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Library Clubs.


THE March meeting of the New York Library Club was held at the Library of the Young Men's Christian Association, N. Y. City, on Thursday, March 14.

After a short preliminary business session, Mr. Cole read a paper on "Libraries of the twentieth century," in which he described a visit to the State Library at Albany in 1995, telling of various changes there and elsewhere in the management of libraries, resulting in an almost ideal arrangement. All public libraries will then be under the control of the state, and the arrangement and cataloging will be reduced almost to a science. Mr. Berry proposed that the paper be placed on file in order that the club of 100 years hence might have the benefit of these ideas, but Mr. Cole replied it was already published in the "Occasional papers" of the Pennsylvania Library Club.

The regular subject for discussion-"The proposed combination of the Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations" was then taken up, and President Nelson, in introducing it, remarked that the report that the Lenox Library had voted favorably on the question was premature, as the trustees had not yet taken action in the matter. He said that the present discussion would deal mainly with the question of location, and in view of that fact he would read extracts from the Astor charter, and from the will of Miss Lenox relating to the land given by her. After he had finished the reading, Mr. Weeks, of Newark, who seemed to fear that the discussion would drift into technicalities of law, said he thought the question should be considered only in its relation to the members as librarians. Where can such a library be established to be most useful to people within 25 miles of New York? It must be convenient to well-known lines of travel, not at Columbia Heights, as has been suggested, where it would be accessible only to students, but near 42d street, perhaps on the present site of the Lenox Library. Part of the buildings are already there; it is quiet, and yet accessible to most people.

Mr. Poole said that while we have nothing to do with the legal question, still we are bound to respect wills, otherwise people will cease to give their money to public institutions. There should be a circulating library within at least a mile of every inhabitant, but Bryant Park seemed to him the most desirable site for the central library.

The objection that had been raised, that we must not spoil the parks, Mr. Wing thought no objection, since the new building would be on the site of the reservoir, and would leave as much room as before for the people, while the surroundings would be much more beautiful. The city should certainly give the ground for the library, and if Bryant Park could be secured it would be the most desirable place.

Mr. Leipziger thought there would be no difficulty in getting the ground if the trustees should decide on that site, for it has already

been considered for a college; but he thought that Morningside Heights would be a very desirable site, since Columbia College is to be there, and the libraries would be a great help to each other.

Mr. Baker said: "The consolidation scheme is a realization that no one would have dared hope for six months ago. The names of Astor and Lenox are completely lost in the grand scheme, and it is a surprise to every one that these institutions would allow it.

"If it is possible to make this great reservoir of books, it would seem foolish for Columbia to try to rival it, even though a great distance behind, and so the two should co-operate, and for that reason should be near each other. We must decide where the centre of New York will

be in the future. People from New Jersey will then come in to New York on the bridge near 70th street, and we have no reason to think that the Grand Central will be so far downtown 25 years from now. Educational institutions are all going North, and it is to the people who frequent them, and not to business men, that this great reference library will be of most service. There should be circulating libraries with reference departments all over the city, but this great central library is to be for scholars and should be near them."

Judge Peck favored the idea that the new library should be near Columbia. He said that 25 years hence there would not be a corner of New York inaccessible to outsiders, but the grave question was, whether these three funds could ever be united. It looked to him as if the Astor Library could never be moved, and likewise the Lenox, so it seemed entirely improbable that the combination could ever take place, and the present discussion had therefore been on a subject too much of a speculation as yet to be seriously considered.

President Nelson then closed the discussion by saying that he believed if the givers of those funds were alive, they would gladly accede to this proposed consolidation.



THE fifth regular meeting of the Washington Library Association was held at Columbian University, Feb. 27, President A. R. Spofford presiding.

