionary leaves by hand, while in the Indexer an endless succession of leaves is revolved by a crank. It will accommodate equally a library of 1000, 10,000 or 20,000 volumes. It takes the place of the old style card finding list, is accessible to the public, yet cannot be tampered with, and renders the publication of supplements unnecessary. If the problem of a World's Central Cataloguing Bureau is ever solved, it will be done by the use of the RUDOLPH INDEXER.
Compare looking for a word and its meaning in an Unabridged Dictionary, and for the same word in the latest card index drawer, and you have about the difference between the old card system and the RUDOLPH INDEXER.
THOMAS KANE & COMPANY, Sole Manufacturers, 137-139 Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO, ILL.
THERE is no more important- - as there is no more interesting-part of a librarian's work than that dealing with the relations of the library and the school. It seems not too much to say that this is the most vital branch of a library's administration. For the children are the library's most hopeful material; they are to be the readers of the future, and they are not yet beyond the power of influence nor are they resentful of direction. The library that has no connection with the local schools is neglecting its mission and ignoring its noblest opportunities. It is through this medium that the children may be reached most easily, most directly, and most effectively. Let the library once become the recognized depository of material for "compositions," observation" items, etc., and it will soon take equal rank as a source of home reading. Let the children find that their needs have prompt attention, their questions considerate and kindly answers, and the librarian becomes a friend whose suggestions are willingly received and frequently followed. When the world of books is made an intimate
THE various phases of this important subject -the co-operation of teachers and librarians, the relations of the library and the schools, and the direction of children's reading are discussed in this number of the JOURNAL from various standpoints of personal experience. No one special feature is emphasized, unless it be the importance of the work; but the selection of
part of the every-day world of school-time and play-time, the education thus begun will inevibooks for school work, methods of reference tably prepare the way for that later and more work among children, means of educating chilpotent self-education that comes with the read-dren in the use of the library, and ways in which ing of good books.
BUT in this work the aid of the teacher is essential to success, and the teacher is generally the unknown quantity in the problem. Indeed, the most difficult part of the librarian's work is to enlist the sympathy and co-operation of the
teachers. It will not do to wait until their cooperation is offered. The first advances must come from the library, and in most cases it requires much more than a "first step" to count. Teachers, as a rule, are not particularly responsive to the claims upon their time and attention that co-operation with the library entails. They are apt to feel that their work is arduous enough as it is, and that the use and circulation of library books among their scholars mean simply additional work and scant results. Those true teachers who recognize their responsibilities and accept them to the full, are far outnumbered by the many who care little and
think less of the higher duties of their calling, and who deem co-operation with the library a tiresome work of supererogation. It is to the latter that the librarian must especially appeal
the former are on the right side from the first. Personal intercourse, short talks at teachers' meetings, the extension of privileges to teachers, and kindred wiles must be resorted to, and generally will be successful. When by these means the teachers' enthusiasm and sympathy are obtained the rubicon is crossed, for in each school-room there is a library lieutenant, knowing the children and their needs as the busy librarian cannot do, and supplementing and extending the work of the library with the best and most lasting results.
the child's home reading may be influenced and guided, are considered and set forth. Such a symposium as this cannot fail to be helpful, full of interest and suggestion; above all, encouraging. It shows the high standards that may be attained by all who will, and it demonstrates again—if such demonstration be necessary how thoroughly the "missionary spirit" should be inherent in the best library work.
UNDER the provision of the new public documents law, making the bureau of public documents a department of the Government Printing Office, the public printer has appointed Mr. Francis A. Crandall to be superintendent of public documents. This action terminates Mr. John G. Ames' long period of service as superintendent of this bureau; whether it will completely sever his connection with the department is uncertain. It is much to be regretted that Mr. Ames
has not been allowed the opportunity afforded by the new law for continuing and developing under new and more favorable facilities the work which he has prosecuted so long and so successfully under disadvantageous circumstances. His retention in office has been strenuously urged by the A. L. A. committee on public documents and by individual members of the association, and his retirement is a serious loss, not only to the bureau of documents but to library interests, which he has always served and aided to the utmost of his power.
WITH the passage of the bill amending the act for the "consolidation of library companies in the city of New York," the legal way is made
clear for the consolidation of the Astor and Lenox libraries and the Tilden Trust. The act does not in any way incorporate the great "Public Library of New York," nor does it make such incorporation obligatory. It simply removes any legal obstacles in the way of consolidation, when final action towards that end shall be taken by the trustees. Such action is still to be taken, although it is presaged in the
assent of the various trustees to the consolidation plan. So many other details will remain to be decided after the incorporation becomes an accomplished fact that "twere well 'twere done quickly," and it is to be hoped that within the next few weeks the "New York Public Library — Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations" may
have entered upon its corporate existence.
THE FIRE AT THE MILWAUKEE PUBLIC LIBRARY.
MAY I send through the JOURNAL a general message of most sincere thanks for the kind letters which our reported loss by fire has called out? I should like to answer each one individually but am unable to do so.
It was a very narrow escape indeed for the library, but by the faithful, heroic work of the firemen, with the inspiration and direction of the president of our board of trustees, the fire was checked in the corner portion of our building and we were spared loss by either fire or water. It is one more object-lesson of the necessity for quick work with our new building. The control of its erection has been vested, by an act of the present legislature, in the library and museum trustees. The architect promises that plans and specifications shall be ready for the advertising for bids for construction by May first, and it seems now as if the building should be well out of the ground before snow flies.
A WORKING EXAMPLE.
