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agrees nowadays that English literature should be substituted for the modern graded reader in the upper grades. Not every teacher, however, is prepared to agree with me, I venture to say, when I state that a child should commence the reading of real literature when he has acquired the mechanical power of reading; in other words, when he has mastered the 'primer.'"
room. These books may be illustrated; if so,
Just here it may be well to name several books, a thorough knowledge of which will aid the teacher materially in co-operating intelligently with the librarian. And first there is Mr. Geo. E. Hardy's" Five hundred books for the young," a graded and annotated list, published by Scribner's in 1892. This is one of the latest lists, if not the latest one published, and consists of books in print at the time it was issued. It is carefully graded and will prove of great value in selecting books well within the intelligence of the pupils.
It is just at this point that the library, which is, after all, the people's great university, comes to the aid of the school. It is a great storehouse from which may be drawn that mass of supplementary reading which in the near future is, we believe, to play a very important part in the education of the young. The old-time method of memorizing text-books has had its day. Many a boy and girl has had interest changed to apathy, if not disgust, by this senseless, yes, pernicious method. The pupil who was deemed dull in the routine studies of the school was bright enough when reading books Sargent's "Reading for the young," a classiwhich appealed to his curiosity. This has been fied and annotated catalog, published by the shown time and time again in the case of many Library Bureau in 1890, is similar in scope to students, even collegians, who, while never Hardy's book, but has a larger number and a more manifesting especial scholarship in their pre-extended variety of books from which to select. scribed studies, have yet become famous in after life in branches which they had little or no opportunity to develop during their school life.
The teacher in geography will find in Charles F. King's "Methods and aids in geography" (Lee & Shepard, 1888) frequent references to books on the subject, especially in chapter 19:
The teacher of to-day instead of attempting to make all his pupils conform to a fixed stand-"Scurces of information and illustration," and ard, which too often is equivalent to forcing chapter 20: "List of a thousand geographical square pegs into round holes, and vice versa, books." While the teacher in American history interests himself in the individuality of his pu- will find in Gordy and Twitchell's "Pathfinder pils by studying their tastes; and by kindly of American history" and Winsor's "Reader's advice and watchful supervision encourages them handbook of the American Revolution " valuable to develop themselves in the various directions suggestions as to supplementary reading. which nature seems to have laid out for them.
Lists have also been printed in several of the How is the teacher going to co-operate with reports of different state boards of education the librarian in carrying on this broader method The teacher should be cautioned, however, not of education? To begin with, I would suggest to place too much reliance upon any one list, that the teacher encourage his pupils to pursue a however excellent or well selected. These lists course of reading which shall supplement the soon get out of date. New books are constantstudies pursued in the school. To make my ly appearing, and what a wealth of illustration, meaning clearer, let us suppose a class is study-beauty of letter-press and binders' designs are ing the geography of Spain. Call on the libra- given to the young readers of the present day! rian, tell him what you are teaching, and ask How many talented writers are constantly prohim what books he has in the library on the ducing books for the young of a literary excelgeography or description of that country and │lence that was quite unknown a generation or what books of travels in Spain he can supply. two since! He may possibly have 15 or 20. If the library issues teachers' cards upon which a number of books may be drawn at a time, get the librarian to issue you such a card and draw all the books the rules permit, and carry them to your school
I ought not to omit to state that graded lists have been prepared by teachers in several places, as, for instance, in Poughkeepsie, by Mr, Sickley. Catalogs of reading for the young are issued by many libraries and, where no separate list is
issued, nearly every library distinguishes in some conventional way such books as are suitable for its younger readers.
Special effort to guide the young in their reading is made in some libraries, among which may be named those of Cleveland and Milwaukee. Mr. Brett, of Cleveland, has prepared and printed a paper relating to this subject, and Miss Lutie E. Stearns, superintendent of the circulating department of the Milwaukee Public Library, had a very excellent paper on the work she is doing in that city, which is printed in the Proceedings of the Lake Placid Conference of the American Library Association.
In Jersey City we have taken great pains to get all the teachers in our public schools interested in the Free Public Library and have them induce their pupils to take out borrowers' cards. Many of the scholars have done so. From the nature of the case it is impossible to keep statistics as to their number. The fact that of our entire circulation during the year 1892-93 a little over 24% was juvenile fiction shows for itself how largely the library is used by the young.