Mr. J. E. Watkins, formerly associated with the Pennsylvania R. R. Company, now of the National Museum, read a paper of unusual interest on the development of the railroad library. The railroad library had its inception in the stage-coach era, when innkeepers placed newspapers and periodicals, with a few books of general interest, at the service of the employes of the coach companies and the passengers who stopped at the hostelries over night. When the canal packet and the steamboat became a commercial success, the sale of newspapers and the rental and sale of novels became a perquisite of the bartender or the steward.

During the first decade of the railroad era, between 1830 and 1840, the ubiquitous newsboy

became a recognized element in the railway service, and from this time the railway employe has looked to him for his regular supply of literature.

Mr. B. Pickman Mann spoke upon "Comprehensive indexes," referring especially to the indexing of scientific literature and the proposed plan of the Royal Society of London regarding international co-operation in indexing.

Mr. Watkins confined the later development of the railroad library to the libraries located on Mr. F. H. Parsons, formerly librarian of the the lines of the Pennsylvania R. R. Company. U. S. Coast Survey, read a careful paper on Probably the first important railroad library in "The care of maps." Having had in his charge America was organized at Altoona, Pa., August one of the largest collections of maps in this 7, 1858-the Mechanics' Library. It had at country, Mr. Parsons had unusual facilities for times a flourishing and at times a rather strug-making a thorough study of this vexed problem. gling existence. At present the library corpo- His paper is, in consequence, of unusual interest ration is in a prosperous condition, and is doing to all librarians who have to deal with maps. excellent service among the employes of the OLIVER L. FASSIG, Secretary. Pennsylvania R. R. Company in the direction of lecture and study courses, in addition to the usual library work. At the close of 1894 the library numbered over 20,000 volumes; 1529 books were added during the year; while the receipts were nearly $4000. At the beginning of the present year there were 35 railroad libraries and reading-rooms on the Pennsylvania lines, 21 of these being east of Pittsburg.

The most recent of these libraries is that or

ganized about a year ago in connection with the Pennsylvania R. R. Department of the Y. M. C. A., in West Philadelphia. It was founded in 1887, the Pennsylvania R. R. leasing a lot for 99 years at a nominal rental. To January 1, $70,600 had been expended for a handsome granite building. The library was formally opened on January 24, 1894.

These libraries, with few exceptions, are placed at points where access can be had to books in local libraries. No attempt has been made to provide a system whereby books may be furnished to the agents, track men, and other employes who live at the small stations, where there is little opportunity for recreation, save in reading books and papers.

Of the 104,000 employes on the 8000 miles of road controlled by the Pennsylvania R. R. Company, it is estimated that about 20,000 or 25,000 depend almost entirely upon the Sunday newspaper for their miscellaneous reading. It is this latter class which needs to be provided with books from the central libraries. Mr. Watkins has in mind a system which he proposes to bring to the attention of the railroad authorities, which provides that printed catalogs and supplementary lists of new books shall be sent to, and posted in, the smaller stations by ticket agents, who shall transmit applications for the withdrawal of books from the central libraries and forward and return the books by railroad train

service free of charge.

Mr. Watkins was followed by Mr. W. P. Cutter, librarian of the Agricultural Department library, who gave an account of the " travelling libraries" of New York State, of the "home libraries" of the Boston Children's Aid Society, and of the Pullman car collections of books.

Mr. H. Presnell, as chairman of a committee on the loaning of books among the librarians of Washington, presented a report outlining a very liberal policy.

THE sixth regular meeting of the association was held March 27.


Club was held at the Newberry Library, March THE March meeting of the Chicago Library in the chair. In the absence of the secretary, 8, 1895, at 8 p.m., the president, Miss Dexter, Mr. Merrill was appointed secretary pro tem.

The following names were proposed by the executive committee for membership: Misses Maud R. Henderson, Gertrude Forstall, Sarah Dickinson, Cornelia Marvin, and Miss Sloat; and J. Dieserud; and were accepted by the club. and Messrs. Norman Williams, A. J. Rudolph,

University, read a short paper explaining his Mr. H. M. Stanley, librarian of Lake Forest system of making an extensive finding-list for a small library. The plan consists in printing a column of entries, which are pasted into a blank book in one column, leaving five other columns full, the whole is to be reprinted and pasted as for other insertions; when all six columns are at first.

