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require them to give in a list of such books, essays, monographs, etc., as are to be found treating of the matter in hand; it engenders a wholesome spirit of rivalry which leads to greater results.
Last, but not least, having awakened a love for the matter of a book, the manner of it should
REFERENCE WORK AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN.
By Miss A. L. Sargent, Librarian Middlesex Mechanics' Assoc. Library, Lowell, Mass.
LET us suppose that the momentous problem | Books like Ingersoll's "Country cousins,” which is solved of persuading children to use the li- contains an article on shell money, and also an brary for more serious purpose than to find a account of Professor Agassiz's laboratory at book" as good as Mark the match boy,'" and Newport; Mary Bamford's "Talks by queer that we are trying to convince children that the folks," giving many of the superstitions prevlibrary is infallible, and can furnish information alent about animals; the set of books by Uncle on whatever they wish to know about whether Lawrence, "Young folks' ideas," "Queries," and it is some boy who comes on the busiest morning "Whys and wherefores," recently republished of the week, to find out how to make a puppet under the title "Science in story," and others of show in time to give an afternoon exhibition, or this sort, if carefully indexed, answer many of some high-school girl who rushes over in the the questions brought every day by children, 20 minutes' recess to write an exhaustive treatise and amply repay for the trouble. For even if on women's colleges. juvenile books are classified on the shelves, much time is wasted in going through many indexes.
It is unnecessary to say that the fewer books the library can supply the more must those few be forced to yield. A large library, with unlimited volumes, meets few of the difficulties which beset smaller and poorer institutions.
If the librarian can name at once "a poem about Henry of Navarre," or tell who wrote "by the rude bridge that arched the flood," and on what monument it is engraved, can furnish material for debate on "the Chinese question," "which city should have the new normal school," "who was Mother Goose," or on any possible or impossible subject, she gains at once the confidence of the severest of critics, and is sure of their future patronage.
The subjects on which children seek information are as varied as those brought by older people and the material is equally elusive. Perhaps the hardest questions to answer are about the allusions which are found in literature studies, and which frequently the teacher who has given the question cannot answer. I find it helpful whenever I come across material of this nature to make a reference to it in the catalog, and, in fact, to analyze carefully all juvenile books, not fiction, whose titles give no hint of the contents. A great many books otherwise valueless become thus most useful, especially if one is pressed for time.
Mr. Jones, in his "Special reading lists," gives many such references to juvenile literature.
come under consideration. Teach the child to look for publishers' names and editions and to see that a well-printed ten-cent paper book coming from a reputable house is far and away above the olla podrida that unscrupulous pirates put into half-calf and set out on bargain counters.
A wide-awake teacher often gives his pupils the events of the day to study, and if they cannot grasp the situation from the daily papers, juvenile periodicals furnish the best material. For this a classified index is indispensable; it makes available accounts of the workings of government, the weather bureau, mint, and other intangible topics. Until the recent publication of Capt. King's "Cadet days," I knew of no other place to find any description of West Point routine outside of Boynton's or Cullum's histories. One glimpse of either would convince any boy he would rather try some other subject.
A short article often suffices to give the main facts. My experience, both as teacher and librarian, persuades me that the average child is eminently statistical. "A horse is an animal with four legs one at each corner," is fairly representative the nd of information he seeks. When he becomes diffuse, we may feel sure he has had help. Sissy Jupes are of course to be found, who cannot grapple with facts.
Working on this principle, I have made liberal use of a book issued by the U. S. Government "The growth of industrial art." It gives, in pictures, with only a line or two of description, the progress of different industries such as the locomotive, from the clumsy engine of 1802 to the elaborate machinery of the present
day; the evolution of lighting, from the pineknot and tallow-dip to the electric light; methods of signalling, from the Indian fire-signal to the telegraph; time-keeping, etc. A child will get more ideas from one page of pictures than from a dozen or more pages of description and hard words.