For the past year or two we have sent to our schools copies of the classics for children published by Ginn & Co., Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and others. We have purchased from three to four dozen each of the following books, viz.: Æsop. "Child's version of fables." Ginn & Co. 48 copies. Andersen. "Fairy tales," v. I. Ginn & Co. 48 copies. Andersen. "Fairy tales," v. 2. 48 copies. "Seven little sisters who live on a
round ball." Ginn & Co. 48 copies. Andrews. "Seven little sisters who prove their sisterhood." Ginn & Co. 48 copies. Burroughs. "Birds and bees." H., M. & Co. 42 copies. Hale's "Arabian nights." Ginn & Co. 36 copies. De Foe. "Robinson Crusoe." Ginn & Co. 48 copies. Francillon. "Gods and heroes." Ginn & Co. 36 copies. Grimm. "Fairy tales." Educ. Pub. Co. 42 copies, Goldsmith. "Vicar of Wakefield." Ginn & Co. 36 copies. Hawthorne. True stories." H., M. & Co. 42
copies. Hawthorne. "Wonder book." H., M. & Co. 42 copies.
"Sketch book." Ginn & Co.
"Ten great_events in history."
"Tales from Shakespeare." Ginn & Co. 36 copies.
"Fables and folk stories." H., M. & Co. 48 copies.
"Black Beauty." 48 copies.
Sewell. Wyss and Montolieu. "Swiss family Robinson. Ginn & Co. 48 copies. To these we have just added 50 copies each of Numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5 of "Selections from the Youth's Companion for supplementary reading," published by Perry, Mason & Co., of Boston. They are entitled respectively "Glimpses of Europe," "The American tropics," ""Sketches of the Orient," and " Old ocean."
These sets are sent to the schools, being charged to the teachers, who are permitted to renew them once so that they are kept in one school for four weeks. The sets are not broken up, but are sent entire to the school entitled to receive them by our schedule; that is, the whole 48 copies of "Black Beauty" go to one school. These books may be used for class reading, distributed for home reading, or given out for reading in school hours to those who have performed their school studies, as the teacher may deem most expedient. The teachers thus distribute them to their pupils, but we have not asked them to keep any record of the number of times they are circulated while in their possession.
This plan has been very successful in its results and is heartily commended by the teachers. Many of the pupils, and not a few of their parGinn & Co. ents, have by this means come to get their first taste of real literature, which might not have been the case had they been turned loose in the library. I think much can be done in this way towards creating and fostering the reading habit and I look for still greater results in the future.
Teachers will uniformly find librarians ready to aid them in every way in their power. If the library is provided with a suitable room for the purpose, teachers should go there with their classes and look over and talk about books which pertain to their school studies. The librarian will be only too glad of the opportunity to lay out as many books as they wish to use for this purpose. Such occasions should be improved by explaining to the scholars the scope and use of dictionaries, encyclopædias, indexes,
and other works of reference.
Another way of utilizing the library is to give out subjects to be looked up by the pupils, sending them to the library to get the desired information.
In Cleveland the library sends to schools 50
or 100 volumes which are retained until the end will often form for himself unconsciously a corof the term as a school-room library.
The plans that have been mentioned are suggestive to the teacher of ways in which he may co-operate with the librarian in this work. The ingenuity of the teacher should be exercised to make use of the best possible means of interesting his pupils in good reading, thus making of them inveterate and at the same time discriminating readers.
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO HELP A BOY TO LIKE GOOD BOOKS AFTER HE HAS FALLEN INTO THE "DIME NOVEL HABIT"?
rect standard of the true and the good; and acting under its influence, he will reject the false and impure. In the course of time he will become possessed of a conscious ideal of life which, while not rising to the highest ideal, will yet serve him as an ethical touchstone to which he can safely refer many of the problems of life. In the possession of even such a modest standard he will refuse to accept phrases as principles, turgid sentiment as virtue, and jingling words as measures of right living. If we can thus advance our pupils upward in the path of virtue, we shall have attained the highest results that teachers in our schools can hope to attain."
BY ELLEN M. Cox, Librarian New York Free Circulating Library.
MUCH may be done which will in many, perhaps most, cases be followed by appreciably good results. It may be after many days; indeed, the sower of the good seed must not expect to see the dry stony ground bring forth good and pleasant fruits, except after much well-directed effort - possibly after watering with tears. But truly the case of the dime-novel-reading boy is not nearly so hopeless as that of the yellownovel-reading girl or young woman.
What shall be done, however, requires in the librarian or director of the reading much knowledge and more wisdom.