Mr. Wickersham then read an excellent paper entitled "A brief history of some libraries of Chicago." The establishment and development of the Public Library, the Newberry, the LiHistorical Society, and the Law Institute were brary of the University of Chicago, the Chicago described, largely from Mr. Wickersham's personal knowledge of these institutions. His paper embodied many items of interest that motion of Mr. Merrill, the thanks of the club could not be gleaned from official records. On were tendered to Mr. Wickersham.

The election of officers for the year ending March, 1896, was next taken up. On motion of Mr. Roden, it was voted to take a preliminary ballot for each officer, the three persons recandidates for election. Mr. Burchard and Dr. ceiving the highest number of votes to become Wire were appointed tellers by the chair.

dent resulted in giving Mr. Wickersham II
The preliminary ballot for the office of presi-
votes, Mr. Hild 7, Mr. Gauss 4, Dr. Wire 3,
Miss Dexter, Miss Sharp, and Mr. Merrill 1
withdrawn their names, a ballot was taken and
All but Mr. Gauss and Dr. Wire having
gave Mr. Gauss 22 out of 31 votes cast. Mr.
Gauss was thereby declared elected.

president gave Miss Sharp 18 out of 26 votes,
The preliminary ballot for office of first vice-

and on motion of Mr. Hild her election was made unanimous.

The first ballot for second vice-president giv

ing Dr. Wire 10 out of 28 votes, on motion of Mr. Roden his election was made unanimous. Mr. Hild moved that the secretary be directed to cast one vote for Mr. Burchard, the retiring secretary, and the latter was re-elected; Dr. Wire having made a similar motion in regard to Mr. Merrill, the latter was re-elected treasurer for the ensuing year.

Mr. Roden moved that a vote of thanks be offered to the retiring officers. The meeting then | adjourned.

W. S. MERRILL, Secretary pro tem.


those libraries from which information could be
obtained; many good illustrations of the various
buildings are included. The report contains also
an historical sketch of "Some early libraries,"
by H. F. Bassett, librarian of the Silas Bronson
Library of Waterbury; and the text of various
"special acts" relating to libraries and passed
at the 1893 session of the legislature.

DENVER (Col.) P. L. Public library hand-book,
Denver, Carson-Harper Co., 1895. 182 p.
S. pap. 35 c.; cl. 65 c.; mor. $1.

ver, ," and the preface bears signature of the same corporation. But, in contradiction to the ancient axiom, the soul of this corporation is easily discoverable. The modest note prefacing the table of contents informs us that "criticisms of the book should be directed against J. C. Dana, who planned it, and edited and revised all ms."—and if criticism, then, too, the recognition and appreciation that it is so much pleasanter and more needful to accord. Mr. Dana has had the co-operation of three members of his staff, F. D. Tandy, John Parsons, and J. M. Lee, to whom full credit is given; but his direction and supervision are manifest throughout. He has contributed nine of the 25 chapters, two others being his work, conjointly with Mr. Tandy. The hand-book owes its existence largely to a process of evolution. It had its inception in an attempt to answer some of the many requests received for information and suggestion as to library work, and its scope gradually widened far beyond the original plans of its projector until it formed a compact "body of library doctrine" as preached and practised at the Denver Public Library. Its immediate usefulness, however, extends far beyond the limits of a single city or state, and though meant especially as a manual for the training classes of the Denver Public Library and for small Colorado libraries, it deserves a front rank among library text-books.