If lack of space compels one to deny the privilege of going to the shelves, it seems to me more essential for children to have ready access to reference-books, and especially to be taught how to use them, than for grown-up people. The youngest soon learn to use "Historical notebooks," Champlin's Cyclopædias, Hopkins'" Experimental science," "Boys' and Girls' handy books," and others of miscellaneous contents. If they have a mechanical bent they will help themselves from Amateur Work or "Electrical toymaking;" if musical, from Mrs. Lillie's "Story of music" or Dole's "Famous composers; if they have ethical subjects to write about, they find what they need in Edith Wiggin's "Lessons in manners," Everett's "Ethics for young people," or Miss Ryder's books, which give excellent advice in spite of their objectionable titles. They can find help in their nature studies in Gibson's " Sharp-eyes," Lovell's "Nature's wonder workers," Mrs. Dana's "How to know the wild flowers," or turn to Mrs. Bolton's or Lydia Farmer's books to learn about famous
people, if they are encouraged to do so. These, of course, are only a few of the books which can be used in this way. As the different holidays come round there are frequent applications for the customs of those days, or for appropriate selections for school or festival. Miss Matthews and Miss Ruhl have helped us out in their "Memorial day selections," and McCaskey's "Christmas in song, sketch, and story," and the "Yule-tide collection ” give great variety. If the juvenile periodicals do not furnish the customs, they can, of course, be found in Brand's "Popular antiquities," or Chambers's "Books of days." It is necessary sometimes to use the books for older people, since there is a point where childhood and grown-up-hood meet. I was recently obliged to give quite a small child Knight's "Mechanical dictionary," to find out when and where weather-vanes were first used, and to give a grammar-school girl Mrs. Farmer's "What America owes to women," for material for a graduating essay.
A few excellent suggestions for general reference work are given in Miss Plummer's "Hints to small libraries;" but in spite of all the aids at command there come times when our only resource is to follow the adage, “look till you find it and your labor won't be lost," and to accept the advice of Cap'n Cuttle, "When found, make a note on't."
LIBRARY EXAMINATIONS IN SCHOOLS.
BY CHARLES KNOWLES BOLTON, Librarian Brookline (Mass.) Public Library.
If our libraries are to depend upon the edu- | sends her away. The librarian has had a valucated people in the community for encourage-able bit of training. But what has the child ment and support, we must impress the children gained? The fact is worth nothing; the way to while they are in school with the value of books. find the fact everything. And until they know how to use them they will remain but half-hearted supporters. I have found during the last year that few people know their alphabet, and fewer the characteristics of works of reference which nominally treat of the same subjects.
A child asks the name of the printer of the first edition of Goldsmith's "Vicar of Wakefield." The librarian can't stop at the moment, perhaps, to deliver a lecture on reference books, so he goes to the Dictionary of National Biography, finds a reference to first editions in Notes and Queries, gives the child the information and
Let the teacher give an "hour examination" on the use of the library, to be counted as regular work, and the scholars will find out how to look up a subject for themselves. If the examination is announced a week beforehand, they will come to the librarian in twos and threes. Then he can give the time necessary to explain the different reference books, the use of the catalog, etc.
I have prepared below an examination paper. Where a library does not happen to have a particular reference book, another question could be substituted. These questions might be given
to children to guide them in studying the catalog and the books. A new list, based on the same lines, could easily be prepared for the examination.
I. (a) Arrange the following in alphabetical order, according to the system used in the library catalog:
(Grammar or High School Grade.)
Boy's book of sports
Smith, Sir William.
Boys' and girls' annual.
(a) Where would you find the Constitution
(¿) A summary of the events of the year?
Where would you find the quotation,
WORK WITH THE LIBRARY AND
(6) Under what headings in the catalog
The details of the method are as follows: Every class teacher is invited, is even urged, to come to the library and choose, directly from the shelves, books enough to supply her children. If she has 50 children she chooses 50 books. Her choice is carefully examined, as the books are listed in the library before being sent to the schools. If, in the judgment of the assistants in charge, the teacher has by chance included anything unsuitable for the purpose,
In what books of reference would you
To what reference book would you go she is written to and helped to find other and
(a) A life of St. Chrysostom.
(6) An account of Chinese immigration.
How does the Century Dictionary
The library next sends the box of books by its expressman to the school, where they are given into the charge of the class teacher. Before this po is reached the teacher has guided and helped her children to get library cards. She is discouraged from herself signing the guarantee which the trustees require before any card is issued. The library regards it as important that the parents or guardians should sanction the reading of the child by signing the guarantee. In taking the paper home for the father to
(6) Wherein is Chambers' preferable to sign, the child very often acts as the best kind of library missionary. The knowledge of the library and its privileges is often thus carried into homes where it was before entirely un
From the 17th annual (1894) report of the Milwaukee Public Library.