THE following letter, addressed to a member of the A. L. A., who has given her energies largely to the guidance and development of children's reading, is sent to the JOURNAL by its recipient as an illustration of what may be done in that direction, even with limited resources, if enthusiasm and perseverance go to the task:
MY DEAR MISS- -: I have been working all winter under the inspiration of the ideas and ideals gained last September at the Conference, and I write you to-day to thank you for the large share you had in helping me. Under another cover, I send you a copy of a "reading list for the young people" that I prepared early in the winter. In January, armed with these lists, I visited the schools, coming in contact with 2000 children and young people. Evidently the children heard and heeded, for we have been busy enough caring for them ever since, not only at the delivery desk but in the reference room as well. They are learning to be students.
From a librarian's point of view, my lists are very imperfect, and I am almost ashamed to send them to other libraries. The type was set at odd moments by the city editor of our daily paper; "A personal favor" he said, "in exchange for the articles you have written for me"
-library notes, he meant. So all the lists cost was the price of paper and press work, The omission of call numbers is due to the fact that they were too much for the city editor, and because the work was a gift I omitted them; but we know our shelves so well that we are not troubled by their omission. The capital letters form the most glaring fault, for, spite of copy and many warnings, the newspaper idea of
headlines gained and carried the day.
But the lists are serving their purpose, and that is best of all. We are having an exceedingly busy and prosperous winter. We count our increase in every department by one or two thousand every month over last year. And in number of books we have attained this winter accessions to 10,000, and we are now aiming for 20,000.
THE COLLATION OF BOOKS.
MR. FLETCHER's remarks in regard to collating bring to mind a personal experience. In an invoice of several hundred volumes from London, where most of the books had been rebound to order, it was afterwards discovered that the binders had inserted a signature of Mrs. Somerville's "Physical geography" in the middle of a volume of Crabbe's Poems. Upon this, the first-named work was examined, and found to contain the missing pages of poetry, ready to be " said or sung" by the surprised student. So the two volumes were sent back to London, where the binders, who had so "pleasantly diversified " their contents, had the trouble of reconstructing them. More recently, what was supposed to be a set of "The Kalevala," in two volumes, was after a time found to consist of two copies of vol. 1, without any vol. 2, although the covers were all right. M. O. N.
HOW TEACHERS SHOULD CO-OPERATE WITH LIBRARIANS.*
BY GEORGE WATSON COLE, Librarian Jersey City Free Public Library.
IN the "Vision of Mirza,” by Addison, there is an allegorical description of the Bridge of Human Life. This bridge consists of about 100 arches, each arch representing a year of human existence. At its entrance is seen a multitude of people, rushing forward to cross it. In each arch are numerous pitfalls, through which many are precipitated into the River of Time, which flows below, and are forever lost to view. As this crowd passes along, it is constantly diminishing in number. After the middle of the bridge is passed, the number is so small that but here and there is any one to be seen. Before the further end is reached, all who started have disappeared, each having fallen through some one of its numerous arches.
A similar picture would not inaptly represent those who start out to receive the education which is provided by our schools, academies, and colleges. Many of those who enter the primary and grammar schools drop out before reaching the high school, and but a small part of these pass on to the college and other higher institutions of learning. Statistics show, unless I am greatly mistaken, that a large percentage of children leave school before they are 12 years of age. This being the case, it becomes a vital question with our teachers how to train this class of pupils so that the limited time they spend in school shall be most profitably employed. At best, the time is too short in which to do much. What shall be done? Upon what basis must we plan this important work?
The duty is a responsible one, which does not cease when the teachers have imparted to the pupil all the information contained in the prescribed text-books. After all has been said and done, they can only train the pupil to become self-educating, and implant in his mind a desire and resolution to go on, after he shall have left their hands, and continue to develop himself in those directions in which nature has specially fitted him to excel. How shall this be done? As librarians, we believe it to be the first duty of the teacher to encourage the young to acquire the reading habit. Do not mistake the term reading habit for reading as usually taught in the schools. It is something more. It is an overmastering desire on the part of the young, fed by a lively curiosity
* Paper read before the New York Library Club, at the Teachers' College, New York, Nov. 8, 1894.
and interest, to gain information, which finds expression in reading voraciously everything that tends to satisfy this craving. When once the reading habit takes possession of a boy he is in a fair way, provided his tastes are properly directed, to become self-educating. Thus it is of more importance for teachers to impart this to scholars than to teach them most perfectly every study in the curriculum of the school.
Every child is endowed by nature with an insatiable curiosity, which should be encouraged and directed for his good. However dull he may seem, there is some subject in which he is much interested, and it is the teacher's duty to study each case until this is discovered. In this connection, Mr. George E. Hardy, in a paper on "Literature for children," says:
"The great problem of the schools to-day is not to teach our pupils how to read, but what to read. The true function of the reading-lesson is to stimulate and control the child's imagination, to fill his mind with the highest thoughts of the best men, and to create for him an ethical ideal which shall dominate his entire being, and be at the very centre of his consciousness; and it is our bounden duty as teachers to supply such inspirations to our pupils at every stage of their intellectual life by presenting them the best of our literature that they can appreciate and understand."
"If we fail to do this, and content ourselves with giving the child the mere mechanical ability to read, we are leaving him in the possession of a power that is equally potent for evil as it is for good. For nowadays a child who can read will read; and if we do not lead and direct his taste, the enemy, who is ever lying in wait for poor, faltering humanity, will give the child abundant opportunity to taste of the knowledge of evil; and this evil, whose knowledge is death to the soul of every pure boy or girl, is crowding us at every turn and corner of life."