It is first most important to know your boy, to get from the slight acquaintance which an occasional visit to the library may give some clear understanding of his moral and intellectual character and abilities, to see the good possibilities under an often unprepossessing or sometimes even repulsive exterior, to discover inclinations, however slight, towards right and good things, so that one's suggestions or hints may jump in the direction of those inclinations and tendencies; above all, to do whatever one does in so tactful a way as not to scare away the shy bird, for boys are very keen to discover and resent officious missionary effort to reform. All this requires some extraordinary qualities and qualifications in the librarian — mainly the same which are to be found in the successful school-teacher. (By the way, an interesting and eminently satisfactory proof of the position accorded by the boy to the librarian is that he almost always addresses her as "Teacher.")
In a large city library intimate acquaintance
with many boys is difficult if not impossible; still, I am constantly receiving astonishing proof that much is accomplished in the way of establishing confidential and friendly relations between readers and librarians as I go about among my six libraries— the librarians evidently knowing the characters as well as the names and faces of the readers, and the readers having their own particular friend among the library force, from whom alone they are willing to accept service in the way of book-selection or assistance in selection.
Doubtless this is first to be done in all cases : to establish confidential relations, then to see that the confidence is not abused, to be sure in knowledge of the books recommended. Also of first importance is this: the change must not be made sudden or abrupt. Nothing will more quickly destroy all hope of beautiful flowering of your lily or hyacinth than to bring it at once from the dark cool room or cellar in which the bulb has put forth its pale blossom-shoot into the bright, heated, sunny parlor window. No, you must graduate wisely the transfer to higher temperature and sunshine a little at a time; there is no wiser proverb than "one step at a time."
If the boy has delighted in red-handed tales of Indian border wars, coax him into the realm of history by means of Custer's books. I have never seen the boy who would refuse these. And there are quite a number of similar books sufficiently sanguinary to conceal their strictly historical character which will keep him in reading until his taste is formed for the historical without the
ultra-sanguinary coloring. If detective stories have been his only intellectual food, give him some of the historical criminal biographies and remarkable escapes. There are one or two which cannot be condemned, and they are so much better than what he has been reading that they are a distinct advance; and they certainly do "exhale a moral" which he (with his intimate knowledge of crime and its penalties, if he is a city boy) will not fail to perceive.
Also, never to be forgotten it is, that if the If brigands and pirates (in brilliant paper boy is once or twice deceived or disappointed in covers) have been his chosen companions, you the book he gets from the library he will almost can start him off at once on the "Adventure inevitably return to wallowing in the mire of the series," where fact and fancy are so deftly com-book-stands where " 5-cent books" or "6 for a bined as to defy the cataloger to determine quarter" are displayed. From this sad relapse whether they shall be classified with history, the librarian must guard the boy by seeing that biography, or fiction; or Abbott's "Captain he is pleased with the first books taken from the Kidd" and kindred books are so faintly historic library. Whenever possible, see that the books in their facts and so intensely interesting in the are well and fully illustrated. Nothing interests manner of their telling that your boy is off and and enchains the attention and instructs the unaway into wide fair fields of history before he disciplined mind more than pictures. Writers knows that he is emancipated. and publishers are becoming more and more aware of the attractiveness of the well pictured books and the art of reproducing pictures is now so perfect and inexpensive that the librarian of the future will have little trouble to select books which will attract his boy readers.
Believe all things, hope all things, endure all things your reward will seldom fail. Though you may see little of the fruit of your labors, still plant the seed, cultivate the soil in hope of harvest.
Too much cannot be said in favor of the bulletins of selected books posted on the walls far enough away from the librarian's desk so that the shy or bad boys will not fear to read them, and for the "good books" shelf where the most attractive titles and bindings must be displayed, and where the doubtful or ignorant or lazy may find the book they will like to read without trouble.
HOW MAY WE MAKE THE GUIDING OF PUPILS' READING A PART OF THE TEACHER'S WORK?*
BY MARY E. MERINGTON.
THE true teacher is one who is imbued with the idea that all knowledge is not summed up in the petty text-books in his hand, one who carries in his heart and conveys to his pupil the stirring thought that the universe is a great book lying open for him who runs to read and that the true student is he who finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything. With this sublime conception dominating his work, he gives the rich fruit of his experience to the neophytes under his care, guides the ambitious, spurs on the laggard, quickens the dormant germ of curiosity, throws light on dark places, and leads the youth to find that the crux in his book of learning is mortality alone. There are students who know a text-book from cover to cover verbatim, yet whose dull ears have never caught the meaning which underlies the even flow of words. He who has made a pupil paraphrase a
Presented at joint meeting of N. Y. Library Associa
tion and N. Y. Library Club, N. Y., Jan. 10-12, 1895.
page written in his native tongue has done more than the one whose disciple reels off a chapter of Greek. Question the pupil on the words he has memorized and he will answer in words; bid him question you, and unless his intelligence has been awakened, his queries will show that the underlying sense has never penetrated his soul.