IN the year 1888 the present system of issuing books to children in the schools was begun. The system was described in the report of that year. The idea has developed into so important a feature of the work of the library that it seems but just to redescribe it. It seems especially appropriate to do so, as Milwaukee may fairly claim precedence both in point of time when the scheme was organized and the extent to which the work has been carried. Fifteen per cent. of our whole circulation was reached in this way, almost twice the use of the regular delivery stations.
Various ways of connecting the public library with the public school have, of course, been in use in other cities for years with good results. These methods seem to us to fail more or less to accomplish the point at which this library aims, which is, to help the individual child to love good books and, equally, to teach him where he can get them.
After the books are received at the school the
teacher acts as a librarian. She is, however, a librarian who knows the tastes and needs of each of her borrowers, which is a very great advantage. The books are charged to the chilWhere would you find the meaning of dren precisely as would be done at the library, thus relieving the teacher from any responsibility while they are in the children's hands.
The first year 2235 books were given out 6728 times in this way; last year 4351 books were given out 14,275 times; this year 14,980 books were given out 42,863 times by 153 teachers in 36 public schools, six evening schools, one State Normal, one parochial and one Sunday
school. Only one private school has been on our list this year. The library hopes to have more another year.
Few teachers ever drop the plan after once trying it, and many of them are very earnest in their commendation of the good effects on the children. The library traces a very good result upon the teachers themselves. The mere knowledge of, and contact with so many charming books is a pleasure and a benefit to them. The children too, come to the teachers in an unofficial way, which is good for both. The teachers get many affecting and softening glimpses of the children's home life. Altogether it seems another verification of the blessing of the old Froebel motto: "( Come, let us live with our children."
Pictures. Another very charming possibility has developed in the school work. The library, for reading-room needs, takes several copies of Harper's Weekly, the London Illustrated News, and other good picture papers. Only one copy of these papers is bound, the others not being in fit condition. The best of the pictures have been cut out, pasted on sheets of heavy manilla paper, and constitute a collection of wood-engravings which is interesting in the extreme. The teachers select such pictures as they wish for their classes, and they are sent to the schools in much the same way that the books are, except that they are not taken home by the children. The intent is not to add another task, but to give the children pleasure, and in giving it, to add that unconscious culture which beautiful pictures so easily carry.
GROWTH OF THE TRAVELLING
of the work, are put in the hands of the committee on university extension of the faculty of the state university.
THE BEST 25 BOOKS OF 1894. A LIST of 237 of the leading books of 1894 was recently submitted by the New York Library Association to the librarians of New York and other states to obtain from them an expression of opinion respecting the best 25 books of 1894 to be added to a village library. From 160 lists returned the following choice is indicated:
Ward, Mrs. Humphry. Marcella.
THE last bill passed by the Legislature of Michigan, at its recent session, was that providing for the loaning of books from the state library to local libraries on methods similar to those used in New York state. An annual appropriation of $5000 is placed, for this purpose, at the disposal of Mrs. Mary C. Spencer, state librarian, and a further sum of $2500 is voted for the purchase of " travelling libraries," to be sent to communities where no local libraries exist. Montana, too, is now entitled to enrollment among the "library" states. On March 19, a bill "to provide circulating libraries for Montana, and to provide for their management," was signed by the governor and became a law. The act appropriates a sum of $1000 for 1895, $500 for 1896, and $300 annually thereafter, for the creation of, and purchase of books for "the circulating libraries of the state of Montana." | These libraries shall consist of 100 books each, and they shall be controlled and managed by a state board composed of the superintendent of public instruction, the attorney-general, and the state auditor. Another state to accept the travelling library idea is Minnesota, where a bill has been introduced into the legislature providing for the establishment of the system. The purchase of the books, their arrangement in libraries, and, in fact, the entire management
Cary, Edward. George William Curtis.
Prisoner of Zenda.
Doyle, A. C. Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes. 49
40 39 39
AN A. L. A. BIBLIOGRAPHY. MISS HELEN C. SILLIMAN, of the class of 1895 in the New York State Library School, has undertaken the compilation of a list of all publications of members of the A. L. A. She has included, of course, all the articles that have appeared in the 20 volumes of the LIBRARY JOURNAL, and all the literary work reported by prominent members for the World's Fair exhibit at Chicago, with such additional items as she has been able to find. So much of the work of the A. L. A. members has been in pamphlets, contributions to magazines, or local publications, that it will be impossible to make this list at all satisfactory without the co-operation of all the members, and Miss Silliman requests each one with whom she has not already communicated to send to her at the State Library, Albany, N. Y., a list of any books, pamphlets or articles outside the LIBRARY JOURNAL, not only on library topics but including everything which he has published to date. Obviously such a list will be very interesting and useful, and it is to be hoped that every member will heed the request and make the report promptly.