For about a year past there have appeared from month to month in Books, the organ of the Denver Public Library, short papers on prime factors of library work. So apt and lucid were CONNECTICUT. P. L. COMMITTEE. Connecticut they, that issue in such ephemeral and inconpublic library document, no. 1, 1895 (whole venient shape seemed unfortunate, and the anno. 4); report of the Connecticut Public nouncement of their amplification and publication in book form was a most welcome one. Library Committee, 1893-4. 1895. 116 p. O. The little volume into which these papers have This is the first report of the Connecticut been gathered is issued solely as the production Public Library, and it is a gratifying record of of the Denver Public Library. According to the well-directed and fruitful work. The commit-title-page, it is "by the Public Library of Dentee was organized under the "law relating to libraries," passed in 1893, and promptly began its work by the distribution of a circular, setting forth the main features of the law regarding the establishment of libraries by state aid, and urging communities to take advantage of it. The report gives the text of the law, the circulars issued by the committee, and directions as to the action to be taken by towns desiring to establish libraries. The method of purchase and distribution of books is described, and a sample list of about 150 v. is shown. During the period covered by the report, nine towns have voted to establish libraries, and books to the value of $200 have been sent to six of these. Specially interesting is a short article, entitled "Suggestions for the smallest libraries," by Miss C. M. Hewins, who gives simple and concise directions for the routine work of a library of from 3002000 v. A series of tables gives statistics of Connecticut libraries from 1891-1893, showing the name and location of the library, its general character, number of volumes, yearly accessions, circulation, income and source, library building with name of donor, if any, information as to use by children and mechanics, stock of books on education or pedagogy, and name of librarian. These statistics have been compiled with care and attention to detail, and afford an interesting bird's-eye view of the library status of Connecticut. Out of 171 towns, 13 possess libraries, owned and controlled by the town and free to all the people; three have libraries "owned and controlled by the municipality and free to all the people of the municipality"; 22 have free libraries having no connection with the town; five have libraries to which the town appropriates money, but is not represented in the management; 56 have libraries where a fee is charged; and 71 towns have no library. Following the statistical tables are 50 pages of" sketches of libraries," collected and arranged by Miss Alice S. McQuaid, giving in al- | phabetical order short accounts of the history of

Mr. Dana covers the whole field of library rou- · tine in its simpler details. Beginning with the starting of a library, either by gift, legislation, or the expansion of subscription or school libraries, he describes the best means of enlisting and arousing public interest, methods of selecting, buying, lending, and charging books and periodicals, gives suggestions to the public and to assistants, and presents careful and lucid expositions of the modus operandi in accession work, deliverydesk methods, classifying, cataloging, stock-taking, binding and rebinding. The keynote of the book seems an earnest belief that "the first duty

number of briefer notes being especially large. The maps, plans, etc., comprise maps of Central Europe, Eastern Europe, the Roman Empire, four "development maps" of Spain; a "logical outline" of Roman history; and chron

WENCKSTERN, Fr. von. A bibliography of the Japanese empire: being a classified list of all books, essays, and maps in European languages relating to Dai Nihon [Great Japan], published in Europe, America, and the East from 185993 A.D.; to which is added a fac-simile reprint of Léon Pagès' Bibliographie Japonaise, depuis le xve siècle jusqu'a 1859. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1895. [London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.] 14+338+68 p. O.

of a library is to be used—not to pose as a monument or mausoleum," and all that will make a library more useful, more attractive, more popular -in the best sense of the word-is specially emphasized. In this connection we find suggestions for a plentiful supply and circulation of periodi-ological tables of the ninth and tenth centuries. cals, no age limit-"the young people are the library's most hopeful material" as free access to the books as it is possible to give, an absence of red tape, and a general responsiveness to the borrower's desires and needs. There are several excellent annotated lists-among them," Books suitable for a small school library"; literary journals, useful in the selection of books; "Some periodicals suitable for a small library"; and "Books on library work." The explanation of the decimal classification and of the classifying and cataloging of a library is so clear and careful that any intelligent novice who had no other guide should be easily brought into the way of light. Lucid as they are, the expositions of cataloging and classification are comprehensive of all essential details, bringing the reader up to the "refinements and niceties, the intricacies and moot points and woes thereof," of which it is not within the province of the "hand-book" to treat. All stages of cataloging are demonstrated by fac-similes of cards and methods of entry in actual use, reduced to fit the small page, but with the proper dimensions stated. Indeed, the many illustrations, covering not only cataloging and classification, but showing order slips, magazine records, application blanks, borrowers' cards, book cards, card pockets, public notices, accession sheets, tags, bindery orders, etc., are a most useful feature of the book. There is an excellent index, and a novel and useful list of "a few definitions," giving simple explanations of the terms most used in library work.