There is reading and reading. The object is not to get over so many pages of print, but to come so close to Truth that the pulse of her heart throbs under our hand.
Then arises the question, "How shall a teacher guide his pupils to find the truth?"
It is obvious that those advantages which lie at the hand of one are but too frequently denied to another, and that circumstances may limit the scope of the most energetic person's influence. But to the earnest soul the cheapest spellingbook is a library of poetry and song. R-a-t served Robert Browning as a text; C-a-t conjures up visions of Cambyses marching as to war; L-i-o-n takes us into the forest with Una or
with Androcles, and the H-o-r-s-e carries us over conquered worlds with Bucephalus and into the very clouds with Pegasus.
Rote teachers who put a volume of geographical facts into a young brain turn out the welldrilled machines which abound to-day; but what is the dry recital of a column of statistics in comparison with the joyous expansiveness, the power, the growth felt and exulted in by the child who learns that there is a thought behind such a name as Bosphorus ?-no accidental collocation of vowels and consonants, but a name inspired by history, history beautified by tradition, history treating of those far-away ancestors of theirs who pushed their westward way ever forward and forward until they crossed a wider waste of water than was ever dreamed of in their wildest romances.
No time is too soon, no age is too young for a pupil's mind to be lifted to the idea that what he gets from the schools is comparable only to the reading of an index—the subject-matter lies outside.
This is the first step in the guidance of a pupil's reading. Now as to how to accomplish the rest. Let us for a moment consider the instruments in our hands.
Those who have had practical experience in teaching may have noticed a curious psychological fact, to wit, that well into the college grades, those pupils who are called upon to compose, impromptu, a sentence containing a given word, with but few exceptions, embody a cruel thought in this sentence, and this, in my experience, is especially true of girls.
Here is an opening for a wedge. Let the teacher reward those who weave their word into a brief phrase treating of some current topic and eulogize the allusion to some historical or tradi- | tionary event. Before the week is out "the man" who "kicked the horse" will have given way to the proverbial axe and cherry tree, and in a month, if she be wise, she will be rubbing up some of her own store of " useful and entertaining knowledge" in order to keep pace with her classes.
sult was greater, broader, more enduring than I had ventured to hope. We finished it one fine Friday afternoon when they took the reading in lieu of an hour's holiday, and when the time for dismissal came, sat and demanded the rest; and when it was all over they sidled out with a grunt or a nod, too much choked with emotion to say "good-afternoon." But for the rest of the term sentences and grammar exercises and compositions abounded with fresh thought, and home libraries were ransacked for treasure trove.
After a harrowing experience with hangmen and criminals, followed by the Father of his Country ad infinitum, I once started a class on the subject of Napoleon, and, like David Copperfield who had Dora for tea and Dora for dinner, Napoleon dominated every hour of the day; so I took Miss Yonge's "History of France" and read it to the boys, and when that was done ventured on "The tale of two cities." The re
Books are not at the disposal of every student, but the newspaper is within the limit of a poor man's income, and it is one of the best instruments at a teacher's command, although rarely recognized in that capacity. The average class may be divided into two sections, those pupils who don't read the papers and those who read them amiss; the second division is as hopelessly ignorant as the first.
Why should not an intelligent class be able to write as well on Satolli's mission as on St. Patrick's? Question them, and not a moiety know of his existence. Are there two pupils who could give a summary of the Samoan question or tell why Russia wants a railroad built to Vladivostok? Yet there it stares them in the face side by side with the stories and the crimes and the scandal they do know.
The newspapers chronicle current history, and should be used in that light, and in every class will be found at least one child whose parents will help the teacher by cutting out desirable articles for his son to take to school to be read aloud. The boys who read for themselves will pick out the best to bring. Take the scraps, stick them in an old blank-book, roughly as you please, and before you realize it you have a complete account of the question of the day, while all the class is fighting China against Japan and the Corean Question is settled in a lunch-time. Much useful work can also be accomplished by the supervision of a child's Sunday-school reading. Unfortunately most church libraries are filled with literary pop-corn and the selection is too limited to admit of a lay teacher's receiving much help from that quarter; but yet it is possible to find good in Nazareth. Also it is well to keep the catalog of the nearest public library and to encourage children to consult their teacher as to the best books to draw out either for amusement or for reference. And it is a very good plan instead of assigning a topic and letting the class read it up and bring in an epitome of the subject, to give out the topic and