THE PROPOSED NEW YORK PUBLIC
THE necessary legislation to permit of the
The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: *
§2. If any such corporation so consolidating shall have no members or stockholders, other than its directors or trustees, said agreement of its directors or trustees shall be deemed to be the agreement of such corporation. [Such agreement of the directors or trustees of such corporation shall not be deemed to be the agreement of the said corporations so proposing to consolidate until after it has been submitted to the members or stockholders of the corporations intending to consolidate at a meeting thereof, to be called upon a notice of at least thirty days, specifying the time and place of such meeting and the obre-ject thereof, to be addressed to each of the said We members or stockholders, when their place of residence is known by the secretary, and deposited in the post-office, and published at least once in each week for four successive weeks in one of the newspapers published in the city and county of New York, where the said corporations shall have their respective places of business, and has been sanctioned and approved, in the event of either or any of the corporations consolidating being a stock company, by the stockholders of such company by a vote of at least two-thirds in amount of the stockholders present at such meeting, voting by ballot in regard to such agreement either in person or by proxy, each share of the capital stock being entitled to one vote; and when such agreement of the directors or trustees of such corporations has been sanctioned and approved by each of the meetings of the respective members or stockholders of the said corporations separately, after being submitted to such meetings in the manner above mentioned, then such agreement of the directors or trustees shall be deemed to be the agreement of the said several corporations; and a sworn copy of the proceedings at such meetings made by the secretaries thereof, respectively, and attached to the said agreement, shall be evidence of the holding and of the action of such meetings in the premises.] If any such corporation so consolidating shall have members or stockholders other than its directors or trustees, said agreement of its directors or trustees shall not be deemed to be the agreement of such corporation until the same shall have been ratified by a vote of at least two-thirds of the members or two-thirds in interest of the stockholders present and voting in person or by proxy at a meeting of the members or stockolders of such corporation to be called upon a notice of at least thirty days, specifying the time, place and object of such meeting, mailed postpaid to each member or stockholder whose place of residence is known to the secretary and published at least once in each week for four successive weeks in a newspaper published in the city of New York. A sworn copy of the proceedings of any such meeting made by the secretary of the corporation holding the same and attached to said agreement shall be evidence of the holding and of the action of such meeting in the premises. If any stockholder or member shall, at said meeting of the stockholders or members, or within twenty days thereafter, object to the said consolidation and demand payment for his stock or interest in such corporation, such stockholder or member or said new corporation if
Section 1. Section one of the act entitled "An act to permit the consolidation of library companies in the city of New York," approved May 13, 1892, being chapter 541 of the laws of 1892, is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
§ 1. Any corporation or corporations heretofore or hereafter organized under any general or special law of this state as a library company, or for the purpose of carrying on any library in the city and county of New York [is hereby authorized to consolidate such company or companies], may be consolidated with any other corporation or corporations, organized for the same or similar purposes, under any general or special law of this state, into a single corporation in the manner following: The respective boards of directors or trustees of the said corporations may enter into and make an agreement for the consolidation of the said corporations, prescribing the terms and conditions thereof, the mode of carrying the same into effect, the name of the new corporation, the number of trustees thereof (not less than five nor more than [twelve] twenty-one), and the names of the trustees who shall manage the concerns of the new corporation for the first year, and until others shall be elected in their places. If either of the [companies so incorporated] corporations so consolidating shall be a stock company, then the said agreement [shall further] may either provide that the new corporation shall have no stock, or may prescribe the amount of capital the new corporation, the number of shares of [the] stock into which the same is to be divided (which capital shall not be larger in amount than the fair aggregate value of the property, franchises and rights of the several [companies] corporations thus to be consolidated), and the manner of distributing such capital among such consolidated corporations, or the holders of the stock of the same with such other particulars as they may deem necessary. § 2. Section two of said act is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
* Matter in italics is new; matter in brackets  is old law to be omitted.