The book is a welcome and useful addition to the literature of what is aptly characterized as "the freemasonry part" of library work, and Mr. Dana and the Denver Public Library are worthy successors to Miss Plummer and Mr. Fletcher in a field where as yet there is little danger of overcrowding.

LARNED, Josephus Nelson. History for ready reference from the best historians, biographers, and specialists. In five vols. Vol. 4- Nicæa to Tunis. Springfield, C. A. Nichols & Co., 1894.

It is unnecessary to do more than summarize briefly the main features of this fourth volume of Mr. Larned's historical compendium. Its scope is as wide and its mass of information as varied as has been the case in the previous volumes. It is really astonishing to glance down page after page and note the extent and variety of the entries, covering all epochs and subjects within the compass of the plan. The subjects to which most space have been given are Rome, 98 pages; the papacy, 64 pages; printing and press, 20 pages; Russia, 32 pages; Scotland, 42 pages: Slavery, 62 pages; Spain, 44 pages; tariff legislation, 26 pages. On the whole, however, this volume contains comparatively few extended entries, or rather historical essays, the

Here is a cosmopolitan work, written by a German, in the English language, containing a photographic fac-simile of a French bibliography with words of praise for its comprehensiveness, and dedicated to an American librarian, "In memoriam Guilielmi Friderici Poolei, illustrissimi bibliothecarii Americani." The preface bears out this character, for it is written in English just enough tinged with German to amuse and give it that charm which often attracts in the pronunciation of a foreign lecturer. It is a work of German thoroughness; some 21,000 lines

long lines in small type are given to a classified list of all books, essays, and maps in European languages, relating to Dai Nihon (Great Japan), published during only a quarter of a century, from 1859 to 1893. The thoroughness of research may appear from six successive references on p. 158 to Appleton's Journal, Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, Galaxy, All the Year Round, Rendiconti dei Lincei, Murray's Magazine, and on the opposite page Gazette de Beaux-Arts, Magasin Pittoresque, Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, Mem. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Manchester, Chemical News, Journal of Indian Art. The title should have read "European languages excepting the Russian." Mr. Wenckstern justifies this omission from the difficulty he "would have had to overcome in order to give an approximately accurate and complete list" of Russian works. It is not said whether this obstacle is be a sufficient excuse, and as it is shared by most ignorance of the language; that certainly would readers, the omission of the Russian literature is little to be deplored. We have not noticed titles in any other Slavic language nor in Hungarian; perhaps there are no books on Japan in those tongues. But we have come across entries in Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Spanish, Italian, French, German, and English, the latter being much the most numerous. The classification is elaborate and well conceived. 23 classes have 82 sub-divisions. The order has some peculiarities. Travels is the 4th class, History the 8th, with Religion and Philosophy, Philology and Belles-Lettres coming between them, and Topography and Hydrography is the 19th, followed by Physiography. The Folk-lore puzzle is well solved by putting it, with Fairy tales and Proverbs, under Ethnography. For the style of

sub-classing take Fine Arts. That has the sections General works, Catalogues of collections, Drama, Enamels and Carving, Lacquer, Metallurgy, Magic Mirror, Music, Pictorial Arts, Pottery.

No large library should be without the work. It should be bought, if for no other reason, to reward the author for a most meritorious piece of work and to lighten his inevitable loss, for he has borne the expense of its preparation himself. C: A. C.

Library Economy and History.

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PENNSYLVANIA L. CLUB. Occasional papers, no. 2, March, 1895. Philadelphia, 1895. 8 p.O. Contains an account of "The HalliwellPhillipps collection," by Prof. Albert H. Smyth; and a paper on Library law in Pennsylvania," reviewing the most desirable features of library legislation in the various states, by S: H. Ranck. Both papers were read at meetings of the Pennsylvania Library Club.

The UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK has issued as "Circular no. 32," the paper on travelling libraries, by W: R. Eastman, entitled "A new aid to popular education: free travelling libraries," first printed in the Forum, Jan., 1895.


Baltimore, Md. Enoch Pratt F. L. (9th rpt.) Added 13,019; total 149,224, distributed among the central library (96,646 v.) and the five branches. Issued, home use 548,287 (fict. and juv. 76 %); ref. use 29,083. New members 6748; total no. borrowers 28,477. Expenses $48,


The circulation of periodicals for the year was 158,035.

Mr. Steiner says: "We have circulated amongst the people of Baltimore since the beginning of 1886, four millions of books, and have now nearly 150,000 volumes accessible to the public. The bare statement of these facts shows the influence this library has exerted upon the city, and the importance of the wise administration of such a large institution. Only three similar libraries in the United States, those of Boston, Chicago, and Cincinnati, surpass us in the number of books they possess, and only three, Chicago, Boston, and New York, in the number of volumes circulated.

"The usefulness of the branch libraries cannot be stated in too strong terms. During the last year 242,308 books were given out by them, and 55,402 periodicals used in their reading


"During the year, the second and third parts of the finding list for the main library and the finding list for branch libraries were issued. This completed the fifth edition, and made ours the first large library in the world to issue a complete finding list by the use of the linotype method. A supplement to the fifth edition was at once begun, is all in type, and very soon will

be published. The new finding list was prepared with the greatest care, and it was found necessary to subdivide the classes of books more than ever before, owing to the increase in number of volumes.

"During the coming year, it is intended to issue a sixth edition of the branch library finding list, and to begin a series of quarterly bulletins of recent accessions to the library."

Boston P. L. On Monday, March 15, the library was opened for the delivery of books and the regular business routine. By nine o'clock, when the doors were thrown open, about 30 or 40 persons were waiting to enter the building, and within the next few hours the whole interior of the library had put on an air of business. All of the rooms intended for the public were open, with the exception of the newspaper room, which was closed for a been added to the staff, and the entire library few days longer. Twelve extra assistants have force, including the employees of the binding and cataloging departments, numbers about 140. The library is to be opened every week-day from nine a.m. to six p.m. On Sundays it will be open for readers from two to six p.m. It will be impossible to have the library open in the evening until the installation of the electric plant is completed-probably early in April. A system of civil service examinations, divided into five grades, has been adopted for the appointment of new assistants. Examinations for the various grades will be given at stated intervals, and from the applicants who pass, a certain number will be selected to enter probationary service at the library. For this service there will at first be no pay, but assistants on probation will have opportunities to do occasional substitute work, for which they will receive pay. From this they will gradually be advanced until they enter the regular service. Candidates for promotion in the library will also be required to satisfy the trustees of their fitness by passing the regular examination for the desired position.

Boston P. L. THE NEW LIBRARY IN BOSTON. (In Harper's Weekly, Mr. 16, 1895, p. 251–254). il.

An account of the arrangement and architectural features of the new library, illustrated with eight views of the interior.

Burlington, Vt. Fletcher F. L. (21st rpt.) Added 508; total 22,712. Issued, home use 43,942 (fict. and juv. 651⁄2 %); no statistics of ref. use. New registrations 827. Receipts $2471.96; expenses $2253.84.

Miss Hagar calls attention to the lack of sufficient shelf-room, the poor heating, and deficient lighting of the library. She also says: "The same system of distributing books through the schools, in use for many years, has been continued. It makes each school accepting the privilege practically a branch library with a librarian in the teacher,' who is acquainted with the needs and tastes of the children, and especially with the books that will be most useful to aid or interest them in their lessons. A smaller

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